# Suguru EndoNippon Telegraph and Telephone · NTT computer and data science laboratories

Suguru Endo

Doctor of Philosophy

## About

63

Publications

5,485

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5,586

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Citations since 2017

Introduction

## Publications

Publications (63)

Analog and digital quantum simulators can efficiently simulate quantum many-body systems that appear in natural phenomena. However, experimental limitations of near-term devices still make it challenging to perform the entire process of quantum simulation. The purification-based quantum simulation methods can alleviate the limitations in experiment...

Simulating large quantum systems is the ultimate goal of quantum computing. Variational quantum simulation (VQS) gives us a tool to achieve the goal in near-term devices by distributing the computation load to both classical and quantum computers. However, as the size of the quantum system becomes large, the execution of VQS becomes more and more c...

Quantum error correction and quantum error detection necessitate syndrome measurements to detect errors. Syndrome measurements need to be performed for each stabilizer generator with single-shot measurements, which can be a significant overhead, considering the fact that the readout fidelity is generally lower than gate fidelity in the current quan...

Quantum metrology with entangled resources aims to achieve sensitivity beyond the standard quantum limit by harnessing quantum effects even in the presence of environmental noise. So far, sensitivity has been mainly discussed from the viewpoint of reducing statistical errors under the assumption of perfect knowledge of a noise model. However, we ca...

The rotation symmetric bosonic code (RSBC) is a unified framework of practical bosonic codes that have rotation symmetries, such as cat codes and binomial codes. While cat codes achieve the break-even point in which the coherence time of the encoded qubits exceeds that of unencoded qubits, with binomial codes nearly approaching that point, the stat...

For quantum computers to successfully solve real-world problems, it is necessary to tackle the challenge of noise: the errors which occur in elementary physical components due to unwanted or imperfect interactions. The theory of quantum fault tolerance can provide an answer in the long term, but in the coming era of `NISQ' machines we must seek to...

Approximation based on perturbation theory is the foundation for most of the quantitative predictions of quantum mechanics, whether in quantum many-body physics, chemistry, quantum field theory, or other domains. Quantum computing provides an alternative to the perturbation paradigm, yet state-of-the-art quantum processors with tens of noisy qubits...

The inevitable accumulation of errors in near-future quantum devices represents a key obstacle in delivering practical quantum advantages, motivating the development of various quantum error-mitigation methods. Here, we derive fundamental bounds concerning how error-mitigation algorithms can reduce the computation error as a function of their sampl...

Simulating large quantum systems is the ultimate goal of quantum computing. Variational quantum simulation (VQS) gives us a tool to achieve the goal in near-term devices by distributing the computation load to both classical and quantum computers. However, as the size of the quantum system becomes large, the execution of VQS becomes more and more c...

Correlated electron materials, such as superconductors and magnetic materials, are regarded as fascinating targets in quantum computing. However, the quantitative resources, specifically the number of quantum gates and qubits, required to perform a quantum algorithm to simulate correlated electron materials remain unclear. In this study, we estimat...

One of the major challenges for erroneous quantum computers is undoubtedly the control over the effect of noise. Considering the rapid growth of available quantum resources that are not fully fault tolerant, it is crucial to develop practical hardware-friendly quantum error mitigation (QEM) techniques to suppress unwanted errors. Here, we propose a...

In the early years of fault-tolerant quantum computing (FTQC), it is expected that the available code distance and the number of magic states will be restricted due to the limited scalability of quantum devices and the insufficient computational power of classical decoding units. Here, we integrate quantum error correction and quantum error mitigat...

Correlated electron materials, such as superconductors and magnetic materials, are regarded as fascinating targets in quantum computing. However, the quantitative resources, specifically the number of quantum gates and qubits, required to perform a quantum algorithm for the correlated electron materials remain unclear. In this study, we estimate th...

The Gibbs partition function is an important quantity in describing statistical properties of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium. There are several proposals to calculate the partition functions on near-term quantum computers. However, the existing schemes require many copies of the Gibbs states to perform an extrapolation for the calculation of...

