Susan K. Brown

Susan K. Brown
Cornell University | CU · School of Integrative Plant Science, Sections of Horticulture and Plant Breeding and Genetics

PhD, Genetics, U.C. Davis

About

129
Publications
53,417
Reads
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3,575
Citations
Citations since 2016
11 Research Items
1079 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Introduction
I am the Herman M. Cohn Professor of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Cornell University and I lead Cornell's apple breeding program. My research encompasses breeding, genetics and marker-assisted breeding of apples. Genetic studies include fruit quality traits, plant architecture, disease resistance and antioxidants. I am one of the demonstration breeders in RosBREED.
Additional affiliations
January 1990 - present
Cornell University
Position
  • apple breeding and Genetics
Education
January 1981 - May 1984
University of California, Davis
Field of study
  • Genetics
July 1978 - January 1980
September 1974 - May 1978
University of Connecticut
Field of study
  • Plant Science

Publications

Publications (129)
Article
Full-text available
Columnar apples trees, originated from a bud mutation ‘Wijcik McIntosh,’ develop a simple canopy and set fruit on spurs. These characteristics make them an important genetic resource for improvement of tree architecture. Genetic studies have uncovered that columnar growth habit is a dominant trait and is caused by a retroposon insertion that induce...
Article
Full-text available
Phloridzin is a phenolic compound unique to apple (Malus domestica (Suckow) Borkh.) and its wild relatives. Since its discovery, phloridzin has been researched for its nutraceutical properties, including anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, and antioxidant activities, making phloridzin a potential target for nutritional improvement in new apple cultivars. H...
Article
Full-text available
Dihydrochalcones (DHCs) are a distinctive characteristic of Malus species, with phloridzin as the major DHC in most Malus species, including cultivated apple. DHCs in apple have unique chemical properties with commercial and nutritional value and may yield important insights into the evolution and physiology of apple. A few species produce sieboldi...
Article
Full-text available
Dihydrochalcones, beneficial phenolic compounds, are abundant in Malus Mill. species, particularly in vegetative tissues and seeds. Phloridzin (phloretin 2′-O-glucoside) is the primary dihydrochalcone in most Malus species including cultivated apple, Malus × domestica Borkh. A few species contain sieboldin (3-hydroxyphloretin 4′-O-glucoside) or tri...
Article
Full-text available
Pale green lethal (PGL) is a recessive genetic disorder of apple (Malus) characterized by severe chlorophyll deficiency and seedling lethality. Following germination, seedlings cannot photosynthesize and die at the cotyledon stage. We previously reported that the genetic and biochemical basis of PGL is due to a loss-of-function mutation in a gene r...
Chapter
Tremendous progress has been made in the investigation and understanding of apple flavor, but the inherent complexity and variability of this flavor will require intensive and sustained research to strengthen our ability to genetically enhance apple flavor. This chapter focuses on the cultivars that have been characterized, the key treatments that...
Article
Full-text available
Pale green lethal (PGL) is a recessive genetic disorder of apple (Malus) characterized by severe chlorophyll deficiency and seedling lethality. Following germination, seedlings cannot photosynthesize and do not survive beyond the cotyledon stage. PGL carriers are prevalent in cultivated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) germplasm, and a cross betwee...
Article
Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is one of the top three US fruit crops in production and value. Apple production has high costs for land, labor and inputs, and orchards are a long-term commitment. Production is dominated by only a few apple scion and rootstock cultivars, which increases its susceptibility to dynamic external threats. Apple crop wi...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. Systematic studies of the relative importance of apple traits for U.S. apple producers to inform U.S. apple breeding programs have been lacking. To fill this gap, a series of audience surveys with instant feedback at five apple producer meetings across the United States was conducted. The traits included in this study were fruit crispness...
Conference Paper
Marker-assisted breeding has been applied in traditional apple breeding programs to increase breeding efficiency and reduce costs of time, land, and labor by testing important parental genotypes to determine the best genetic combinations, discarding seedlings with undesirable traits, and verifying pedigree. In order to more efficiently and accurate...
Conference Paper
Crispness, juiciness, and acidity are traits that collectively determine the “fresh sensation” of apple flesh and greatly affect consumer liking of apple cultivars. Unfortunately, our lack of genetic understanding of these attributes has slowed progress in apple breeding programs. The RosBREED project has developed genotypic and phenotypic resource...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the demonstrated importance of gibberellins (GAs) as regulators of fruit tree stature,information on their in vivometabolismin apple vegetative tissues is still lacking. To determinewhether theGAcontent andmetabolism differs between dwarf and standard phenotypes and the influence of rootstocks, [14C]GA12,a common precursor of all GAs in hig...
