Stuart Warmington

Stuart Warmington
Deakin University · School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences

PhD

About

58
Publications
37,483
Reads
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1,894
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2010 - present
Deakin University
Position
  • Researcher
June 2008 - present
Deakin University
Position
  • Lecturer in Exercise Physiology
September 1998 - June 2008
Trinity College Dublin
Position
  • Lecturer in Exercise Physiology

Publications

Publications (58)
Article
Introduction: Heart rate variability (HRV) has shown sensitivity to the acute stressors experienced by defence personnel. This study examines the suitability of overnight HRV as a repeated measure of allostatic load in defence personnel. Methods: Daily measures of sleep, cognitive load and perceived exertion were reported for the 12-week duratio...
Article
Objectives Examine Australian Football League (AFL) results for evidence that game-day circadian misalignment or environmental temperature influence games with competing teams from each of Western Australia (WA) and Victoria (VIC). Design Retrospective observational study. Methods Data were obtained for games (n = 791) contested by WA and VIC tea...
Article
Full-text available
Resistance-based blood flow restriction training (BFRT) improves skeletal muscle strength and size. Unlike heavy-load resistance training (HLRT), there is debate as to whether strength adaptations following BFRT interventions can be primarily attributed to concurrent muscle hypertrophy, as the magnitude of hypertrophy is often minor. The present st...
Article
Roberts, SSH, Aisbett, B, Teo, W-P, and Warmington, S. Monitoring effects of sleep extension and restriction on endurance performance using heart rate indices. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-Heart rate (HR) indices are useful for monitoring athlete fatigue or "readiness to perform." This study examined whether HR indices are sensitive to...
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Background: We investigated whether a brief cold water immersion between two cycling time trials (TT) improves the performance of the latter compared with passive and active recovery in normothermic conditions (~20°C). Methods: In Experiment 1 10 active participants (4 women) completed two 4-km TT (Ex1 and Ex2, each preceded by a 12 min moderate-in...
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Background Awareness of the cumulative stress placed on first responders and tactical operators is required to manage acute fatigue, which can impair occupational performance, and may precipitate negative chronic health outcomes. The aim of this review was to investigate the utility of heart rate variability (HRV) to monitor stress and allostatic l...
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Background Blood flow restriction exercise has increasingly broad applications among healthy and clinical populations. Ensuring the technique is applied in a safe, controlled, and beneficial way for target populations is essential. Individualised cuff pressures are a favoured method for achieving this. However, there remains marked inconsistency in...
Article
End stage kidney disease is associated with reduced exercise capacity, muscle atrophy and impaired muscle function. While these may be improved with exercise, single modalities of exercise do not traditionally elicit improvements across all required physiological domains. Blood flow restricted exercise may improve all of these physiological domains...
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Full-text available
The current manuscript sets out a series of guidelines for blood flow restriction exercise, focusing on the methodology, application and safety of this mode of training. With the emergence of this technique and the wide variety of applications within the literature, the aim of this review is to set out a current research informed guide to blood flo...
Article
This study investigated effects of total sleep deprivation on self-paced endurance performance, and heart rate (HR) indices of athletes' “readiness to perform”. Endurance athletes (n = 13) completed a crossover experiment comprising a normal sleep (NS) and sleep deprivation (SD) condition. Each required completion of an endurance time-trial (TT) on...
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Resistance training with blood flow restriction is typically performed during single exercises for the lower- or upper-body, which may not replicate real world programming. The present study examined the change in muscle strength and mass in a young healthy population during an 8-week whole body resistance training program, as well as monitoring th...
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PurposeNo current guidelines or recommendations exist informing the selection of restriction pressure during blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE). Moreover, the effects of specific relative restriction pressures on the acute muscle, metabolic and cardiopulmonary responses to BFRE are unclear. The purpose of this study was to characterize these ac...
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Background: Blood flow restriction or KAATSU exercise training is associated with greater muscle mass and strength increases than non-blood flow restriction equivalent exercise. Blood flow restriction exercise has been proposed as a possible alternative to more physically demanding exercise prescriptions (such as high-load/high-intensity resistance...
Article
Purpose: The cumulative influence of sleep time on endurance performance remains unclear. This study examined effects of three consecutive nights of both sleep extension and restriction on endurance cycling performance. Methods: Endurance cyclists/triathletes (n=9) completed a counterbalanced crossover experiment with three conditions; sleep res...
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Full-text available
The current manuscript sets out a position stand for blood flow restriction exercise, focusing on the methodology, application and safety of this mode of training. With the emergence of this technique and the wide variety of applications within the literature, the aim of this position stand is to set out a current research informed guide to blood f...
Article
Full-text available
