Suresh Rattan

Suresh Rattan
Aarhus University | AU · Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics

Ph.D.; D.Sc.; Editor-in-Chief
Professor Emeritus, can offer exciting inspiring lectures and workshops on age, ageing, life, death and much more.

About

323
Publications
28,442
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Introduction
After understanding ageing as something that happens if one lives beyond the essential lifespan, now it is time to understand what is health (WISH) and how to maintain health for as long as possible - and not just anti-disease approach.
Additional affiliations
June 1984 - December 2012
Aarhus University

Publications

Publications (323)
Article
Introduction: Mild stress-induced hormesis is becoming increasingly attractive as an ageing interventional strategy and is leading to the discovery of hormesis-inducing compounds called hormetins. Almost 50 years of modern biogerontolgical research has established a clear framework regarding the biological basis of ageing and longevity, and it is...
Article
With the development of materials engineering, gerontology-related research on new tools for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, including precision and personalised medicine, has expanded significantly. Using nanotechnology, drugs can be precisely delivered to organs, tissues, cells, and cell organelles, thereby enhancing their therapeutic ef...
Article
Full-text available
Aging is the single largest risk factor for most chronic diseases, and thus possesses large socioeconomic interest to continuously aging societies. Consequently, the field of aging research is expanding alongside a growing focus from the industry and investors in aging research. This year's 8th Annual Aging Research and Drug Discovery (ARDD) meetin...
Article
Research on the biology of aging and possibilities of interventions has gained a significant push forward by incorporating the concept of mild stress-induced physiological hormesis. Mild stress induced-activation of adaptive and protective pathways in cells and organisms has numerous health-promoting, aging-modulatory and lifespan-extending effects...
Chapter
Unlike proteins, carbohydrates and fats as the main macromolecules necessary for biological structure and functions, numerous other chemicals present in the food have a paradoxical nature. Various dietary components in the food are actually toxins which induce molecular damages in a biphasic dose response. A successful handling of the damage, throu...
Chapter
Fats and oils are one of the three primary nutritional components, and they deliver essential fatty acids and lipids vitally important for the normal biological structure and functions. The physiological functions of lipids include storing and providing energy, acting as inter- and intra-cellular signaling molecules, dissolving some vitamins to mak...
Chapter
Here we recapitulate the main themes of the issues related to nutrition, food and diet discussed in the twenty-nine chapters in this book. The insights from various contributions have been extracted to conceptualize how nutritional components are not only the source of building blocks and energy for the body, but also serve numerous critical functi...
Chapter
The major task of this closing chapter is to strive for reconciliation between the very divergent positions and perspectives on successful ageing that have been outlined in this book. The building blocks enabling at least partial reconciliation are the emphasis of the need for pluralism in conceptual reasoning on the notion of successful ageing; th...
Chapter
In this chapter the authors argue that physical, spatial, and technological environments are relevant to successful ageing both in a conceptual and in a practical sense. Conceptually, efforts towards ageing successfully cannot be discussed separately from the various external forces that serve as constraining or enhancing influences in this respect...
Book
Biological ageing is a progressive decline in physiological functionality, and an increase in the chances of chronic diseases and death. Ageing of the body sets in and happens progressively, exponentially and intrinsically in the period beyond the naturally evolved essential lifespan of a species. Ageing science has searched for the factors securin...
Chapter
Individual strategies are necessary for successful ageing. Three of the models discussed in the previous chapter—the pragmatic, hedonic, and eudaimonic models—put particular emphasis on individuals’ striving to reach their desired endpoints: to be fit, autonomous and engaged; to be happy; or to be wise, respectively. Nevertheless, the primary respo...
Chapter
Social bonds and care are important factors for successful ageing. Most people do not grow old in isolation, but together with other people, supporting them and being supported by them. While ageing, people are embedded into a social network formed by family, friends, and neighbours. These social bonds are a necessary precondition for successful se...
Chapter
Social inequality is one of the major challenges for successful ageing, and the welfare state may alleviate some of the unjust and unfair allocations of resources within a population. Socio-economic differences between individuals permeate life courses from conception to death. The concept of ‘inequality’ points to vertical differences between indi...
Chapter
From a biological perspective, ageing is generally considered as a downhill phase of life, with a progressive decline in physiological functionality and an increase in the chances of chronic diseases and death. The onset of this phase of life does not start with birth because the early phase of life is a constructive phase of growth, development, m...
Chapter
The authors propose a taxonomy of successful ageing conceptions organized according to five selected models of successful ageing used in ageing research. The models are rooted—explicitly or implicitly—in philosophical traditions describing a good life. The dominant model in gerontological research, Rowe and Kahn’s model of successful ageing, follow...
