Sunil Bhand

Sunil Bhand
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa · Department of Chemistry

MSc., Ph.D.
Looking for collaborators in BIO cyber Physical Systems to develop novel products through Technology Innovation Hub.

About

83
Publications
16,226
Reads
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1,148
Citations
Introduction
The research focus of my laboratory is the development of novel ultra-sensitive and practical bio-assay,biosensor and biochip devices for analysis of pesticide residues, aflatoxins, heavy metals, antibiotic residues and bacteria in environmental matrices
Additional affiliations
February 2013 - May 2021
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa
Position
  • Consultant
Description
  • Leading the biosensor group and also coordinating the Sponsored Research and Consultancy for the Institute BITS Pilani
June 2010 - February 2013
BITS Pilani
Position
  • Associate Professor & Head of the Department
June 2006 - May 2010
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa
Position
  • Assistant Professor and Group Leader

Publications

Publications (83)
Chapter
In past few years, the use of portable sensing technology has been steadily increasing in human health and well-being monitoring. Conventional methods used in healthcare diagnosis involve high cost, competent personnel and long analysis time. Wherein, electrical biosensor is considered as an obvious choice in diagnostic applications due to its ease...
Article
This paper discusses the finite element method (FEM) based performance analysis of serpentine electrodes (SREs) and interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) used for biochemical sensing applications. The SREs and IDEs structures were modelled for comparison with 20 µm (width, gap), length of 1 mm and 20 electrode pairs. The modelled SREs structure was anal...
Article
Full-text available
How many nanoparticles can we load in a fiber? How much will leak? Underlying is the relatively new question of the “space available” in fibers for nanoparticle loading. Here, using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a carrier fluid, we explored the impregnation in four Indian silks (Mulberry, Eri, Muga, and Tasar) with five standard sizes of...
Article
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a widely used enzyme for inhibition-based biosensors in pesticide residues detection, lags due to multiple-step operation, time-consuming incubation and reactivation/regeneration steps. Herein, this endeavour reports the development of Organophosphate Hydrolase (OPH), which has functional superiority over the AChE and e...
Article
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Background and Objectives: Public health protection requires timely evaluation of pathogens in potable water to minimize outbreaks caused by microbial contaminations. The present study was aimed at assessing the microbiological quality of water obtained from Shantinagar (a rural area in the South Goa region of Goa, India) using 5-Bromo-4-Chloro-3-I...
Article
Chemiluminescence signal amplification (CLSA) is of huge interest because of its sensitive detection in various applications such as food analysis, biomedical diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Due to this, there is a manifold attention to develop rapidly prototyped and miniaturized devices for CLSA. In this context, herein, a novel CLSA appro...
Article
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This paper investigates the effect of metallization ratio and side shift on the performance of interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). The IDEs were modelled using normal mesh and adaptive mesh refinement techniques to investigate the modelling error. The performance parameters such as electric field distribution, crosstalk and penetration depth of IDEs...
Article
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A colorimetric paper-based enzyme-coupled antimony tin oxide nanoparticle (ATONP) nanobiosensor for selective detection of Cd2+ ions in clams and mussels is presented. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was immobilized on ATONPs via 16- phosphonohexadecanoic acid (16-PHA) to develop ATONP-ALP nanobiosensor. The biosensor was characterized using XPS, Raman...
Article
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A portable microfluidic device with highly sensitive enzyme nanoprobe (Fe3O4 MNPs–urease, average size 34.6 nm) was demonstrated for the analysis of heavy metals ions (Hg²⁺, Cd²⁺ and Pb²⁺) in fish gill and muscle tissue. The immobilized urease nanoprobe (Km = 0.05 mM) exhibited twofold sensitivity over the free enzyme assay (apparent Km = 0.1 mM)....
Article
A Polytyramine-alkanethiol based electrochemical capacitive immunosensor was developed for tetracycline (TC) antibiotic detection in water. Tyramine (TA) monomer was electropolymerized to get an insulating ultrathin polytyramine (PTA) film on the gold-coated silicon electrode (AuE). The PTA coated AuEs were incubated in 1-Dodecanethiol to get thiol...
