Subhash Babu

Subhash Babu
Indian Agricultural Research Institute | IARI · Division of Agronomy

Ph.D. (Agronomy)
Looking for collaborative research on designing climate-resilient agri-food production and C managt. in agro-ecosystem.

About

329
Publications
212,882
Reads
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2,115
Citations
Citations since 2016
271 Research Items
2019 Citations
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Introduction
Dr. Subhash Babu currently works at the Division of Agronomy, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (India). Subhash does research in Designing of Integrated Farming Systems, Organic Farming, Sustainable intensification, Soil fertility Management. Climate change mitigation in agriculture, Carbon sequestration.
Additional affiliations
April 2011 - December 2020
ICAR Research Complex for North Eastern Hill Region
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • Designing of Integrated Farming Systems for livelihood improvements of hill farmers, Organic Farming, Cropping systems, and crop diversification. Conservation Agriculture. Carbon Management in Agroecosystem. Farmers participatory research.
Education
August 2007 - April 2011
August 2005 - July 2007
Banaras Hindu University
Field of study
  • Agronomy
July 2000 - June 2004

Publications

Publications (329)
Article
The contribution of soil to supporting, regulating, provisioning and cultural functions as well as its role in the ecosystem services is well-known in the international literature. However, in the domain of organic agriculture, the impact of cropping systems shifts from cereal-cereal to high-frequency diversified cropping sequences with legume as a...
Article
Full-text available
Appropriate land configuration and assured nutrient supply are prerequisites for quality organic baby corn (Zea mays L.) production in high rainfall areas of the delicate Eastern Himalayan Region of India. A long term (5-year) study was conducted during 2012-2016 on a sandy loam soil in the mid attitude of Sikkim, Eastern Himalayan Region of India...
Article
Globally, various estimates are available on the above-ground (plant parts) carbon (C) sequestering potential of agroforestry systems (AFSs). However, information on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential is limited for AFSs. Furthermore, the impacts of AFSs established for the restoration of C in degraded soils (prone to soil erosion, C...
Article
Achieving a circular economic model in agriculture and meeting the food requirement of the growing population is a global challenge. The task is much more daunting in the Eastern Himalaya where low productive maize–fallow is a predominant production system. To enhance system productivity and energy use efficiency while maintaining environmental sus...
Article
Land use management exerts a tenacious impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics; however, the impact varies with climate, soils, and management practices. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of changes in SOC pools and its fractions is necessary to reduce carbon (C) emissions and adopt efficient land use planning for sustainable soil managemen...
Article
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In fragile ecosystems, smallholder pig production systems provide food and nutritional security to resource-poor communities. Pigs are the main livestock raised by indigenous communities in the Himalayan region of India, but their productivity is low for several reasons. The present study aimed to study the pig herd size and to evaluate the impact...
Article
Food security and environmental health are directly linked with soil carbon (C). Soil C plays a crucial role in securing food and livelihood security for the Himalayan population besides maintaining the ecological balance in the Indian Himalayas. However, soil C is being severely depleted due to anthropogenic activities. It is well known that land...
Article
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Globally, excess soil nutrient mining is a serious challenge to sustainable agricultural production. The task is more daunting in the semi-arid region of the globe. In addition to the primary nutrient deficiency over the mining of secondary nutrients, especially sulfur is an emerging challenge in contemporary crop production systems. Hence, there i...
Article
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Achieving an economically feasible and environmentally robust model in agriculture while satisfying the expanding population's food demands is a global challenge. Hence, a three-year (2014-2017) study was conducted at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana to design environmentally clean, energy-efficient, and profitable cropping systems. Twelve...
Article
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The inherent complexity of dominated rainfed hill agro-ecosystems (>80% of total crop acreage) in northeastern region (NER) of India mostly relies on indigenous farming techniques. Rice-based cropping system predominates in NER except for Sikkim, where maize-based cropping system is most popular. The traditional crop cultivation in NER comprises mo...
Article
Soil degradation, carbon depletion, and resource degradation have questioned the sustainability of rice -wheat system (RWS) of South Asia. Therefore, we assessed the changes in soil physical properties and carbon pool in a ten-year old CA system undertaken in a clayey loam soil. Results revealed that a triple zero-tillage (TZT) system with crops re...
