Surendra Ghaskadbi

Surendra Ghaskadbi
Agharkar Research Institute · Developmental Biology

M.Sc., M.Phil., Ph.D., M.M.S.

About

98
Publications
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885
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Additional affiliations
September 1985 - present
Agharkar Research Institute
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
Thioredoxins, small disulphide-containing redox proteins, play an important role in the regulation of cellular thiol redox balance through their disulfide reductase activity. In this study, we have identified, cloned, purified and characterized thioredoxin 1 (HvTrx1) from the Cnidarian Hydra vulgaris Ind-Pune. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that...
Article
Full-text available
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is a DNA repair mechanism that rectifies a wide spectrum of DNA lesions. Xeroderma pigmentosum group of proteins (XPA through XPG) orchestrate the NER pathway in humans. We have earlier studied XPA homolog from Hydra (HyXPA) and found it to be similar to human XPA. Here, we examined if HyXPA can functionally...
Article
Full-text available
Since its discovery by Abraham Trembley in 1744, hydra has been a popular research organism. Features like spectacular regeneration capacity, peculiar tissue dynamics, continuous pattern formation, unique evolutionary position, and an apparent lack of organismal senescence make hydra an intriguing animal to study. While a large body of work has tak...
Article
Full-text available
Hydra, a freshwater diploblast, with a simple but defined body plan, an organized nervous system, and the presence of stem cells, is one of the oldest model organisms used in biology. It exhibits many embryonic features even as an adult, a spectacular ability of regeneration, and lack of organismal aging. Hydra can provide insights into how complex...
Article
Background: Mechanisms regulating BMP and Wnt pathways and their interactions are not well studied in Hydra. Results: We report identification of BMP inhibitor gremlin, comparison of its expression with that of noggin and possible antagonism between Wnt and BMP signaling in Hydra. Gremlin is expressed in body column with high levels in budding r...
Article
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are necessary for various cellular processes. However, excess ROS cause damage to many biological molecules and therefore must be tightly regulated in time and space. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the most commonly used ROS as second messenger in the cell. It is a relatively long‐lived freely diffusible signaling molecul...
Article
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are necessary for various cellular processes. However, excess ROS cause damage to many biological molecules and therefore must be tightly regulated in time and space. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the most commonly used ROS as second messenger in the cell. It is a relatively long-lived freely diffusible signaling molecul...
Article
Full-text available
In this short commentary, we reflect upon the fascinating paper by I.A. Niazi entitled "Background to work on retinoids and amphibian limb regeneration: Studies on anuran tadpoles - a retrospect." originally published in J. Biosciences (1996), and herein reproduced with the kind permission of the author and the Journal of Biosciences. It is fitting...
Article
Hydra, a Cnidarian believed to have been evolved about 60 million years ago, has been a favorite model for developmental biologists since Abraham Trembley introduced it in 1744. However, the modern renaissance in research on hydra was initiated by Alfred Gierer when he established a hydra laboratory at the Max Plank Institute in Göttingen in the la...
Article
The Indian Society of Developmental Biologists (InSDB) was founded in 1977 to promote regular interactions between all those interested in how organisms develop. Conferences and training workshops are regularly held in different parts of the country. In addition to Indian developmental biologists, InSDB invites participants from different parts of...
Article
This issue of The International Journal of Developmental Biology (Int. J. Dev. Biol.) is devoted to contributions to developmental biology from India. The articles have been organized thematically, beginning with historical accounts and personal reminiscences, followed by surveys of areas to which the authors' own contributions have been substantia...
Article
The formal teaching of developmental biology in India began in the late nineteen-fifties at the Department of Zoology of the University of Poona. This was due to the efforts of Leela Mulherkar, who on her return from C.H. Waddington's laboratory in Edinburgh, took up the teaching of embryology at the Master's level. Mulherkar began using locally av...
Preprint
Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways play important roles in the formation of the blood vascular system and nervous system across animal phyla. We have earlier reported VEGF and FGF from Hydra vulgaris Ind-Pune, a cnidarian with a defined body axis, an organized nervous system an...