Article
Full-text available
Establishing marker-locus-trait associations to enable marker-assisted breeding depends on having an extensive, reliable database for phenotypic traits of interest in relevant germplasm. A reference germplasm set of 467 apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars, selections, and seedlings (referred to as individuals) was identified as part of the US...
Conference Paper
Apple breeders are continually being challenged to meet supply chain members’ expectations through developing superior apple cultivars; however, few studies address how apple traits are prioritized. This study was conducted as part of a larger study to determine important apple traits to all of the industry’s supply chain members. Specifically, the...
Conference Paper
Marker-assisted breeding is facilitated by marker-locus-trait associations validated in germplasm relevant to a particular breeding program. Establishing these associations depends on having an extensive, reliable phenotype database for traits of interest in this germplasm. A reference apple germplasm set of 496 individuals including cultivars, sel...
Article
Full-text available
Apple fruit flavor is greatly affected by the level of malic acid, which is the major organic acid in mature apple fruit. To understand the genetic and molecular basis of apple fruit acidity, fruit juice pH and/or titratable acidity (TA) were measured in two half-sib populations GMAL 4595 [Royal Gala × PI (Plant Introduction) 613988] and GMAL 4590...
Conference Paper
Marker-assisted breeding is facilitated by marker-locus-trait associations validated in germplasm relevant to a particular breeding program. Establishing these associations depends on having an extensive, reliable phenotype database for traits of interest in this germplasm. A reference germplasm set of 496 individuals including cultivars, selection...
Conference Paper
The use of a comprehensive germplasm set representing materials that breeders use is critical for efficiently enabling systematic and statistically robust validation and utility assessment of jewels in the genome (high value marker–locus–trait (M-L-T) associations). Therefore, at the onset of the RosBREED project, 12 demonstration breeding programs...
Conference Paper
Delicious taste, excellent texture, and attractive appearance are attributes of apple fruit quality highly desired by consumers and targeted by U.S. breeders. RosBREED’s powerful collaborative approach, with multi-institution standardized phenotyping, high-resolution genome-scanning with cutting-edge technologies, careful choice of breeding-represe...
Conference Paper
Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), a member of the Rosaceaefamily, is the fourth most important global fruit crop in the world based on annual production. Washington State accounts for approximately 60% of total U.S. dessert apple production. There is an increasing demand for new apple cultivars in the world, but apple breeding is very time-consumin...
Article
Full-text available
Tree architecture is an important, complex and dynamic trait affected by diverse genetic, ontogenetic and environmental factors. 'Wijcik McIntosh', a columnar (reduced branching) sport of 'McIntosh' and a valuable genetic resource, has been used intensively in apple-breeding programs for genetic improvement of tree architecture. The columnar growth...
Chapter
The cultivated apple, Malus xdomestica Borkh., is a interspecific hybrid complex of allopolyploid origin. The progenitor species is thought to be M. sieversii (Lodeb.) Roem., which hybridized with both European and Asian species throughout its domestication. Modern breeding continues to employ relatively few of the 25–30 species of Malus from throu...
Article
The modulus and breaking strength of the skins of different apples were measured: McIntosh, Red Delicious, and Empire stored under controlled atmosphere; McIntosh stored at 1.7 degrees C without atmospheric control, and Honey Crisp and Crimson Gala grown under light and heavy crop conditions. The moduli of the skins of Honey Crisp and Crimson Gala...
Conference Paper
U.S. apple breeders primarily target consumer-preferred traits of excellent texture, flavor, and appearance. The ability to retain superior fruit quality after storage, so that a year-round domestic supply of nutritious apples is available to the public, is a particular focus. Also considered are traits valued by industry sectors, especially suitab...
Conference Paper
“RosBREED” is a large-scale initiative of the U.S. Rosaceae genomics, genetics, and breeding community with strong international involvement. This project is dedicated to genetic improvement of rosaceous crops by targeted application of genomics and socio-economics knowledge and tools to increase breeding efficiency, engage stakeholders, and train...
Article
Full-text available
Malus sieversii is a progenitor species of domestic apple M.×domestica. Using population “GMAL 4595” of 188 individuals derived from a cross of Royal Gala×PI 613988 (apple scab resistant, M. sieversii), 287 SSR (simple sequence repeats) loci were mapped. Of these SSRs, 80 are published anchors and 207 are newly developed EST (expressed sequence tag...