Patent
The present disclosure relates to the field of molecular biology, particularly, to the field of isolation of nucleic acid from gram-negative bacteria. The present invention in an embodiment of the present invention the method involves initially preparing a suspended sample comprising a suspension of a bacterial sample. This suspended sample is then...
Article
We report a label-free biosensor for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 in potable water using a newly designed DNA sensing probe targeting the z3276 genetic marker. The surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) was functionalized with the novel sensing probe by covalent coupling using APTES as a crosslinker to fabricate the DNA sensor (d...
Article
We report a specific and sensitive method to improve the coupling of propidium monoazide (PMA) with DNA derived from killed cells of Escherichia coli using UV light of 365 nm. UV light of three different intensities mainly 2.4 × 10³, 4.8 × 10³, and 7.2 × 10³ μJ/cm² was applied to E. coli cells each for 1, 3, and 5 min. PMA was found to be successfu...
Chapter
Immunosensors are a class of biosensing devices that use different bioreceptors such as antibodies, adhirons and aptamers. Antibodies are widely used key molecules for the detection of various analytes as they have a specific analyte binding site. According to recent research, the disulfide linkage located at the hinge region of an antibody can be...
Article
Aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and dairy products is a major issue worldwide. Aflatoxin is a carcinogen that enters into the milk through animals feed. Here, Bacillus megaterium spores were immobilized on gold-coated chip followed by addition of pre-treated milk and the diacetate fluorescein as fluorogenic substrate. Fluorescence was measured s...
Article
A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based capacitive sensor for antibiotic detection in drinking water and milk has been developed on a gold coated silicon electrode (Au Electrode). The electrode was fabricated by electropolymerizing monomer resorcinol (RN) on Au surface in presence of sulphanilamide (SN) as a template molecule, to get insulated...
Article
Harvesting of roof-top rainwater is commonly practiced either for potable or other household purposes. We report a rapid method for concentration of microbial cells coupled with DNA extraction procedure that we subjected to xanQ-based quantitative PCR (abbreviated as CoDEX-qPCR, [Concentration of microbial cells, DNA Extraction and XanQ-based qPCR]...
Article
The colorimetric sensing technology has evolved into an essential tool for high-throughput analysis including portability and cost-effectiveness among available biomedical and agricultural screening approach. In this endeavor, the objective of work is to focus on the development of a field-portable instrument based on an Uniform Illumination Imagin...
Article
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Development of miniaturized sensitive techniques for the analysis of toxic mercury ions (Hg2+) in water is of immense interest due to public health concerns. A miniaturized colorimetric FeMNPs-AlOx probe was developed for rapid and selective detection of Hg2+ ions in drinking water with a significantly low limit of detection 0.1ng L-1. A linear wor...
Article
In the present work, a design of customized portable fluorescence imaging system was developed (in-house) to quantify the change in fluorescence emission of fungal toxin ochratoxin A (OTA). OTA is naturally fluorescent, and the fluorescence properties of OTA solutions depend on the pH, solvent polarity and the presence of ligand molecule. In this w...
Article
Advances in nanostructured materials have facilitated the development of novel sensitive techniques for detection of environmental and clinical analytes. There is immense need for development of devices that can detect analytes at concentrations as low as few pg mL⁻¹. The comparable size of nanostructured materials and biomolecules enabled the inte...
Article
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Small molecule toxins such as mycotoxins with low molecular weight are the most widely studied biological toxins. These biological toxins are responsible for food poisoning and have the potential to be used as biological warfare agents at the toxic dose. Due to the poisonous nature of mycotoxins, effective analysis techniques for quantifying their...
Chapter
Nanostructured metal oxides have opened innovative and exciting opportunities for exploring intracellular biosensing applications. Metal-oxides-based nanostructures such as zinc oxide/copper oxide (ZnO/CuO) is relatively a biosafe, biocompatible, and large surface area nanostructures with polar surface that can be used for biomedical applications....