Variational quantum algorithms (VQAs) have been considered to be useful applications of noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices. Typically, in VQAs, a parametrized ansatz circuit is used to generate a trial wave function, and the parameters are optimized to minimize a cost function. On the other hand, blind quantum computing (BQC) has been...

Quantum metrology with entangled resources aims to achieve sensitivity scaling beyond the standard quantum limit by harnessing quantum effects even in the presence of environmental noise. So far, scaling has been mainly discussed from the viewpoint of reducing statistical errors under the assumption of perfect knowledge of a noise model. However, w...

The hybrid tensor network approach allows us to perform calculations on systems larger than the scale of a quantum computer. However, when calculating transition amplitudes, there is the problem that the number of terms to be measured increases exponentially with that of the contracted operators. This problem is caused by the fact that the contract...

The Gibbs partition function is an important quantity in describing statistical properties of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium. There are several proposals to calculate the partition functions on near-team quantum computers. However, the existing schemes require many copies of the Gibbs states to perform an extrapolation for the calculation of...

A Boltzmann machine is a powerful tool for modeling probability distributions that govern the training data. A thermal equilibrium state is typically used for the Boltzmann machine learning to obtain a suitable probability distribution. The Boltzmann machine learning consists of calculating the gradient of the loss function given in terms of the th...

The inevitable accumulation of errors in near-future quantum devices represents a key obstacle in delivering practical quantum advantage. This motivated the development of various quantum error mitigation protocols, each representing a method to extract useful computational output by combining measurement data from multiple samplings of the availab...

Applications such as simulating complicated quantum systems or solving large-scale linear algebra problems are very challenging for classical computers, owing to the extremely high computational cost. Quantum computers promise a solution, although fault-tolerant quantum computers will probably not be available in the near future. Current quantum de...

One of the major challenges for erroneous quantum computers is undoubtedly the control over the effect of noise. Considering the rapid growth of available quantum resources that are not fully fault-tolerant, it is crucial to develop practical hardware-friendly strategies to suppress unwanted errors. Here, we propose a novel generalized quantum subs...

Variational quantum algorithms (VQAs) have been considered to be useful applications of noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices. Typically, in the VQAs, a parametrized ansatz circuit is used to generate a trial wave function, and the parameters are optimized to minimize a cost function. On the other hand, blind quantum computing (BQC) has b...

Approximations based on perturbation theory are the basis for most of the quantitative predictions of quantum mechanics, whether in quantum field theory, many-body physics, chemistry or other domains. Quantum computing provides an alternative to the perturbation paradigm, but the tens of noisy qubits currently available in state-of-the-art quantum...

Quantum algorithms have been developed for efficiently solving linear algebra tasks. However, they generally require deep circuits and hence universal fault-tolerant quantum computers. In this work, we propose variational algorithms for linear algebra tasks that are compatible with noisy intermediate-scale quantum devices. We show that the solution...

The hybrid tensor network approach allows us to perform calculations on systems larger than the scale of a quantum computer. However, when calculating transition amplitudes, there is a problem that the number of terms to be measured increases exponentially with that of contracted operators. The problem is caused by the fact that the contracted oper...

Stochastic differential equations (SDEs), which model uncertain phenomena as the time evolution of random variables, are exploited in various fields of natural and social sciences such as finance. Since SDEs rarely admit analytical solutions and must usually be solved numerically with huge classical-computational resources in practical applications...

Quantum magnetic field sensing is an important technology for material science and biology. Although experimental imperfections affect the sensitivity, repetitions of the measurements decrease the estimation uncertainty by a square root of the total number of the measurements if there are only statistical errors. However, it is difficult to precise...

Quantum computers can exploit a Hilbert space whose dimension increases exponentially with the number of qubits. In experiment, quantum supremacy has recently been achieved by the Google team by using a noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) device with over 50 qubits. However, the question of what can be implemented on NISQ devices is still not f...

Quantum error mitigation (QEM) is vital for noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices. While most conventional QEM schemes assume discrete gate-based circuits with noise appearing either before or after each gate, the assumptions are inappropriate for describing realistic noise that may have strong gate dependence and complicated nonlocal eff...