Article
Full-text available
Low productivity, income, and degradation of soil fertility are the key characteristics of the primitive practice of jhum farming (shifting cultivation) due to no fertilizer/manure application and lack of conservation measures. Thus, the objective of the study was to identify suitable maize-based intercropping and sequential cropping systems for hi...
Article
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Direct-seeded rice (DSR) can be a resource-efficient alternative to puddled transplanted rice (PTR), but weeds and nematodes pose severe challenges. Conservation agriculture (CA)-based DSR may inhibit/influence weeds/nematodes, which can be further intensified by adopting better weed control. Hence, this experiment was undertaken. Five CA-based DSR...
Article
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Around 3 billion people were unable to afford a healthy diet in 2019 because of poverty and inequlaity. Most of these people live in Asia and Africa. Furthermore, 30% of world population was affected by moderate to severe food insecurity in 2020, and most of this population lives in low- and middle-income countries. The world is at critical junctur...
Article
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Excess use of hazardous agrochemicals and inorganic fertilizers resulted negative impact on environmental outcomes and degraded soil function, biological diversity, and ecosystem services. A 15-year long-term (2004-05 to 2017-18) field experiment was conducted to improve the ecosystem services with soil quality restoration and stabilization of yiel...
Article
The Himalayan ecosystem is critical for ecological security and environmental sustainability. However, continuous deforestation is posing a serious threat to Himalayan sustainability. Changing land-use systems exert a tenacious impact on soil carbon (C) dynamics and regulate C emissions from the Himalayan ecosystem. Therefore, this study was conduc...
Article
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Environmental crises, land degradation, and frequent crop failure threaten the livelihoods of millions of the populace in the semi-arid agroecosystems. Therefore, different combinations of annual crops with fruit trees were assessed to restore the soil carbon, and enhance farm productivity and profitability in a semi-arid climate. The study hypothe...
Article
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Food security and soil sustainability are the prime challenges to researchers and policy planners across the globe. The task is much more daunting in the fragile ecosystem of the Eastern Himalayan region of India. Soil disturbance from conventional tillage reduces soil productivity and is not sustainable and environmentally friendly. Conservation t...
Article
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Climate change impacts agricultural productivity and farmers’ income, integrated farming systems (IFS) provide a mechanism to cope with such impacts. The nature and extent of climatic aberrations, perceived impact, and adaptation strategies by the farmers reduce the adverse effects of climate change on agriculture. Therefore, a study was conducted...
Preprint
Full-text available
Delayed sowing of maize hybrids could exacerbate the capability of maximizing the yield potential through poor crop stand, root proliferation, nutrient uptake, and dry matter accumulation coupled with the inadequate partitioning of the assimilates. This study appraised the performance of five recent maize hybrids viz., PMH-1, PJHM-1, AH-4158, AH-42...
Article
Due to depleting water supplies and the cultivation of high water-demanding crops like rice, water deficit in crop production has become a major concern, especially in semi-arid regions of South Asia. Soybean has been considered a possible substitution for high-water-demand crops with improved water productivity and nutrient quality. However, due t...
Article
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Soil quality restoration and crop productivity maximization are the global challenges to feeding the galloping population. The task is much more daunting in a risk-prone, fragile, and low-productive hilly region due to the depletion of supporting and regulating ecosystem services. A five-year long-term (2012-2017) field experiment was conducted to...
Article
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The sustainability of conventional rice (Oryza sativa L.) production systems is often questioned due to the over-mining of groundwater and environmental degradation. This has led to the development of cost-effective, resource-efficient, and environmentally clean rice production systems by optimizing water and nitrogen (N) use. Hence, a 2-year field...
Conference Paper
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In India, more than 85% farmers are smallholders and more than 100 million farmers are working on an average 0.38 hectare (ha) land (MoA& FW, 2019). Most of the world’s hungry and disadvantaged people reside on tiny farms and struggle to survive on insufficient amounts of land using low input/ low yield methods (Hazell and Rahman, 2014). The use of...
Article
The conventional agricultural production systems are facing multiple challenges of yield plateauing, low farm profitability, energy intensiveness, unemployment, and environmental unsustainability. Hence, four production scenarios viz., integrated organic management, integrated crop management, conservation agriculture, and conventional system and t...