Conference Paper
The USDA - Specialty Crop Research Initiative-funded RosBREED project is focused on enabling marker-assisted breeding in the Rosaceae. New molecular tools for selection need to be developed before this technology will be widely accepted and applied to apple breeding programs. As well as detailed genotypic data of interrelated progenies, parents and...
Article
To assess pollen functionality of transgenic apple trees, in vitro pollen germination and tube growth were evaluated. Flowers of transgenic “Royal Gala” apple lines containing attacin E gene to confer resistance to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora), or antisense 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) construct to improve fruit storage l...
Conference Paper
Understanding postharvest disorders from a genetic perspective is complex and our efforts to identify markers effective in breeding is hampered by this complexity. Postharvest studies tend to concentrate on major cultivars of commercial importance and for the disorders that affect these prominent cultivars. Within a breeding program there are many...
Conference Paper
Translation of DNA information arising from genomics research into application in breeding is presently a bottleneck. RosBREED is a large-scale initiative seeking to bridge the chasm between genomics research and breeding programs, centered on breeders and ensuring they can capitalize on genomics discoveries and accelerating technological innovatio...
Conference Paper
The prevalent Rosaceae crop breeding approach utilizes a common set of ancestors within breeding programs, resulting in relatedness among individuals and extensive linkage disequilibrium. Pedigree-Based Analysis (PBA) using FlexQTL™ software exploits these genetic considerations to identify and validate marker-locus-trait associations using genotyp...
Chapter
Introduction Chromosome Number and Inheritance Reported Genes Nomenclature Recommendations Conclusion Literature Cited
Chapter
Introduction Inheritance and Mechanism of Pollen-incompatibility Compounds Involved in the Incompatibility Reaction Pollen-incompatibility Groups and Assignment of CuItivars Induced and Spontaneous Self-fertility Inheritance for Self-fertility Breeding for Self-fertility Conclusions Literature Cited
Conference Paper
Fruit texture in fresh and lightly processed apple products is a trait of significant horticultural variability and economic value. Worldwide, diverse crop improvement programs seek to define the trait, identify critical physiological parameters, and elucidate its genetic control. All breeding programs include an emphasis on superior texture to mee...
Chapter
QualityApple volatilesEster compounds and ester biosynthesisMeasurement techniquesVarietal and developmental differencesEffect of storageEffect of processingEffect of 1-methylcyclopropene treatmentHypoxiaGene isolationGenetic studies, linkage maps and marker-assisted selectionESTsTransgenic approachesEthylene production and softening (ACS-ACO)Consu...
Article
Full-text available
9 "Many new apple varieties are being patented and trademarked and then being grown and marketed in a production and marketing club with access to grow the variety limited to club members. There are currently well over 30 club varieties, with the majority being grown outside of the US. The success of new club varieties will depend on both the quali...
Article
Full-text available
The plant family Rosaceae consists of over 100 genera and 3,000 species that include many important fruit, nut, ornamental, and wood crops. Members of this family provide high-value nutritional foods and contribute desirable aesthetic and industrial products. Most rosaceous crops have been enhanced by human intervention through sexual hybridization...
Chapter
Full-text available
The overall objectives of modern apple breeding programs are to increase the marketability of fruit and reduce production costs. Developing well adapted cultivars with resistance to major pests is also a focus of all breeding programs. The apple is generally grown as a composite tree with a rootstock and a fruiting scion, making rootstock breeding...
Chapter
The overall objectives of modern apple breeding programs are to increase the marketability of fruit and reduce production costs. Developing well adapted cultivars with resistance to major pests is also a focus of all breeding programs. The apple is generally grown as a composite tree with a rootstock and a fruiting scion, making rootstock breeding...
Article
Full-text available
A multi-site experiment to evaluate the performance of 23 apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cultivars was established in 1999. The purpose was to evaluate new and promising cultivars and breeding selections in a range of geographical and climatic areas within North America. All trees were propagated on M.9T337 and minimally pruned to encourage early...
Article
Full-text available
The NE-183 regional project was established in 1994 with its primary objective to evaluate horticultural characteristics and pest susceptibility of new apple (Malus x domeslica Borkh.) cultivars and advanced selections at numerous locations throughout the United States and Canada to determine both limitations and positive attributes of these cultiv...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Over the last century, apple breeders at Cornell have named 62 apple varieties. These added value and diversity to the New York apple industry until they were replaced by newer varieties. Some Cornell varieties continue to receive national and international recognition, and remain popular with consumers and growers to this day. Five of Cornell's be...