Preprint
Mechanisms regulating BMP and Wnt signaling pathways have been widely studied in many organisms. One of the mechanisms by which these pathways are regulated is by binding of extracellular ligands. In the present study, we report studies with two BMP antagonists, gremlin and noggin from Hydra vulgaris Ind-Pune and demonstrate antagonistic relationsh...
Article
Mannose 6-phosphate (M6P)-dependent lysosomal enzyme targeting to endosome/lysosome complex is poorly understood among lower invertebrates. So far, only a M6P-independent lysosomal enzyme sorting protein, named LERP, has been described in Drosophila. Here, we have identified mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR) homologues in Hydra vulgaris, a basal C...
Article
Full-text available
Hydra, a fresh water Cnidarian, has been used as a model system to study regeneration and pattern formation. Here we report a newly identified hydra from Naukuchiatal, India. Comparison of Hydra vulgaris Naukuchiatal with Hydra magnipapillata, Hydra vulgaris AEP and Hydra vulgaris Ind-Pune showed variations in morphology. Nema arrangement in holotr...
Article
Only mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1) has been reported to possess both DNA repair and redox activities. C terminal of the protein is required for base excision repair, while the redox activity resides in the N terminal due to cysteine residues at specific positions. APE1s from other organisms studied so far lack the redox activ...
Article
The mechanisms underlying cobalt toxicity in aquatic species in general and cnidarians in particular remain poorly understood. Herein we investigated cobalt toxicity in a Hydra model from morphological, histological, developmental, and molecular biological perspectives. Hydra, exposed to cobalt (0–60 mg/L), were altered in morphology, histology, an...
Article
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process in eukaryotic cells that is involved in the degradation of cytoplasmic contents including organelles via the lysosome. Hydra is an early metazoan which exhibits simple tissue grade organization, a primitive nervous system, and is one of the classical non-bilaterian models extensively used in evo-devo...
Article
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Nanotechnology has emerged as a powerful field of applied research. However, the potential toxicity of nano-materials is a cause of concern. A thorough toxicological investigation is required before a nanomaterial is evaluated for application of any kind. In this context, there is concerted effort to find appropriate test systems to assess the toxi...
Article
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We have shown earlier that irradiation with UV induces duplication of foot in regenerating middle pieces of hydra. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) leading to this curious phenomenon. UV irradiation induced duplicated foot in about 30% of regenerating middle pieces. Metalloproteinases are important in foot f...
Article
Copper, an essential microelement, is known to be toxic to aquatic life at concentrations higher than that could be tolerated. Copper-induced oxidative stress has been documented in vitro, yet the in vivo effects of metal-induced oxidative stress have not been extensively studied in the lower invertebrates. The objective of the present study has be...
Article
Very often, the microbial composition of lab-maintained model organisms is significantly different compared to their natural counterparts. Controlled environment in the lab versus dynamic conditions in the wild could be one of the reasons for such differences. Considering the impact of microbes on development, immunology, ecology, evolution, etc.,...
Article
Cardiovascular and ischemic diseases are often associated with diabetes mellitus and develop due to occlusion of blood vessels leading to the blockage and insufficient blood supply to the target organs. Current therapeutic strategies for treating these pathologies include growth factor-, gene- and stem cell-based therapies. Vascular endothelial gro...
Article
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Tumor angiogenesis is characterized by abnormal vessel morphology leading to erratic and insufficient delivery of chemotherapeutics and oxygen, making the tumor core not only highly hypoxic but also unresponsive toward treatment. Such hypoxic conditions promote tumor aggressiveness, leading to the establishment of metastatic disease. Most anti-angi...
Article
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Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) is a protein that binds to damaged DNA, verifies presence of a lesion, and recruits other proteins of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway to the site. Though its homologs from yeast, Drosophila, humans, and so forth are well studied, XPA has not so far been reported from protozoa and lower animal phyla....
Article
Full-text available
Hydra, one of the earliest metazoans with tissue grade organization and nervous system, is an animal with a remarkable regeneration capacity and shows no signs of organismal aging. We have for the first time identified genes of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway from hydra. Here we report cloning and characterization of hydra homolog of x...