Chapter
In recent years, there has been a great need for rapid, reliable, specific and sensitive techniques for environmental monitoring. Conventional analytical techniques for environmental monitoring involves high cost, skilled personnel and also often are not available for online detection. On the other hand, impedance-based electrochemical sensing has...
Article
A capacitive immunosensor for determination of sulphathaizole (STZ) has been developed on polymer coated indium tin oxide glass chip (ITO). The immunosensor chip was fabricated by polymerizing, ortho-phenylenediamine (oPD) on ITO followed by surface modification with anti-sulphathiazole antibody. The developed immunosensor chip was characterized by...
Article
A capacitive sensor for 2,4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid(2,4-D) determination in drinking water has been developed using molecularly imprinted polypyrrole on pencil graphite electrode (PGE). Molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) coated PGE was prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole via chronopotentiometry in the presence of 2,4-D as the template...
Chapter
An electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (EQCN), which provides real-time analysis of dynamic surface events, is a valuable tool for analyzing biomolecular interactions. EQCN biosensors are based on mass-sensitive measurements that can detect small mass changes caused by chemical binding to small piezoelectric crystals. Among the various biose...
Article
Full-text available
Mycotoxins are small (MW ~700 Da), toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungal species that readily colonize crops and contaminate them at both pre- and post-harvesting. Among all, aflatoxins (AFs) are mycotoxins of major significance due to their presence in common food commodities and the potential threat to human health worldwide. Based on th...
Article
With the increasing incidence and prevalence of antibiotic contamination in animal-derived food and drug resistance around the world, early and specific detection of antibiotic residues has garnered significant attention. Herein, for the first time, we devise a facile, label free and portable aptasensor for quantitative determination of Kanamycin (...
Article
The increasing incidences and routine monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in water samples, necessitates the development of selective yet sensitive biosensor for 17β-Estradiol (E2). Herein, we report a capacitive immunosensor for rapid and sensitive detection of (E2). The immunosensor was constructed by functionalizing the electrode...
Article
Full-text available
Antibiotics are widely used as bacteriostatic or bactericidal agents either to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Their abuse results in various side effects on the human health, environment and agriculture. The occurrence of bacterial “supra-infection” with tolerance to antibiotics has attracted the significant attention, mainly due to...
Chapter
The effective analysis of food contaminants, especially toxins, requires the development of innovative bioanalytical devices or biosensors that are precise, sensitive, specific, rapid, and easy to use to, in order to meet the increasing demand for legislative actions on food safety and control. Optical biosensors, are a powerful alternative to conv...
Article
The concept of DNA based stabilization of nanostructures to enhance the surface reactivity has been focus of great interest in the design of colorimetric aptaswitches. Whereas, colorimetric methodologies have limited sensitivity, this concept is rarely considered for other sensing approaches such as those based on the fluorescence detection. In thi...
Article
Full-text available
Waterborne diseases have emerged as global health problems and their rapid and sensitive detection in environmental water samples is of great importance. Bacterial identification and enumeration in water samples is significant as it helps to maintain safe drinking water for public consumption. Culture-based methods are laborious, time-consuming, an...
Article
The analysis of aflatoxins by fluorescence detection technique (FL) was successfully carried out on a miniaturized, easy to use device having arrays of microwells made on glass substrate. The device was fabricated using silicon-to-glass anodic bonding. ZnO was coated in the wells of the device and phosphonation was done in order to facilitate effec...
Article
Full-text available
We demonstrate for the first time, the development of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO₂) quenching based aptasensing platform for detection of target molecules. TiO₂ quench the fluorescence of FAM-labeled aptamer (fluorescein labeled aptamer) upon the non-covalent adsorption of fluorescent labeled aptamer on TiO₂ surface. When OTA interacts with...
Article
An ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is reported for the determination of carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA) in human serum. It was realized using a microplate reader using a 384-well plate. Monoclonal antibody (Ab) against CEA (1° Ab) acting as the capture probe was immobilized on zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in the for...