Article
Full-text available
Appearance and internal sensory quality are important aspects to cultivar adaptation because they influence consumers' decisions in purchasing apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) for fresh consumption. Our objective was to examine the sensory quality of twenty test cultivars grown at various locations in the eastern United States and in Summerland, B...
Article
Full-text available
A multi-site experiment to evaluate the performance of apple cultivars was established in 1995 with twenty different cultivars. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate new and promising apple cultivars in a range of geographical and climatic areas within North America. All trees were propagated on M.9 and minimally pruned to encourage early b...
Chapter
This book is a comprehensive reference work on the current status of biotechnology of the major temperate, subtropical and tropical fruit and nut crop species of the world, including Actinidia spp., Anacardium occidentale, Mangifera indica, Pistacia vera, Annona spp., Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis, Phoenix dactylifera, Ananas comosus, Carica pa...
Article
Cornell's apple breeding program is very diverse and emphasizes cultivar development and enhanced understanding of traits important in the genetic improvement of apple. Research is aided by strong collaboration across disciplines. Fruit quality research includes studies of crispness and juiciness, increasing soluble solids and ascorbic acid content...
Article
The fruit quality performance of 19 apple (Malus xdomestica Borkh.) cultivars on Malling.9 (M.9) rootstock was evaluated for four growing seasons at 13 locations across North America as part of the NE-183 Regional Project, "Multidisciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Cultivars." At each site, trees were planted in 1995 in five randomized blocks with...
Article
Full-text available
The performance of three apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cultivars ('Braeburn', 'Gibson Golden Delicious' and 'Yataka Fuji') on two dwarfing rootstocks (M.9 T337 and Mark) was studied for five years at multiple sites across North America as part of a large international cultivar evaluation trial. The trees were trained as slender spindles, and arr...
Article
The relationship between soluble peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7; POX) activity and the development of a chilling-related disorder, superficial scald, was studied in three apple fruit (Malus x domestica Borkh.) systems: a White Angel x Rome Beauty population with progeny with different scald susceptibilities; Delicious from three harvests with progressivel...
Article
Full-text available
The activities and isoenzyme patterns of guaiacol-dependent peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were studied in yellow- and red-fruited crab apple [Malus (L.) Mill.] selections from a 'White Angel' x 'Rome Beauty' cross that show differential susceptibility to the physiological storage disorde...
Article
The activities and isoenzyme patterns of guaiacol-dependent peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were studied in yellow- and red-fruited crab apple [ Malus (L.) Mill.] selections from a `White Angel' × `Rome Beauty' cross that show differential susceptibility to the physiological storage disord...
Article
Bulked segregant analysis identified several RAPD markers that display close linkage to the genes identified as Va (from 'Antonovka' PI 172633) and Vb (from 'Hansen's baccata #2') that confer resistance to apple scab. B398480 was the closest marker segregating with the resistance response from descendants of 'Antonovka' PI 172633 and UBC220 700 was...
Article
To prove the concept that genetic engineering could be used to create fire blight (FB) resistant strains of apple cultivars, 'Royal Gala' ('RG') was transformed using Agrobacterium with genes for several heterologous lytic proteins (LP), driven by constitutive promoters. 'RG' lines transgenic for attacin LP showed elevated FB resistance and normal...
Article
Full-text available
We mapped DNA polymorphisms generated by 41 sets of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) primers, developed independently in four laboratories. All primer sets gave polymorphisms that could be located on our 'White Angel' x 'Rome Beauty' map for apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. The SSR primers were used to identify homolo...
Chapter
This book, with contributions from 40 scientists from 8 countries, summarizes the current research information on apples and their culture, and will be of value to horticultural students, research and extension workers, and professional fruit growers. The 24 chapters are presented in 6 parts. Part I, the introductory section, considers taxonomy, an...
Article
Full-text available
Genes encoding lysozyme (T4L) from T4 bacteriophage and attacin E (attE) from Hyalophora cecropia were used, either singly or in combination, to construct plant binary vectors, pLDB15, p35SAMVT4, and pPin2Att35SAMVT4, respectively, for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of 'Galaxy' apple, to enhance resistance to Erwinia amylovora. In these plas...
Article
Full-text available
The genetic basis of resistance to apple scab [Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint.] in the Russian apple seedling R12740-7A (Malus Mill. sp.) was investigated. Segregation ratios obtained in crosses with susceptible cultivars suggested that at least two genes were involved, and three foliar resistance reactions (chlorotic, stellate necrotic, and pit t...