Quantum error mitigation (QEM) has been proposed as an alternative method of quantum error correction to compensate errors in quantum systems without qubit overhead. While Markovian gate errors on digital quantum computers have been mainly considered previously, it is indispensable to discuss a relationship between QEM and non-Markovian errors beca...

Applications such as simulating large quantum systems or solving large-scale linear algebra problems are immensely challenging for classical computers due their extremely high computational cost. Quantum computers promise to unlock these applications, although fault-tolerant quantum computers will likely not be available for several years. Currentl...

Stochastic differential equations (SDE), which models uncertain phenomena as the time evolution of random variables, are exploited in various fields of natural and social sciences such as finance. Since SDEs rarely admit analytical solutions and must usually be solved numerically with huge classical-computational resources in practical applications...

Quantum computers can exploit a Hilbert space whose dimension increases exponentially with the number of qubits. In experiment, quantum supremacy has recently been achieved by the Google team by using a noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) device with over 50 qubits. However, the question of what can be implemented on NISQ devices is still not f...

Fault-tolerant quantum computing (FTQC) implements universal quantum computing while suppressing physical errors via quantum error correction. Although the effective error rate decreases exponentially with the code distance, it is expected that the number of available physical qubits is restricted even after FTQC is realized in some form. Meanwhile...

Quantum error mitigation (QEM) has been proposed as an alternative method of quantum error correction (QEC) to compensate errors in quantum systems without qubit overhead. While Markovian gate errors on digital quantum computers are mainly considered previously, it is indispensable to discuss a relationship between QEM and non-Markovian errors beca...

The Green's function plays a crucial role when studying the nature of quantum many-body systems, especially strongly correlated systems. Although the development of quantum computers in the near future may enable us to compute energy spectra of classically intractable systems, methods to simulate the Green's function with near-term quantum algorith...

Quantum technologies exploit entanglement to enhance various tasks beyond their classical limits including computation, communication and measurements. Quantum metrology aims to increase the precision of a measured quantity that is estimated in the presence of statistical errors using entangled quantum states. We present a novel approach for findin...

Boltzmann machine is a powerful tool for modeling probability distributions that govern the training data. A thermal equilibrium state is typically used for Boltzmann machine learning to obtain a suitable probability distribution. The Boltzmann machine learning consists of calculating the gradient of the loss function given in terms of the thermal...

Variational quantum algorithms have been proposed to solve static and dynamic problems of closed many-body quantum systems. Here we investigate variational quantum simulation of three general types of tasks—generalized time evolution with a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian, linear algebra problems, and open quantum system dynamics. The algorithm for gener...

One of the most promising suggested applications of quantum computing is solving classically intractable chemistry problems. This may help to answer unresolved questions about phenomena such as high temperature superconductivity, solid-state physics, transition metal catalysis, and certain biochemical reactions. In turn, this increased understandin...

We explore the problem of projecting the ground-state of an ultra-strong-coupled circuit-QED system into a non-energy-eigenstate. As a measurement apparatus we consider a nonlinear driven resonator. We find that the post-measurement state of the nonlinear resonator exhibits a large correlation with the post-measurement state of the ultra-strongly c...

Analog quantum simulation has been proposed as an efficient approach for probing classically intractable many-body physics. In contrast to digital, gate-based quantum simulation, the analog approach involves configuring the quantum hardware to directly mimic the physics of the target system. This reduces the level of control required and can offer...

The variational method is a versatile tool for classical simulation of a variety of quantum systems. Great efforts have recently been devoted to its extension to quantum computing for efficiently solving static many-body problems and simulating real and imaginary time dynamics. In this work, we first review the conventional variational principles,...

The Green's function plays a crucial role to study the nature of quantum many-body systems, especially strongly-correlated systems. Although the development of quantum computers in near term is expected to enable us to compute energy spectrum and energy eigenstates of such classically-intractable systems, the methods to simulate the Green's functio...