Data
Multiple sequence alignment of hydra, human, zebrafish, Drosophila and Caenorhabditis XPF amino acid sequences. Hydra XPF shows high level of similarity to its homologs from other animals and especially to vertebrate XPFs. (TIF)
Data
Analysis of sequence isolated from hydra. Comparison of hydra sequence with other related sequences from the database demonstrates its identity as XPF and shows that it is more similar to vertebrate, than invertebrate XPFs. (DOC)
Data
Multiple sequence alignment of hydra XPF, human XPF and human MUS81 amino acid sequences. Hydra XPF amino acid sequence is highly similar to human XPF and shows almost no similarity with human MUS81, clearly establishing its identity as a XPF protein. (TIF)
Article
Angiogenesis, the expansion of a capillary network, is implicated in several pathological conditions. Drug-based inhibition of angiogenesis is being explored as therapy. Conversely, therapeutic angiogenesis contributes to control conditions such as ischemia. Here we report pro-angiogenic activity of perivitelline fluid (PVF) from Indian horseshoe c...
Article
Full-text available
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) play important roles in the formation of the blood vascular system and in axon guidance, nervous system development and function. Here, we report isolation and characterization of VEGF and FGF homologues from Hydra vulgaris Ind-Pune, a Cnidarian which exhibits an organized...
Article
Full-text available
Naturally fertilized Microhyla ornata and Xenopus laevis embryos at dorsal lip of blastopore stage were exposed to 0.3, and 0.6% sodium chloride for high salinity treatment and dilute hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide for treatment with low and high pH, respectively. After treatment for different durations, embryos were studied morphologically...
Article
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In 1909, several years before the famous `Organizer' experiments of Spemann and Mangold, Ethel Browne demonstrated induction of a secondary axis in hydra by grafting a hypostome. Based on this and subsequent work, in the late sixties, Lewis Wolpert proposed the theory of morphogen gradients and positional information. We have studied secondary axis...
Article
Full-text available
Noggin, along with other secreted bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitors, plays a crucial role in neural induction and neural tube patterning as well as in somitogenesis, cardiac morphogenesis and formation of the skeleton in vertebrates. The BMP signalling pathway is one of the seven fundamental pathways that drive embryonic development and p...
Article
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Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are key components of cell-cell signalling required for growth and development of multicellular organisms. It is therefore likely that the divergence of RTKs and associated components played a significant role in the evolution of multicellular organisms. We have carried out the present study in hydra, a diploblast,...
Article
The scarcity of human islets for transplantation remains a major limitation of cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells are of interest because they can be isolated, expanded and offered for such therapy under autologous/allogeneic settings. We characterized and compared human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells...
Article
Hydra, a member of phylum Cnidaria that arose early in evolution, is endowed with a defined axis, organized nervous system, and active behavior. It is a powerful model system for the elucidation of evolution of developmental mechanisms in animals. Here, we describe the identification and cloning of noggin-like gene from hydra. Noggin is a secreted...
Article
Full-text available
Gastrulation is a fundamental process that results in formation of the three germ layers in an embryo. It involves highly coordinated cell migration. Cell to cell communication through cell surface and the surrounding molecular environment governs cell migration. In the present work, cell surface features, which are indicative of the migratory stat...
Article
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Cellular microenvironment is known to play a critical role in the maintenance of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). It was uncertain whether BM-MSCs obtained from a 'diabetic milieu' (dBM-MSCs) offer the same regenerative potential as those obtained from healthy (non-diabetic) individuals (hBM-MSCs). To investigate the effe...
Article
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We have analysed the molecular mechanism of action of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in the development of mesodermal and neural structures in chick embryo. Experimentally altered levels of FGF signalling were found to differentially modulate expression of brachyury, goosecoid, ERNI and noggin, genes implicated in meso- dermal and neural developmen...
Article
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In early chick embryo, the precardiac cells reside within distinct groups of mesodermal cells known as presumptive heart forming regions (HFRs). HFRs are located on the lateral sides of the Hensens node. In an effort to study fate of HFRs in isolation, HFRs were excised from early gastrulating chick embryos and cultured in vitro. A very small propo...
Article
Full-text available
We have analysed the molecular mechanism of action of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in the development of mesodermal and neural structures in chick embryo. Experimentally altered levels of FGF signalling were found to differentially modulate expression of brachyury, goosecoid, ERNI and noggin, genes implicated in meso-dermal and neural development...