Article
A multi-platform detection based on hafnia nanoparticles (HfO2NPs) has been developed for immunosensing of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) as a model analyte. The fine-grained nanocrystal ceramic powder samples of HfO2NPs were prepared using a solution based chemical method by easily available laboratory reagents. Highly specific monoclonal antibody was immobi...
Article
A multi-platform detection based on hafnia nanoparticles (HfO2NPs) has been developed for immunosensing of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) as a model analyte. The fine-grained nanocrystal ceramic powder samples of HfO2NPs were prepared using a solution based chemical method by easily available laboratory reagents. Highly specific monoclonal antibody was immobi...
Article
This work presents an application of automatic flow based biosensor to detect binary (chlorpyriphos-oxon (CPO) and malaoxon (MO)) organophosphate (OP) mixtures in milk, based on artificial neural network (ANN). Genetically modified acetylcholinesterase (AChE) B394 and B4 were used as a biological recognition element for sensor development. AChE bin...
Article
In the presented work, a simple and sensitive impedimetric immunosensor based on silver (Ag) wire electrode for the detection of Escherichia coli microbial type culture collection-723 strain (E. coli MTCC 723) in water is reported. The sensor was constructed by functionalizing Ag-micro wire coupled with polyclonal antibodies of E. coli through se...
Article
Full-text available
A simple and efficient technique to synthesize ZnO-ZnAl2O4 composite nano-whiskers has been reported. The application of developed nano-whiskers for sensitive bio-analysis and efficient bio-catalysis is demonstrated. For the synthesis of nanostructured ZnO-ZnAl2O4, Zn and Al in the form of thin films were taken as starting materials. To synthesize...
Article
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Integration of a biosensor with a wireless network on the Android 4.2.1(Jelly Bean) platform has been demonstrated. The present study reports an android integrated user friendly Flow injection analysis-Enzyme thermistor (FIA-ET) urea biosensor system. This android-integrated biosensor system will facilitate enhanced consumer health and awareness al...
Article
Full-text available
A survey of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in packaged milk and infant formula milk samples in the Goan market, India, was conducted using high performance liquid chromatography, association of analytical communities approved commercial kit and a sensitive chemiluminescent sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 72 samples...
Article
Full-text available
There is a need for analytical methods capable of monitoring urea levels in urine for patients under clinical monitoring to appraise renal function. Herein, we present a practical method to quantify levels of urea in human urine samples using flow injection analysis-enzyme thermistor (FIA-ET) biosensor. The biosensor comprises a covalently immobili...
Article
Full-text available
Label-free detection technique based on impedance was investigated for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and aflatoxin M2 (AFM2) analysis in milk products. The impedance change resulting from antigen-antibody interaction was studied using a two-electrode setup made up of silver (Ag) wire. Processed milk such as drinking yogurt and flavored milk samples were anal...
Article
This review describes principles and features of thermal biosensors and microbiosensors in flow injection analysis. Examples are given that illustrate the great versatility and excellent operational stability offered by thermal biosensors. The examples are mostly from work with the original type of enzyme thermistor operating with an enzyme column,...
Article
Full-text available
A simple and practical visual detection method has been developed and described for the quantitative in-field analysis of organophosphates (OPs) and carbamate (CB) residues in drinking water using microplate reader. The method utilizes a sensitive alkaline phosphatase (ALP from calf intestine) immobilized silica (SiO2) micro-column. The inhibition...
Article
Full-text available
A sensitive fluorimetric ELISA was developed for the analysis of aflatoxins. The assay was performed in a 384 microwell plate, wherein high specificity monoclonal antibody against AFM1 (mAb-AFM1) was used as capture antibody and FITC conjugated secondary antibody was used for detection and quantification of the analyte. The linear range of the immu...
Article
Full-text available
A sensitive fluorimetric ELISA was developed for the analysis of aflatoxins. The assay was performed in a 384 microwell plate, wherein high specificity monoclonal antibody against AFM1 (mAb-AFM1) was used as capture antibody and FITC conjugated secondary antibody was used for detection and quantification of the analyte. The linear range of the immu...
