Sunil Chandra

Sunil Chandra
South African Astronomical Observatory | SAAO · Department of Astronomy

PhD, Astronomy & Astrophysics

About

112
Publications
8,206
Reads
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1,323
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2021 - September 2021
South African Astronomical Observatory
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Intelligent Observatory(IO) project SAAO
December 2020 - December 2023
North-West University
Position
  • Lecturer
September 2017 - September 2020
North-West University
Position
  • Fellow
Description
  • HESS and CTA member, AstroSat-SXT Calibration updates

Publications

Publications (112)
Preprint
Full-text available
Young massive stellar clusters are extreme environments and potentially provide the means for efficient particle acceleration. Indeed, they are increasingly considered as being responsible for a significant fraction of cosmic rays (CRs) accelerated within the Milky Way. Westerlund 1, the most massive known young stellar cluster in our Galaxy is a p...
Preprint
We are carrying out the densest and longest multiyear, multiwavelength monitoring project of OJ 287 ever done. The project MOMO (Multiwavelength Observations and Modelling of OJ 287) covers wavelengths from the radio to the high-energy regime. A few selected observations are simultaneous with those of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). MOMO aims at...
Preprint
Full-text available
The study of short-term variability properties in AGN jets has the potential to shed light on their particle acceleration and emission mechanisms. We report results from a four-day coordinated multi-wavelength campaign on the highly-peaked blazar (HBL) Mkn 421 in 2019 January. We obtained X-ray data from AstroSAT, BVRI photometry with the Whole Ear...
Article
The study of short-term variability properties in AGN jets has the potential to shed light on their particle acceleration and emission mechanisms. We report results from a four-day coordinated multi-wavelength campaign on the highly-peaked blazar (HBL) Mkn 421 in January 2019. We obtained X-ray data from AstroSAT, BVRI photometry with the Whole Ear...
Article
Full-text available
The Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) aboard the AstroSat satellite is the first Indian X-ray telescope in space. It is a modest size X-ray telescope with a charge coupled device (CCD) camera in the focal plane, which provides X-ray images in the \(\sim \)0.3–8.0 keV band. A forte of SXT is in providing undistorted spectra of relatively bright X-ray sourc...
Article
We present observations of four bright stars observed with the AstroSat Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT). Visible light from bright stars like these can leak through the very thin filter in front of the CCD in the focal plane CCD camera of the SXT and thus making the extraction of X-ray events difficult. Here, we show how to extract the X-ray events with...
Article
Full-text available
Magnetar hyperflares are the most plausible explanation for fast radio bursts (FRBs)—enigmatic powerful radio pulses with durations of several milliseconds and high brightness temperatures. The first observational evidence for this scenario was obtained in 2020 April when an FRB was detected from the direction of the Galactic magnetar and soft gamm...
Preprint
Full-text available
The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory and the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) are two leading instruments in the ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray domain. HAWC employs the water Cherenkov detection (WCD) technique, while H.E.S.S. is an array of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). The two facilities ther...
Article
Full-text available
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are bright flashes of gamma rays from extragalactic sources followed by fading afterglow emission, are associated with stellar core collapse events. We report the detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma rays from the afterglow of GRB 190829A, between 4 and 56 hours after the trigger, using the High Energy Stereoscop...
Preprint
Cosmological $N$-body simulations show that Milky Way-sized galaxies harbor a population of unmerged dark matter subhalos. These subhalos could shine in gamma-rays and be eventually detected in gamma-ray surveys as unidentified sources. We performed a thorough selection among unidentified Fermi-LAT Objects (UFOs) to identify them as possible TeV-sc...
Article
We search for an indirect signal of dark matter through very high-energy γ rays from the Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM) dwarf irregular galaxy. The pair annihilation of dark matter particles would produce Standard Model particles in the final state such as γ rays, which might be detected by ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. Dwarf irregular galaxies r...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a comprehensive multi-frequency study of the HBL 1ES 1959+650 using data from various facilities during the period 2016-2017, including X-ray data from {\it AstroSat} and {\it Swift} during the historically high X-ray flux state of the source observed until February 2021. The unprecedented quality of X-ray data from high cadence monitori...