Quantum algorithms have been developed for efficiently solving linear algebra tasks. However they generally require deep circuits and therefore universal fault-tolerant quantum computers. In this work, we propose variational algorithms for linear algebra tasks that are compatible with Noisy Intermediate Scaled Quantum devices. We show that the solu...

Imaginary time evolution is a powerful tool for studying quantum systems. While it is possible to simulate with a classical computer, the time and memory requirements generally scale exponentially with the system size. Conversely, quantum computers can efficiently simulate quantum systems, but not non-unitary imaginary time evolution. We propose a...

Quantum technologies exploit entanglement to enhance various tasks beyond their classical limits including computation, communication and measurements. Quantum metrology aims to increase the precision of a measured quantity that is estimated in the presence of statistical errors using entangled quantum states. We present a novel approach for findin...

Calculating the energy spectrum of a quantum system is an important task, for example to analyze reaction rates in drug discovery and catalysis. There has been significant progress in developing algorithms to calculate the ground state energy of molecules on near-term quantum computers. However, calculating excited state energies has attracted comp...

Quantum computers can efficiently simulate many-body systems. As a widely used Hamiltonian simulation tool, the Trotter-Suzuki scheme splits the evolution into the number of Trotter steps N and approximates the evolution of each step by a product of exponentials of each individual term of the total Hamiltonian. The algorithmic error due to the appr...

The variational method is a versatile tool for classical simulation of a variety of quantum systems. Great efforts have recently been devoted to its extension to quantum computing for efficiently solving static many-body problems and simulating real and imaginary time dynamics. In this work, we first review the conventional variational principles,...

Hybrid variational quantum algorithms have been proposed for simulating many-body quantum systems with shallow quantum circuits, and are therefore relevant to Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum devices. These algorithms are often discussed as a means to solve static energy spectra and simulate the dynamics of real and imaginary time evolutions. Here...

One of the most promising applications of quantum computing is solving classically intractable chemistry problems. As a result, quantum computational chemistry is rapidly emerging as an interdisciplinary field requiring knowledge of both quantum information and computational chemistry. This work provides a comprehensive introduction to both fields,...

Quantum computers can efficiently simulate many-body systems. As a widely used Hamiltonian simulation tool, the Trotter-Suzuki scheme splits the evolution into the number of Trotter steps $N$ and approximates the evolution of each step by a product of exponentials of each individual term of the total Hamiltonian. The algorithmic error due to the ap...

Calculating the energy spectrum of a quantum system is an important task, for example to analyse reaction rates in drug discovery and catalysis. There has been significant progress in developing algorithms to calculate the ground state energy of molecules on near-term quantum computers. However, calculating excited state energies has attracted comp...

Imaginary time evolution is a powerful tool in the study of many-body quantum systems. While it is conceptually simple to simulate such evolution with a classical computer, the time and memory requirements scale exponentially with the system size. Conversely, quantum computers can efficiently simulate many-body quantum systems, but the non-unitary...

It is vital to minimise the impact of errors for near-future quantum devices that will lack the resources for full fault tolerance. Two quantum error mitigation (QEM) techniques have been introduced recently, namely error extrapolation [Li 2017,Temme 2017] and quasi-probability decomposition [Temme 2017]. To enable practical implementation of these...

Single spin detection is a key objective in the field of metrology. There have been many experimental and theoretical investigations for the spin detection based on the use of probe spins. A probe spin shows the precession due to dipole-dipole interaction from a target spin, and measurement results of the probe spin allow us to estimate the state o...

In the ultra-strong coupling regime of a light-matter system, the ground state exhibits non-trivial entanglement between the atom and photons. For the purposes of exploring the measurement and control of this ground state, here we analyze the dynamics of such an ultra-strongly-coupled system interacting with a driven nonlinear resonator acting as a...

A long-lived qubit is usually well-isolated from all other systems and the
environments, and so is not easy to couple with measurement apparatus. It is
sometimes difficult to implement reliable projective measurements on such a
qubit. One potential solution is spin amplification with many ancillary qubits.
Here, we propose a spin amplification tech...