Patients with end-stage kidney disease on dialysis have increased mortality and reduced physical activity, contributing to impaired physical function. Although exercise programs have demonstrated a positive effect on physiological outcomes such as cardiovascular function and strength, there is a reduced focus on physical function. The aim of this r...
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Full-text available
Objectives To characterise the sleep of elite athletes and to identify factors associated with training and competition that negatively affect sleep. Design Prognosis systematic review. Data sources Three databases (PubMed, SCOPUS and SPORTDiscus) were searched from inception to 26 February 2018. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Includ...
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Full-text available
PurposeWe examined the concurrent characteristics of the remote development of strength and cross-sectional area (CSA) of upper body skeletal muscle in response to lower body resistance training performed with an applied blood flow restriction (BFR). Methods Males allocated to an experimental BFR group (EXP; n = 12) or a non-BFR control group (CON;...
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Background Exercise during haemodialysis improves strength and physical function. However, both patients and clinicians are time poor, and current exercise recommendations add an excessive time burden making exercise a rare addition to standard care. Hypothetically, blood flow restriction exercise performed during haemodialysis can provide greater...
Article
Strength training forms a pivotal part of rehabilitation. Heavy-load strength training (60%–70% one-repetition maximum (1RM)) has been traditionally prescribed to improve muscle strength, body mass and function, 1 but may be unat-tainable and/or confer increased risk of adverse consequences in individuals with a musculoskeletal (MSK) impairment. Th...
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This study examined the suitability of sigmoidal (SIG) and exponential (EXP) functions for modeling HR kinetics at the onset of a 5‐min low‐intensity cycling ergometer exercise test (5MT). The effects of training status, absolute and relative workloads, and high versus low workloads on the accuracy and reliability of these functions were also exami...
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Objectives: The progressive age-related declines in muscle health and physical function in older adults are related to muscle size and strength. Walking with an applied blood flow restriction is an alternative to maintain muscle volume in older adults to increase the value for time spent walking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the...
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The hemodynamics of light-load exercise with an applied blood-flow restriction (BFR) have not been extensively compared between light-intensity, BFR, and high-intensity forms of both resistance and aerobic exercise in the same participant population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use a randomized crossover design to examine the hemody...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptual responses to resistance exercise with either heavy-loads (80% 1 repetition maximum [1-RM]), light-loads (20% 1-RM), or light-loads in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR). Despite the use of light-loads, it has been suggested that the adoption of BFR resistance exercise may be limit...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of the multi-component training distress scale (MTDS), in monitoring swimmers prior to national competition. Twenty-one national-level adolescent swimmers completed eight weeks of testing. Once a week participants completed an 8 × 50 m sprint test, vertical jump test, sit-and-reach test...
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We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate whether an acute bout of resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) stimulated changes in corticomotor excitability (motor evoked potential; MEP) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and compared the responses to two traditional resistance exercise methods. Ten...
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Light-load blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE) may provide a novel training method to limit the effects of age-related muscle atrophy in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the haemodynamic response to resistance and aerobic BFRE between young adults (YA; n = 11; 22 ± 1 years) and older adults (OA; n = 13; 69 ± 1 ye...
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Sprint (high-intensity) exercise performance is reduced when immediately preceded by cold water immersion (CWI). We aimed to investigate whether this performance effect could be attenuated by combining an active recovery (arm exercise) with hip-level CWI, and whether this attenuation may be related to an effect on core temperature (Tcore ). Partici...
Article
Full-text available
Light-load exercise training with blood flow restriction (BFR) increases muscle strength and size. However, the hemodynamics of BFR exercise appear elevated compared with non-BFR exercise. This questions the suitability of BFR in special/clinical populations. Nevertheless, hemodynamics of standard prescription protocols for BFR and traditional heav...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Previous research has shown that heat acclimation (HA) protocols conducted prior to arrival in a hot environment can improve exercise performance via physiological adaptations that improve heat tolerance. These beneficial adaptations include a lower rest and exercising core temperature (Tc) and heart rate (HR), an expanded plasma volu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Light-load resistance exercise (20-30% 1 repetition maximum [1 RM]) in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) has been shown to increase strength and muscle mass greater than light-load resistance exercise without BFR. In addition, these adaptations may be as great as those achieved with traditional heavy-load resistance exerci...
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Full-text available
To examine the effects of four commonly used recovery treatments applied between two bouts of intense endurance cycling on the performance of the second bout in normothermia (~21 °C). Nine trained men completed two submaximal exhaustive cycling bouts (Ex1 and Ex2: 5 min at ~50 % [Formula: see text] peak, followed by 5 min at ~60 % [Formula: see tex...