Preprint
We search for an indirect signal of dark matter through very high-energy gamma rays from the Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM) dwarf irregular galaxy. The pair annihilation of dark matter particles would produce Standard Model particles in the final state such as gamma rays, which might be detected by ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. Dwarf irregular ga...
Article
We present a comprehensive analysis of all XMM-Newton spectra of OJ 287 spanning 15 years of X-ray spectroscopy of this bright blazar. We also report the latest results from our dedicated Swift UVOT and XRT monitoring of OJ 287 which started in 2015, along with all earlier public Swift data since 2005. During this time interval, OJ 287 was caught i...
Preprint
We present a comprehensive analysis of all XMM-Newton spectra of OJ 287 spanning 15 years of X-ray spectroscopy of this bright blazar. We also report the latest results from our dedicated Swift UVOT and XRT monitoring of OJ 287 which started in 2015, along with all earlier public Swift data since 2005. During this time interval, OJ 287 was caught i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Supermassive binary black holes (SMBBHs) are laboratories par excellence for relativistic effects, including precession effects in the Kerr metric and the emission of gravitational waves. Binaries form in the course of galaxy mergers, and are a key component in our understanding of galaxy evolution. Dedicated searches for SMBBHs in all stages of th...
Preprint
Full-text available
In 2017, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration succeeded in capturing the first direct image of the center of the M87 galaxy. The asymmetric ring morphology and size are consistent with theoretical expectations for a weakly accreting supermassive black hole of mass approximately 6.5 x 10^9 M_solar. The EHTC also partnered with several int...
Article
Full-text available
In 2017, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration succeeded in capturing the first direct image of the center of the M87 galaxy. The asymmetric ring morphology and size are consistent with theoretical expectations for a weakly accreting supermassive black hole of mass ~6.5 × 10⁹ M_⊙. The EHTC also partnered with several international facilit...
Article
Full-text available
The flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 1510−089 is known for its complex multiwavelength behaviour and it is one of only a few FSRQs detected in very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ rays. The VHE γ -ray observations with H.E.S.S. and MAGIC in late May and early June 2016 resulted in the detection of an unprecedented flare, which revealed, for t...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) aboard the $AstroSat$ satellite is the first Indian X-ray telescope in space. It is a modest size X-ray telescope with a charge coupled device (CCD) camera in the focal plane, which provides X-ray images in the $\sim 0.3-8.0$ keV band. A forte of SXT is in providing undistorted spectra of relatively bright X-ray sourc...
Preprint
An Andor 1K $\times$ 1K EMCCD detector has been used to develop an optical imaging polarimeter for use at the Cassegrain focus of 1.2 m telescope of PRL. The optics is derived from an older single-element detector instrument and consists of a rotating half-wave plate as modulator and a Foster prism as an analyser. The field of view of the instrumen...
Poster
EMPOL is an imaging polarimeter developed for 1.2 m Cassegrain telescope of PRL at its Mount Abu Infrared Observatory. Following up on the tradition of pioneering polarimetric observations in India (see Deshpande et al., 1985, Joshi et al., 1987), EMPOL was developed based on the principle of a rotating modulator with an analyser. The polarization...
Conference Paper
An Andor 1K × 1K EMCCD detector has been used to develop an optical imaging polarimeter for use at the Cassegrain focus of 1.2 m telescope of PRL. The optics derived from an older single-element detector instrument and consists of a rotating half-wave plate as modulator and a Foster prism as an analyser. The field of view of the instrument is 3 × 3...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present observations of four bright stars observed with the AstroSat Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT). Visible light from bright stars like these can leak through the very thin filter in front of the CCD in the focal plane CCD camera of the SXT and thus making the extraction of X-ray events difficult. Here, we show how to extract the X-ray events with...