Article
Full-text available
Cardiac myocytes are the first cells to differentiate during the development of a vertebrate embryo. A wide variety of molecules take part in various steps in this process. While exploring biologically active molecules from marine sources, we found that a constituent of perivitelline fluid from embryos of the Indian horseshoe crab can enhance growt...
Article
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Fetal calf serum (FCS) is conventionally used for animal cell cultures due to its inherent growth-promoting activities. However animal welfare issues and stringent requirements for human transplantation studies demand a suitable alternative for FCS. With this view, we studied the effect of FCS, human AB serum (ABS), and human umbilical cord blood s...
Article
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We have studied the effects of ultraviolet-C (UVC) and Ultraviolet-B (UVB) on growth and pattern formation in Pelmatohydra oligactis. UVC brings about a significant increase in budding in intact hydra while UVB does not exhibit such an effect. Excessive budding could be a response for survival at wavelengths that damage biological tissues. If the h...
Article
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β β-Microseminoprotein (MSP) -induced enhancement of mesodermal structures in chick embryo is brought about through modulation of expression of Brachyury and is often associated with abnormal nervous system devel- opment. In the present study, carried out to further elucidate the mechanism of action of MSP, we find that treatment with MSP leads to...
Article
Enormity of the metazoan genomes and divergence in their regulation impose a serious constraint on the comprehensive understanding of context specific gene regulation. DNA elements located in the promoter, enhancer, and other regulatory regions of the genome dictate the temporal and spatial patterns of gene activities. However, owing to the diminut...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, we show that insulin accelerates early morphogenesis in gastrulating chick embryo explants cultured in vitro, whereas antiserum to insulin adversely affects this process. Comparison between length of body axis of control and treated embryos clearly brings out the significant acceleration of development by excess insulin (0.175...
Article
It has previously been shown that human beta-microseminoprotein enhances development of mesodermal structures in the chick embryo. The present study was carried out to elucidate the mechanism of action of human beta-microseminoprotein in the chick embryo. beta-Microseminoprotein brought about significant modulation of expression of Brachyury in gas...
Article
One to eight post-nodal fragments (PN) or Hensen's nodes (HN) from full primitive streak stage chick embryos were transplanted onto the area pellucida or area opaca of stage 4 embryos and cultured for 20 h. Thirteen morphological and numerical parameters were affected in the host embryos and analyzed by multiple logistic regression for parametric h...
Article
Full-text available
Insulin plays an essential role in the prepancreatic embryonic development of the frog, Microhyla ornata. While exogenous insulin stimulates neurulation as well as overall embryonic development in this organism, immunoneutralization of endogenous insulin leads to peculiar abnormalities in the developing nervous system. In the present report, we dem...
Article
Full-text available
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) belongs to a family of polypeptides with diverse biological functions. In the present study we have assessed the role of FGF signaling in the development of nervous system and mesodermal tissues in chick embryo. Treatment of in vitro cultured embryos with exogenous, human recombinant FGF led to abnormalities in neural...
Article
The anatomical and cell biological aspects of somite formation in the chick embryo have been rather well studied. Molecular regulation of somitogenesis in vertebrates is just beginning to be understood. We have studied the effects of human recombinant activin on somitogenesis in gastrulating chick embryos cultured in vitro with a view to assessing...
Article
Full-text available
The diploblastic Hydra is among the most primitive multicellular organisms. Using cross-hybridization with Xenopus probes, noggin-like transcripts were detected in the hypostome and basal disc of adult Hydra (Pelmatohydra oligactis), regions with properties similar to that of the amphibian organizer. This points to the possibility of a close molecu...
Article
Full-text available
Piperine (CAS 94-62-2) is a constituent of various spices which are used as common food additives all over the world. The reproductive toxicity of piperine was studied in Swiss albino mice. Relevant short-term tests were employed to assess the effect on estrous cycle, mating behaviour, toxicity to male germ cells, fertilization, implantation and gr...
Article
Piperine (CAS 94-62-2) is a constituent of various spices and is used as a common food additive all over the world. The genotoxic potential of piperine was assessed using four different test systems, namely, Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium, micronucleus test, sperm shape abnormality test and dominant lethal test using Swiss albino mice. In t...