Conference Paper
The widespread use of antibiotics within the farming industry is one of the factors that have been linked to the appearance of these residues in milk. A flow injection analysis-electrochemical quartz crystal nano-balance (FIA-EQCN) biosensor is presented for label free analysis of sulphadiazine residues in milk. The biosensor constituted a polyclon...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A highly sensitive and selective label-free impedimetric immunosensor based on silver (Ag) wire electrode for the detection aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in peanut is presented. The sensor was constructed by functionalizing Ag wire coupled with polyclonal antibodies of AFB1 through self assembled monolayers. The antigen–antibody interaction was analyzed by m...
Article
Among known pesticide groups, organophosphates (OPs) have grasped attention due to their hazardous nature and their applications as pesticides and chemical weapons. This work presents the development of cost-effective column based biosensor for detoxification of OPs in water and milk. Enzyme phosphotriesterase (PTE) was immobilized on an activated...
Article
a b s t r a c t A highly sensitive and selective label-free impedimetric immunosensor based on silver (Ag) wire elec-trode for the detection aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk is presented. The sensor was constructed by functionalizing Ag wire coupled with selective monoclonal antibodies of AFM1 through self assembled monolayers. The antigen–antibody inte...
Article
A highly sensitive and selective label-free impedimetric immunosensor based on silver (Ag) wire electrode for the detection aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk is presented. The sensor was constructed by functionalizing Ag wire coupled with selective monoclonal antibodies of AFM1 through self assembled monolayers. The antigen-antibody interaction was quant...
Article
This work describes the development of an automated flow-based biosensor that employs genetically modified acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes B394, B4 and wild type B131. The biosensor was based on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPE) that was integrated into a flow cell. Enzymes were immobilised on cobalt (II) phthalocyanine (CoPC) modified el...
Article
Full-text available
A simple, miniaturized microplate chemiluminescence assay for determination of methyl parathion (MP) was developed in 384-microwell plates. Zirconia (ZrO(2)) was added in microwell for adsorption of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The developed assay is based on inhibition of AChE by MP. A good dynamic range 0.008-1,000 ng/mL was obtained for MP with...
Article
An ultra-sensitive sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of AFM1 in milk. The assay involved the immobilization of rat monoclonal antibody of AFM1 in 384 microtiter plate to capture AFM1 antigen. This was detected by tracer secondary rabbit poly-clonal antibody labelled with horseradish peroxidase upon addition of a luminol-based substrate. Mi...
Article
Full-text available
An application of Flow Injection Analysis-Enzyme Thermistor (FIA-ET) has been presented here to determine free and total choline in commercially available milk, milk powder, and dietary supplement. The choline biosensor is based on the Choline oxidase (ChOx) and Catalase (CAT) enzymes co-immobilized on Controlled Pore Glass (CPG). The heat liberate...
Article
a b s t r a c t An ultra-sensitive sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of AFM1 in milk. The assay involved the immobilization of rat monoclonal antibody of AFM1 in 384 microtiter plate to capture AFM1 antigen. This was detected by tracer secondary rabbit poly-clonal antibody labelled with horseradish peroxidase upon addition of a luminol-bas...
Article
Urea in adulterated milk is one of the major health concern, it is especially harmful to pregnant women, children, and the sick. A sophisticated and reliable detection system is needed to replace current diagnostic tools for the urea in the milk. In this work, we report a flow injection analysis-enzyme thermistor (FIA-ET) bio-sensing system for mon...
Article
Full-text available
A rapid, high-sensitivity, chemiluminescence (CL) enzyme assay for the determination of organophosphate (OP) residues in milk is presented. The assay for quantification of OP residues in milk is based on the inhibition of enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). BuChE was stabilized and preloaded in 384 well plates at 30 °C. The assay permits rapid de...
Article
Full-text available
A highly sensitive and specific enzyme inhibition assay based on alcohol oxidase (AlOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for determination of mercury Hg(II) in water samples has been presented. This article describes the optimization and miniaturization of an enzymatic assay using a chemiluminescence reaction. The analytical performance and detecti...