Preprint
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Environmental crises, declining factor productivity, and shrinking natural resource is a threat to global agricultural sustainability. The task is much more daunting in the Indo-Gangetic northern plains of India, where depletion of the underground water table and erratic rains due to the changing climate pose a major challenge to agriculture. To ad...
Article
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Environmental crises, declining factor productivity, and shrinking natural resource is a threat to global agricultural sustainability. The task is much more daunting in the Indo-Gangetic northern plains of India, where depletion of the underground water table and erratic rains due to the changing climate pose a major challenge to agriculture. To ad...
Article
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Global food security, environmental preservation as well as farmer’s level increased livelihood should be the main goals of a sustainable farming system in today’s world plagued by degraded soils as a result of unsustainable crop management practices (Kumar et al., 2018). Under conservation agriculture (CA), a special attention has been given to cr...
Article
Carbon is the element of life due to the nature of it, being found in plants, animals and humans. Carbon is a basic component of agriculture because it plays dynamic roles in crop species growth, development, nutrient cycling, soil fertility qualities, and other positive elements. Presence of soil carbon enhances physical, chemical, and biological...
Article
Globally agricultural production system generates a huge amount of solid waste. Improper agri-waste management causes environmental pollution which resulted in economic losses and human health-related problems. Hence, there is an urgent need to design and develop eco-friendly, cost-effective, and socially acceptable agri-waste management technologi...
Article
Indian mustard is one of the most important oilseed crop in India as it contributes maximally in domestic edible oil production. Inclusion of Indian mustard in cereal based cropping system is increasingly felt due to its beneficial effect in the system and comparatively lesser requirement of resources, hence lesser environmental footprints. To asse...
Article
Soil carbon (C) loss is the prime sign of land degradation, and C pools have a great impact on soil quality and climate change mitigation. Hence, a field experiment was conducted for three consecutive years to assess the impact of crop intensification and conservation tillage practices on changes in the C pool at different soil depths of marginal l...
Article
Full-text available
Eight ICM practices were evaluated for six years consecutively; wherein, ICM1&2- ˈbusiness-as-usualˈ (conventional transplanted rice fb flatbed wheat), ICM3&4- conventional direct seeded rice (DSR) fb furrow irrigated raised-bed wheat without residues, ICM5&6- conservation agriculture (CA)-based zero tilled (ZT) DSR fb ZT wheat with the wheat and r...
Article
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Azolla is a free-floating fern that grows in temperate and tropical climates. As fern cavity dorsal leaves are specialised for storing atmospheric nitrogen (N), cyanobacteria fix the N in the atmosphere.
Article
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Land degradation due to heavy erosion in steep slopes, soil acidity, faulty cultivation practices and poor nutrient management practices are the major challenges in the North Eastern Hill Region (NEHR) of India. Thus, there is an urgent need to adopt conservation effective farming practices to achieve food and nutritional security in one hand and s...
Conference Paper
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In present-day world, buyers and consumers are much more conscious about their health and hygiene than past. The consumers are changing their behavior towards personal hygiene & nutritional and quality food products. Thus, demand for food quality, safety & health consciousness, environmental quality and ecosystem services are on rise and that’s whe...
Chapter
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Natural and organically produced commodities are a unique feature of the North Eastern Region (NER) of India that still has not reached their full potential. Addressing the gaps that prevent natural, traditional and organic produce of the NER from leveraging the global market can provide significant economic gains and employment generation for the...
Article
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Inadequate nutrient management is one of the major challenges for sustainable soybean production in semi-arid climatic conditions. Hence, a 3-year (2015–2017) field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of foliar application of macro-and micronutrients on the growth, productivity, and profitability of soybean. Eight foliar nutrient sprays a...
Article
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How to efficiently utilize the irrigation as well as rain water in zaid crops using various improved agricultural techniques.
Article
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Mulch enhances soil fertility by preventing moisture loss, maintaining soil temperature, suppressing weed growth, facilitating microbial growth, preventing soil erosion and compaction. Mulching is recommended in potato cultivation because of its ability to conserve soil moisture. Organic and inorganic mulches are commonly used in potato production....
Preprint
Sustainability of agroecosystems is the most challenging task for humans in this anthropocentric era. The faulty agriculture practices and several undesirable anthropological factors caused substantial soil erosion, desertification, and soil dryness, resulting in a severe decline in soil biodiversity and crop productivity. The mismanagement of agri...