Preprint
The unidentified very-high-energy (VHE; E $>$ 0.1 TeV) $\gamma$-ray source, HESS J1826$-$130, was discovered with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) in the Galactic plane. The analysis of 215 h of HESS data has revealed a steady $\gamma$-ray flux from HESS J1826$-$130, which appears extended with a half-width of 0.21$^{\circ}$ $\pm$ 0.02$^{...
Article
Dwarf spheroidal galaxy satellites of the Milky Way are prime targets for indirect detection of dark matter with gamma rays due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and absence of nonthermal emission processes. Recently, the Dark Energy Survey (DES) revealed the existence of new ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the southern-hemisphe...
Article
Full-text available
Gamma-ray emission from the bright radio source 3C 84, associated with the Perseus cluster, is ascribed to the radio galaxy NGC 1275 residing at the centre of the cluster. Study of the correlated X-ray/gamma-ray emission from this active galaxy, and investigation of the possible disk-jet connection, are hampered because the X-ray emission, particul...
Article
Full-text available
An Amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
Here we report the results of the first ever contemporaneous multi-wavelength observation campaign on the BL Lac object PKS 2155−304 involving Swift, NuSTAR, Fermi-LAT, and H.E.S.S. The use of these instruments allows us to cover a broad energy range, which is important for disentangling the different radiative mechanisms. The source, observed from...
Article
Full-text available
The nearby radio galaxy Centaurus A belongs to a class of active galaxies that are luminous at radio wavelengths. Most show collimated relativistic outflows known as jets, which extend over hundreds of thousands of parsecs for the most powerful sources. Accretion of matter onto the central supermassive black hole is believed to fuel these jets and...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report on the detection of very-high-energy (VHE; $E > 100$~GeV) $\gamma$-ray emission from the BL Lac objects KUV 00311-1938 and PKS 1440-389 with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). H.E.S.S. observations were accompanied or preceded by multi-wavelength observations with Fermi/LAT, XRT and UVOT on board the Swift satellite, and ATOM...
Article
Aims. Colliding wind binary systems have long been suspected to be high-energy (HE; 100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ -ray emitters. η Car is the most prominent member of this object class and is confirmed to emit phase-locked HE γ rays from hundreds of MeV to ~100 GeV energies. This work aims to search for and characterise the very-high-energy (VHE; E >100...
Article
Full-text available
We report on the detection of very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from the BL Lac objects KUV 00311-1938 and PKS 1440-389 with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). H.E.S.S. observations were accompanied or preceded by multiwavelength observations with Fermi/LAT, XRT and UVOT onboard the Swift satellite, and ATOM. Based...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aims. Colliding wind binary systems have long been suspected to be high-energy (HE; 100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) {\gamma}-ray emitters. {\eta} Car is the most prominent member of this object class and is confirmed to emit phase-locked HE {\gamma} rays from hundreds of MeV to ~100 GeV energies. This work aims to search for and characterise the very-high-e...
Article
Full-text available
The Crab nebula is one of the most-studied cosmic particle accelerators, shining brightly across the entire electromagnetic spectrum up to very-high-energy gamma rays1,2. It is known from observations in the radio to gamma-ray part of the spectrum that the nebula is powered by a pulsar, which converts most of its rotational energy losses into a hig...
Article
Full-text available
Context. Flat-spectrum radio-quasars (FSRQs) are rarely detected at very high energies ( E ≥ 100 GeV) due to their low-frequency-peaked spectral energy distributions. At present, only six FSRQs are known to emit very high-energy (VHE) photons, representing only 7% of the VHE extragalactic catalog, which is largely dominated by high-frequency-peaked...
Article
Context. PSR B1259–63/LS 2883 is a gamma-ray binary system consisting of a pulsar in an eccentric orbit around a bright Oe stellar-type companion star that features a dense circumstellar disc. The bright broad-band emission observed at phases close to periastron offers a unique opportunity to study particle acceleration and radiation processes in b...
Article
We report the analysis of simultaneous multiwavelength data of the high-energy-peaked blazar RGB J0710 + 591 from the Large Area X-ray Proportional Counters, Soft X-ray focusing Telescope, and Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) instruments onboard AstroSat. The wide band X-ray spectrum (0.35–30 keV) is modelled as synchrotron emission from a non-...