Chapter
The notion of successful ageing has been one of the most successful but also one of the most controversial concepts of ageing research over the last 60 years. Attempts to uncover the secret of successful ageing have often resembled something like a quest for the Golden Fleece. And that quest continues within contemporary gerontology—so far with no...
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Oxidized, damaged and misfolded proteins accumulate during aging and contribute to impaired cell function and tissue homeodynamics. Damaged proteins are degraded by cellular clearance mechanisms like the 20S proteasome. Aging relates to low 20S proteasome function, whereas long-lived species show high levels. However, contradictory results exist de...
Book
This edited volume is a compilation of 30 articles discussing what constitutes food for health and longevity. The aim is to provide up-to-date information, insights, and future tendencies in the ongoing scientific research about nutritional components, food habits and dietary patterns in different cultures. The health-sustaining and health-promotin...
Book
This edited volume aims to better understand the multifaceted phenomenon we call health. Going beyond simple views of health as the absence of disease or as complete well-being, this book unites scientists and philosophers. The contributions clarify the links between health and adaptation, robustness, resilience, or dynamic homeostasis, and discus...
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The exposure of living organisms to environmental stress triggers defensive responses resulting in the activation of protective processes. Whenever the exposure occurs at low doses, defensive effects overwhelm the adverse effects of the exposure; this adaptive situation is referred to as "hormesis". Environmental, physical, and nutritional hormetin...
Chapter
In this concluding chapter, we gather the various contributions of this volume and attempt to extract some of the many key insights and challenges raised when it comes to the project of explaining health across the sciences. These insights were distilled down into a selection of the central concepts and issues defended or discussed by the authors,...
Chapter
The concepts of homeodynamicsHomeodynamics and homeodynamicHomeodynamics space encompass both the theoretical and practical aspects of defining and measuring healthHealth at biological levels. The three characteristics of the homeodynamicHomeodynamics space—stress response, damage control and constant remodelling—provide measurable biomarkersBiomar...
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Most proclamations about another wonder breakthrough and another imminent miracle treatment of ageing are usually overhyped claims and empty promises. It is not that the experimental science behind those claims is totally wrong or fake. But it is often a case of being ahistorical and ignoring the cumulated knowledge and understanding of the evoluti...
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Testing and screening of plant-derived molecules on normal human cells in vitro is a widely used approach for discovering their eventual health beneficial effects for human ageing and longevity. As little is known about age-associated differential effects of such molecules, here we report that young (<25% replicative lifespan completed) and near-se...
Article
Using data from Schink et al. (2018), a large number of herbal extracts were assessed for their capacity to induce pro- and anti-inflammatory effects based on TLR4 expression normalized for cell viability in two immune cell models (i.e., HeLa-TLR4 transfected reporter cell line, and THP-1 monocytes) applying seven concentrations (0.01–3.0%). The an...
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Although high levels of stress hormones are associated with well-known negative health outcomes, their low levels can have health-promoting effects by virtue of the phenomenon of mild stress-induced hormesis. We have studied the effects of a wide range (between 100 nmol/L and 150 μmol/L) of hydrocortisone (HC) on human bone marrow stem cells in vit...
Chapter
Understanding the phenomenon of health is crucial for ageing research since there is often an implicit view on what constitutes health and how to measure it. We provide some reflections on how we might better understand and measure health, discuss the basic biological principles of survival, ageing, age-related diseases and eventual death, and end...
Article
Curcumin is shown to commonly induce biphasic dose responses in a broad range of cell types, with particular emphasis on neural cells, including neuronal stem cells. The quantitative features of these biphasic dose responses, with respect to the magnitude and width of the low dose stimulation, are similar to those reported for hormetic dose respons...
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Full-text available
One of the aims of the EU-funded Research and Innovation Action (RIA), titled “Ageing with Elegans” (AwE) is to enhance better understanding of the factors causing health and disease in aging and develop evidence-based preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic, and other strategies. The work package-5 of this project is focused on testing the effects of...
Article
Biogerontology is the study of the biological basis of ageing and age-related diseases. The phenomenon and the process of ageing are well understood in evolutionary and biological terms; and a conceptual framework has been established within which general principles of ageing and longevity can be formulated. The phenotype of ageing in terms of prog...
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We urge the WHO to include and emphasize specific tasks and goals to maintain and improve the health of the global aging population in its work program. Among others, these tasks and goals must include enhancing scientific research and technological development aimed to provide new effective and safe therapies to meet the pressing health needs of t...