Article
Full-text available
Soil is an essentially limited natural resource that natural and human-induced processes have both generated and damaged. Soil degradation has become one of the most crucial socio-economic and environmental problems since it produces deterioration in productivity and quality of soil resources. Soil erosion, a natural phenomenon that causes degradat...
Article
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Weeds pose a serious threat in achieving sustainable and profitable crop production. South Asia, as both a major food-producing and consuming region, needs a linear increase in food grain production. Among the several methods of weed management practice, herbicides are the most cost-effective and timely solution. Rice and wheat are the major staple...
Article
Full-text available
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate agrometeorological parameters associated with seed yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) varieties in an organic production system. During the study, significant variation was recorded in crop phenophases, growth, yield attributes, and seed yield of mustard. Varieties NRCHB-101 and Pusa Mustard-25...
Article
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Aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) flourishes well under dry situations and caters a favorable option to solve the emerging water crisis in agricultural production. Water scarcity is touted as a grave concern in various rice-growing areas of the world, leading to the introduction of water-saving aerobic rice, which is direct-seeded in non-puddled, non-...
Article
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To utilize the rice (Oryza sativa L.) fallow land of the northeastern region (NER) of India and enhance the cropping intensity, a set of lentil (Lens culinaris) genotypes/varieties were evaluated for heat requirement and use efficiency under 2 thermal regimes in Tripura [altitude of 52 m ASL (meter above sea level)] were sown under two thermal regi...
Article
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Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world's population. Rice accounts for 35-75% of the calorie intake by more than 3 billion people in Asia (Khush, 2010). NorthEastern India is considered to be one of the gem baskets of rice genetic resources in the world. It is a potential rice-growing region, with extremely diverse rice-growing con...
Book
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Theme 1: Climate Resilient Agriculture and Ecosystem Services .. 1591 Theme 2: Integrated Farming Systems for Sustainable Peasant Economy .. 1703 Theme 3: Conservation Agricultural, Smart Mechanization and Energy Use .. 1763 Theme 4: Agronomic Innovation for Tapping Genetic Potential .. 1829 Theme 5: Soil-Plant-Animal and Human Health Continuum .....
Article
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The article presents the findings of three-year field experiments conducted during 2017–2020 on the productivity, economics, and environmental footprints of the oilseed Brassica (OSB) with species diversification and crop geometry alterations in semi-arid regions of India. The objective of the field experimentation was to assess the system of musta...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Sikkim has been facing the effect of climate change with rise in diurnal temperatures and changes in the rainfall pattern and also variation and/or decrease in the total annual rainfall. The winter rainfall has almost ceased in the State while the number of rainy days have also reduced. All these adversely affect the crop production and productivit...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Organic farming practiced in Sikkim is perhaps the most suitable option under the backdrop of low use of external inputs by the farmers of Sikkim. All the technological options for sustainable organic farming vis-à-vis crop varieties, crop nutrition, crop protection and efficient utilization of scarce water during the Rabi season are available with...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Sikkim Centre (ICAR-National Organic Farming Research Institute), Tadong, Gangtok worked on the development of a gamut of technologies for the mitigation of climate change, increasing the cropping intensity and the improvement of livelihood of farmers in Sikkim which was demonstrated through the team of Kri...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Field experiments were conducted to evaluate eight different integrated crop management (ICM) modules for 5 years in a maize-wheat rotation (MWR); wherein, ICM1&2-ˈbusiness-as-usualˈ (conventional flatbed maize and wheat, ICM3&4-conventional raised bed (CTRB) maize and wheat without residues, ICM5&6-conservation agriculture (CA)-based zero...
Chapter
The ecosystems are the basis for maintaining overall balance and sustainability in food production system or more specifically in agricultural production system through its diverse services rendered to human kinds. The raising of the crops is also the predominant land use system across the world and the faulty practices are leading to degradation o...
Article
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A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2020–21 to study the effect of different production systems on the yield and economics of mustard varieties. The seed yield of the mustard crop was significantly high under ICM (2259.0 kg/ha), while maximum stover (7950 kg/ ha) and biological yield (9936 kg/ha) was recorded under CA. Among the mustar...