Article
The association of fatigue with decreased physical performance and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood in Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to measure and compare self-reported fatigue with skeletal muscle fatigue in CD subjects and healthy controls, and to identify associated factors that may be amenable to change. Demographic and clinical da...
Conference Paper
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Training whilst under the effects of vascular occlusion has become increasingly popular due to the resultant muscle gain associated with this training technique. However, when exercising with the use of a tourniquet type device, it is possible for the pressure being applied to be inconsistent, due the constantly changing cross sectional area of the...
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Supervised exercise (SE) in patients with type 2 diabetes improves oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise. Maintenance of these improvements, however, has not been examined when supervision is removed. We explored if potential improvements in oxygen uptake kinetics following a 12-week SE that combined aerobic and resistance training were m...
Article
Physical activity has been reported to improve cognitive function in humans and rodents, possibly via a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-regulated mechanism. In this study of human subjects, we have assessed the effects of acute and chronic exercise on performance of a face-name matching task, which recruits the hippocampus and associated s...
Article
Given the widespread use of water immersion during recovery from exercise, we aimed to investigate the effect of contrast water immersion on recovery of sprint cycling performance, HR and, blood lactate. Two groups completed high-intensity sprint exercise before and after a 30-min randomized recovery. The Wingate group (n = 8) performed 3 × 30-s Wi...
Article
This study aimed to investigate whether cardiac output (CO) responses were related to VO2 kinetics during cycling in type 2 diabetes. A total of 9 middle-aged women with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes, 9 nondiabetic overweight women, and 11 nondiabetic lean women were recruited. Initially, the ventilatory threshold (VT) and peak VO2 were determined...
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This study investigated cycling performance and oxygen uptake V(O)₂kinetics between upright and two commonly used recumbent (R) postures, 65 degrees R and 30 degrees R. On three occasions, ten young active males performed three bouts of high-intensity constant-load (85% peak-workload achieved during a graded test) cycling in one of the three random...
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This study compared the rate of fatigue and lower limb EMG activities during high-intensity constant-load cycling in upright and supine postures. Eleven active males performed seven cycling exercise tests: one upright graded test, four fatigue tests (two upright, two supine) and two EMG tests (one upright, one supine). During the fatigue tests part...
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The time sustained during a graded cycle exercise is ~10% longer in an upright compared with a supine posture. However, during constant-load cycling this effect is unknown. Therefore, we tested the postural effect on the performance of high-intensity constant-load cycling. Twenty-two active subjects (11 men, 11 women) performed two graded tests (on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fatigue of muscle fibres and activation of additional muscle groups (including posture stabilising and respiratory muscles) during strenuous exercise have been suggested to contribute to the slow component of oxygen uptake (1) . As the abdominal muscles have both respiratory and postural responsibilities, this study assessed the level of fatigue of...
Article
1. Studies have shown that, in isolated skeletal muscles, maximum isometric force production (Po) is dependent on muscle redox state. Endurance training increases the anti-oxidant capacity of skeletal muscles, a factor that could impact on the force-producing capacity following exogenous exposure to an oxidant. We tested the hypothesis that 12 week...
Article
Because it is believed that bone may respond to exercise differently at different ages, we compared bone responses in immature and mature rats after 12 wk of treadmill running. Twenty-two immature (5-wk-old) and 21 mature (17-wk-old) female Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into a running (trained, P = 10 immature, 9 mature) or a control group (c...
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Skeletal muscle mass in genetically obese (ob/ob) mice displays a reduced mass compared with their normal lean counterpart mice. However, the functional capacity of the available skeletal muscle mass in these animals has not yet been determined. To investigate the properties of skeletal muscle in ob/ob mice and determine the effects of leptin admin...
Article
1. Osteoporosis is a major public health problem that is predicted to worsen over the next decade and preventative strategies that increase bone strength have become the focus of substantial research. 2. Although mechanical load is a primary factor in the acquisition and maintenance of skeletal tissue, the type of exercise used and when in life it...
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Six men were studied during four 30-s "all-out" exercise bouts on an air-braked cycle ergometer. The first three exercise bouts were separated by 4 min of passive recovery; after the third bout, subjects rested for 4 min, exercised for 30 min at 30-35% peak O2 consumption, and rested for a further 60 min before completing the fourth exercise bout....
Article
We have presented an assay for measuring the rate of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle homogenates using the fluorescent Ca2+ probe Fura-2. Using this assay, we investigated the effects of an elevated temperature (40 degrees C) and lowered pH (6.8), two factors proposed to be involved in skeletal muscle fat...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
To characterise the sleep of athletes and identify risk factors associated with training and competition. And to examine the cumulative effects of sleep on athletic performance / injury
Project
To investigate the responses and adaptations to BFR training in healthy and clinical populations.