Chapter
The evolutionary and the biological principles of aging are now well established, and these show that aging is not determined by any specific gerontogenes. Instead, it is the imperfect maintenance and repair systems that lead to a progressive failure of homeodynamics, aging and eventual death. Gene therapy, stem cell therapy, hormonal replenishment...
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Full-text available
Mild stress-induced activation of stress response (SR) pathways, such as autophagy, heat shock response, oxidative SR, DNA damage response, and inflammatory response, can be potentially health beneficial. Using the model system of cellular ageing and replicative senescence in vitro, we have studied the ageing modulatory effects of the two condition...
Chapter
Studying age-related changes in the physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of isolated skin cell populations in culture has greatly expanded the understanding of the fundamental aspects of skin aging. The three main cell types that have been studied extensively with respect to cellular aging in vitro are dermal fibroblasts, epidermal kerat...
Article
Optimal stress response (SR) is an essential aspect of the property of dynamic homeostasis of all biological systems, including cells in culture. Whereas severe stress can induce the so-called stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), a model developed by Olivier Toussaint, mild stress can strengthen homeodynamics and can postpone senescence thro...
Article
In Europe, biogerontology deals with: (i) describing the aging phenotype at the level of organs, systems, tissues, cells and molecules; (ii) unraveling the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of age-related changes; (iii) identifying genes that affect the quality and duration of lifespan; (iv) identifying the rate-limiting steps which lead to the...
Article
A promising strategy to slow down aging and to prevent or delay the onset of age-related diseases is that of repeated mild stress-induced hormesis. Any condition that causes low level damage in cells and leads to the activation of one or more stress response defence pathways is a potential hormetin. Physical, nutritional and mental hormetins initia...
Book
This multi-chapter book focuses on one of the hottest topics in ageing research – the role of hormones in health and longevity, offering a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of their mechanistic roles in health, ageing and longevity. Hormones are an excellent system of communication between cells and tissues within an organism, and they coordina...
Chapter
Aging at the molecular and cellular levels is characterized by the occurrence and accumulation of damage in DNA, RNA, proteins, and other macromolecules. Increased molecular heterogeneity is the fundamental basis for the cellular and physiological changes that happen during aging. Specifically, imperfections of the maintenance and repair systems th...
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As an adult, you have billions more new cells and trillions of times more new molecules than you had in your body when you were born. Your body now has day-old cells, year-old cells, and only a relatively small proportion of decades-old cells (found in parts of your brain). Most of your body is much younger than the day you were born. What’s more,...
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Human longevity continues to increase world-wide, often accompanied by decreasing birth rates. As a larger fraction of the population thus gets older, the number of people suffering from disease or disability increases dramatically, presenting a major societal challenge. Healthy ageing has therefore been selected by EU policy makers as an important...
Article
Background: The survival of all biological systems depends on a series of complex pathways of maintenance and repair systems, which are the crucial components of the homeodynamic space of an individual. A progressive failure of maintenance and the consequent shrinkage of the homeodynamic space are the fundamental basis of ageing, age-related diseas...
Article
Nanodiamonds (ND) and silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) have been much investigated for their toxicity at high doses, little is known about their biological activity at low concentrations. Here we report the biphasic dose response of ND and SiO2-NP in modulating normal human facial skin fibroblasts (FSF1) in culture. ND and SiO2-NP at low concentratio...
Book
Full-text available
This book covers the origins and subsequent history of research results in which attempts have been made to clarify issues related to cellular ageing, senescence, and age-related pathologies including cancer. Cellular Ageing and Replicative Senescence revisits more than fifty-five years of research based on the discovery that cultured normal cells...
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Intracellular autophagy (AP) is a stress response that is enhanced under conditions of limitation of amino acids, growth factors and other nutrients, and also when macromolecules become damaged, aggregated and fibrillated. Aging is generally accompanied by an increase in intracellular stress due to all the above factors. Therefore, we have compared...
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Post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins determine the activity, stability, specificity, transportability and lifespan of a protein. Some PTM are highly specific and regulated involving various enzymatic pathways, but there are other non-enzymatic PTM (nePTM), which occur stochastically, depend on the ternary structure of proteins and can...
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Full-text available
A promising strategy for maintaining a healthy and youthful phenotype during aging is that of mild stress-induced beneficial hormesis. The basis of hormesis lies in the molecular pathways of stress response, which are essential for the survival of a biological system by activation of maintenance and repair mechanisms in response to stress. Moderate...
Article
Cynarin (CYN) is the main derivative of caffeoylquinic acid, found in leaves and heads of artichoke. It may have hepatoprotective, antiatherosclerotic, antioxidative, choleretic, and cholesterol-lowering effects. We tested the effects of various doses of CYN on the proliferative potential, survival, morphology, and stress response (SR) markers heme...