Article
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Maize (Zea maize L.) is grown for human food, animal fodder, and chicken feed in India's Northwestern Himalayan Region (NWHR), which covers over 0.33 million hectares of cultivated land. In the NWHR of India, substantial soil erosion is a major challenge in maize production, resulting in low rainfed maize productivity. During the peak rainy season...
Article
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The comprehensive use of organic, inorganic, and biological components of nutrient management in rice ecologies can potentially address the twin challenges of declining factor productivity and deteriorating soil health. A field study was thus conducted at Varanasi, India during the year 2013–14 and 2014–15 to assess the effect of the recommended do...
Article
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Sikkim's farming practices are predominantly valley/foothills and terraced slopes. Several crops are grown in the region depending on the farming style, eating patterns, and weather circumstances. Rice is the most common and staple food crop among cereals, accounting for 64.9 % of net planted area. The next most important crops are maize and tiny m...
Article
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A field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of ICAR RC for NEH Region, Sikkim Centre, Tadong during 2019-20 and 2020-21. The treatments comprised of ten sesame cultivars viz., VRI-3, TMV-7, VRI-1, VRI-2, Prachi, Amrit, Swetha, DS-5, DS-9, GT-10 and laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The results showed...
Article
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Weeds are a huge serious challenge in organic farming all over the world. Weeds create higher agricultural production losses (30-40%) than other agricultural pests around the world. Sikkim is India's first totally organic state. Weeds are cited by farmers as the most serious production issue they face, and entire crop losses from weeds can occur in...
Article
At presently farming of Sikkim is frontage several challenges for sustainability of natural resources, reduction of biodiversity, impact of climate change, declining factors productivity and profitability. In order to create new agricultural technology and methods for farming communities that are possibly viable to generate appropriate employment a...
Article
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Adoption of suitable agri-hortisystem (AHS) and different level of deficit irrigation scheduling (DIS) can improve growth attributes and productivity of Indian mustard under residual soil moisture of semi-arid region. A field experiment was conducted in rabi season in the year 2020-21 at research farm of ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute...
Article
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of ginger-based intercropping systems under organic management conditions in the mid-hills of Sikkim Himalayas during the kharif and rabi season of 2021-22. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications.The experiment comprised seven ginger-based intercroppin...
Poster
Full-text available
Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czernj and Cosson) is one of the most important predominant rabi oilseed crops in India. Because of poor water management, mustard productivity in India is often lower than in other advanced countries. The majority of Indian mustard is grown under a deficit irrigation system (DIS), and it is frequently subjected t...
Article
Indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers in the agricultural production systems to keep pace with the food and nutritional demand of the galloping population had an adverse impact on ecosystem services and environmental quality. Hence, an alternative mechanism is to be developed to enhance farm production and environmental sustainability. A nanoh...
Article
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The North Eastern Region (NER) of India has tremendous potential for promotion of organic farming. Despite inherent nutrient deficits and supplementing these to harness higher land, water and crop productivity, low use of synthetic fertilizers (< 12.0 kg/ha) and chemicals are common in the north eastern hill ecosystems. The existing exhaustive agri...
Conference Paper
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Deficit irrigation management in mustard using drip under Agri-Horti system for enhancing profitability and productivity.
Article
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A field experiment was conducted for 4 years (2013-17) at Umiam, Meghalaya, India, to study the performance of different maize-based cropping sequences on permanent raised beds in valley lowland under a mid-hill altitude of NorthEast India. The treatment consisted of 9 maize-based cropping sequences (maize-greengram [Vigna ra-diata (L.) R. Wilczek]...
Article
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A field experiment was carried out in a split-plot design during the winter (rabi) season of 2020 at New Delhi, to evaluate the effect of the different agri-horti systems (AHS), viz. moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.), phalsa (Grewia asiatica L.), karonda or Carandas plum (Carissa carandas L.), aonla Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica L.) and guav...
Article
Oxidative stress owing to the low receipt of rainfall brought about production of excessive reactive oxygen species which in turn disrupted the cellular turgidity and functioning. Thus an experiment was conducted at the Instructional-Cum-Research (ICR) Farm of Department of Crop Physiology, Assam Agricultural University Jorhat, Assam during rabi se...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This is the extended summaries vol 1 of 5th International Agronomy Congress on Agri-Innovations to Combat Food and Nutrition Challenges organized by Indian Society of Agronomy, New Delhi 110 012, India from 23-27 November, 2021