Preprint
Full-text available
PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 is a gamma-ray binary system consisting of a pulsar in an eccentric orbit around a bright Oe stellar-type companion star that features a dense circumstellar disc. The high- and very-high-energy (HE, VHE) gamma-ray emission from PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 around the times of its periastron passage are characterised, in particular, at...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report the analysis of simultaneous multi-wavelength data of the high energy peaked blazar RGB J0710+591 from the LAXPC, SXT and UVIT instruments on-board AstroSat. The wide band X-ray spectrum (0.35 -- 30 keV) is modelled as synchrotron emission from a non-thermal distribution of high energy electrons. The spectrum is unusually curved, with a c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are brief flashes of gamma rays, considered to be the most energetic explosive phenomena in the Universe. The emission from GRBs comprises a short (typically tens of seconds) and bright prompt emission, followed by a much longer afterglow phase. During the afterglow phase, the shocked outflow -- produced by the interaction b...
Article
Full-text available
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are brief flashes of γ-rays and are considered to be the most energetic explosive phenomena in the Universe1. The emission from GRBs comprises a short (typically tens of seconds) and bright prompt emission, followed by a much longer afterglow phase. During the afterglow phase, the shocked outflow—produced by the interaction...
Article
We report the results from AstroSat observations of the transient Galactic black hole X-ray binary MAXI J1535–571 during its hard-intermediate state of the 2017 outburst. We systematically study the individual and joint spectra from two simultaneously observing AstroSat X-ray instruments, and probe and measure a number of parameter values of accret...
Article
In this work, we present a spectral and temporal analysis of Swift/XRT and NuSTAR observations of GRS 1716–249 during its recent 2016–2017 outburst. This low-mass X-ray binary underwent an extraordinary outburst after a long quiescence of 23 yr, since its last major outburst in 1993. The source was observed over two different epochs during 2017 Apr...
Preprint
Marsh et al. detected radio and optical pulsations from the binary system AR Scorpii (AR Sco). This system, with an orbital period of 3.56 h, is composed of a cool, low-mass star and a white dwarf with a spin period of 1.95 min. Optical observations by Buckley et al. showed that the polarimetric emission from the white dwarf is strongly linearly po...
Article
Full-text available
Context. We present a detailed view of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) HESS J1825–137. We aim to constrain the mechanisms dominating the particle transport within the nebula, accounting for its anomalously large size and spectral characteristics. Aims. The nebula was studied using a deep exposure from over 12 years of H.E.S.S. I operation, together wi...
Article
Full-text available
Context. Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) represent the most prominent population of Galactic very-high-energy gamma-ray sources and are thought to be an efficient source of leptonic cosmic rays. Vela X is a nearby middle-aged PWN, which shows bright X-ray and TeV gamma-ray emission towards an elongated structure called the cocoon. Aims. Since TeV emissi...
Article
Full-text available
The flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 is known to exhibit pronounced variability in the high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ -ray band, which is continuously monitored with Fermi -LAT. During two periods of high activity in April 2014 and June 2015 target-of-opportunity observations were undertaken with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S...
Article
PKS 1830–211 is a known macrolensed quasar located at a redshift of z = 2.5. Its high-energy gamma-ray emission has been detected with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument and evidence for lensing was obtained by several authors from its high-energy data. Observations of PKS 1830–211 were taken with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H...
Preprint
Full-text available
The flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 is known to exhibit pronounced variability in the high-energy ($100\,$MeV$<E<100\,$GeV) $\gamma$-ray band, which is continuously monitored with Fermi-LAT. During two periods of high activity in April 2014 and June 2015 Target-of-Opportunity observations were undertaken with H.E.S.S. in the very-high-energy (VHE...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this work, we present a spectral and temporal analysis of {\it Swift}/XRT and {\it NuSTAR} observations of GRS 1716--249 during its recent 2016--2017 outburst. This low mass X-ray binary underwent an extraordinary outburst after a long quiescence of 23 years, since its last major outburst in 1993. The source was observed over two different epoch...