Article
Living systems owe their survival and health to a series of complex biochemical pathways of maintenance and repair. These defense systems create the homeodynamic space of an individual, which is characterized by stress tolerance, molecular damage control and continuous remodeling. Ageing, age-related diseases and eventual death are the consequences...
Chapter
Studying age-related changes in the physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of isolated skin cell populations in culture has greatly expanded the understanding of the fundamental aspects of skin aging. The three main cell types that have been studied extensively with respect to cellular aging in vitro are dermal fibroblasts, epidermal kerat...
Article
Full-text available
Repeated exposure to mild heat shock (HS) has been shown to induce a wide range of health promoting hormetic effects in various biological systems, including human cells undergoing aging in vitro. In order to understand how cells distinguish between mild and severe stress, we have investigated the extent of early and immediate HS response by analyz...
Article
Full-text available
The Hayflick system of cellular aging and replicative senescence in vitro has been used widely in both basic and applied research in bio gerontology. The state of replicative senescence is generally considered to be irreversible, but is modifiable by genetic and environmental manipulations. Some recent observations indicate that replicative lifespa...
Article
Full-text available
Aging of biological systems occurs in spite of numerous complex pathways of maintenance, repair and defense. There are no gerontogenes which have the specific evolutionary function to cause aging. Although aging is the common cause of all age-related diseases, aging in itself cannot be considered a disease. This understanding of aging as a process...
Article
The reactive aldehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), is recognized as a product of lipid peroxidation, which binds to macromolecules, in particular proteins. HNE-modified proteins (HNE-MP) have been shown to accumulate during ageing, generally by using polyclonal antibodies, which increase the possibility of detecting false positives. Therefore, we have...
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Article
The science and study of the biological basis of aging, biogerontology, is now a well-established field with solid scientific base. A paradigm-shift in gerontology has occurred by realising the fact that biological aging occurs in spite of the presence of complex homeodynamic pathways of maintenance, repair and defence, and there is no "enemy withi...
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Ageing occurs in spite of complex pathways of maintenance and repair. There is no "enemy within", which has the specific evolution-selected function to cause ageing and death. This understanding of ageing should transform our approach towards interventions from therapeutic "anti-ageing" to maintaining health. But what is health? Ideally, health is...
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ABSTRACT Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of compounds formed by the Maillard chemical process of non-enzymatic glycation of free amino groups of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This chemical modification of biomolecules is triggered by endogenous hyperglycaemic or oxidative stress-related processes. Additionally...
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Full-text available
Application of hormesis in aging research and interventions is becoming increasingly attractive and successful. The reason for this is the realization that mild stress-induced activation of one or more stress response (SR) pathways, and its consequent stimulation of repair mechanisms, is effective in reducing the age-related accumulation of molecul...
Article
Since its inception in 2000, Biogerontology has published interviews with some of the most renowned and intellectually influential biogerontologists, including Len Hayflick, Robin Holliday, Denham Harman, Vincent Cristofalo, Claudio Franceschi, Leslie Robert, Ken Kitani, Geroge Martin, Zhores Medvedev and John Maynard Smith. These interviews have e...
Article
We have measured the caspase-like proteasome activity in individual male and female Drosophila flies by using a non-denaturing lysing technique that consistently extracts total protein. The mean proteasome activity in control C1 females was more than two times higher as compared with that in C1 males. However, in longevity-selected LS1 flies the pr...
Article
The ongoing revolution in aging research was manifested by the Second International Conference "Genetics of Aging and Longevity" (Moscow, April 22-25, 2012). The Conference goal was to identify the most promising areas of genetics, life expectancy, and aging, including: the search for longevity genes; the search for pharmacological agents that slow...
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Various by-products of the cellular metabolism, such as reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are potentially harmful to cells and tissues, and play a role in many physiological and pathological processes. Among various RCS is the highly reactive dicarbonyl glyoxal (GO), which is a natural physiological metabolite produced by the auto-oxidation of glucos...
Article
Aging is the progressive shrinkage of the homeodynamic space. A crucial component of the homeodynamic space is the stress response (SR), by virtue of which a living system senses disturbance and initiates a series of events for maintenance, repair, adaptation, remodeling and survival. Here we discuss the main intracellular SR pathways in human cell...
Article
Ageing is a progressive shrinkage of the homeodynamic space and, at the molecular level, it is associated with the stochastic occurrence and progressive accumulation of molecular damage. Imperfection of the maintenance and repair systems results in the failure of homeodynamics characterized by increased molecular heterogeneity, altered cellular fun...