Stuart M Phillips

Stuart M Phillips
McMaster University | McMaster · Department of Kinesiology

Ph.D.

About

566
Publications
636,340
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
37,343
Citations
Introduction
We use a human model of resistance or aerobic exercise, immobilization, or aging to study the processes that govern: muscle accretion, in the case of resistance exercise; atrophy, with immobilization; and sarcopenia of aging. In addition, our research group has studied the interaction of feeding different protein composition and varied meal timing on the processes regulating hypertrophy and disuse atrophy. We have a particular interest in scalable interventions to mitigate sarcopenia.
Additional affiliations
January 2016 - present
McMaster University
Position
  • Managing Director
Description
  • https://pace.mcmaster.ca/
January 2016 - present
McMaster University
Position
  • Chair
Description
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada_Research_Chair
April 1999 - April 2016
McMaster University
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Stable isotope infusions, nutrition, protein, muscle protein turnover, muscle mass
Education
January 1992 - July 1995
University of Waterloo
Field of study
  • Human Physiology
September 1989 - July 1991
McMaster University
Field of study
  • Nutritional Biochemistry
September 1985 - April 1989
McMaster University
Field of study
  • Biochemistry

Publications

Publications (566)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The consumption of yerba mate (YM), a source of antioxidants, in a fasted state increases fatty acid oxidation (FAT ox ) during low–moderate-intensity exercise and improves performance in high-intensity exercise. However, the impact of a pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) meal on YM effects during exercise is unknown. Objective We invest...
Article
Full-text available
The compound β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB) is proposed to increase or mitigate the loss of skeletal muscle and improve muscle function. We undertook a review of systematic reviews of HMB supplementation to promote gains or mitigate muscle loss in ageing and clinical populations. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched for systematic reviews re...
Chapter
Skeletal muscle is essential in locomotion and plays a role in whole-body metabolism, particularly during exercise. Skeletal muscle is the largest ‘reservoir’ of amino acids, which can be released for fuel and as a precursor for gluconeogenesis. During exercise, whole-body, and more specifically skeletal muscle, protein catabolism is increased, but...
Article
Full-text available
Background Physical activity and a healthy diet are important in helping to maintain mobility with aging. This umbrella review aims to identify group-based physical activity and/or nutrition interventions for community-dwelling older adults that improve mobility-related outcomes. Methods Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane...
Article
Background Pregnancy induces bone mineral mobilization, which may be further compromised if diet and physical activity are sub-optimal. Objectives We aimed to determine the effects of a Nutrition + Exercise intervention during pregnancy on maternal calciotropic and bone biomarker profiles throughout pregnancy and the postpartum. Design In the Be...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression aimed to determine if increasing daily protein ingestion contributes to gaining lean mass (LM), muscle strength, and physical/functional test performance in healthy persons. Methods The present review was registered on PROSPERO - CRD42020159001. A systematic search in Medline, E...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To identify the efficacy of group-based nutrition interventions to increase healthy eating, reduce nutrition risk, improve nutritional status, and improve physical mobility among community-dwelling older adults. Design Systematic review. Electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts were searched on J...
Article
Full-text available
The interest in a diet with a higher proportion of plant-based foods to animal-based foods is a global food pattern trend. However, there are concerns regarding adopting plants as the main dietary protein source to support muscle protein synthesis and muscle mass. These concerns are centred on three issues: lower protein bioavailability due to anti...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to investigate whether muscle fiber cross‐sectional area (fCSA) and associated molecular processes could be differently affected at the group and individual level by manipulating resistance training (RT) variables. Twenty resistance‐trained subjects had each leg randomly allocated to either a standard RT (RT‐CON: without specific variables...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation leads to improvements in cardiovascular function in individuals with coronary artery disease. The cardiac effects of coronary artery disease (CAD) can be quantified using clinical echocardiographic measures, such as ejection fraction (EF). Measures of cardiovascular function typically only used in research sett...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We determined the short-term (i.e. 4 days) impacts of disuse atrophy in relation to muscle protein turnover [acute fasted-fed muscle protein synthesis (MPS)/muscle protein breakdown (MPB) and integrated MPS/estimated MPB]. Methods: Healthy men (N = 9, 22 ± 2 years, body mass index 24 ± 3 kg m-2 ) underwent 4 day unilateral leg immobi...
Article
Full-text available
Decreased skeletal muscle contractile activity (disuse) or unloading leads to muscle mass loss, also known as muscle atrophy. The balance between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB) is the primary determinant of skeletal muscle mass. A reduced mechanical load on skeletal muscle is one of the main external factors leadi...
Article
Full-text available
Skeletal muscle plays a critical role in physical function and metabolic health. Muscle is a highly adaptable tissue that responds to resistance exercise (RE; loading) by hypertrophying or, during muscle disuse, RE mitigates muscle loss. Resistance exercise training (RET)-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy is a product of external (e.g., resistanc...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of this review was to compare all intervention modalities aimed at increasing skeletal muscle mass (SMM) in the paralysed limbs of persons with chronic (>1-year post-injury), motor complete SCI. Methods: A systematic review of EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus and SPORTDiscus databases was conducted from inception until December 2021. Pu...
Article
Full-text available
After muscle injury, the interaction between muscle satellite cells (SC) and the immune response is instrumental for the repair and regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue. Studies have reported sex-based differences in the skeletal muscle inflammatory and regenerative response following injury. However, many of these studies investigated such diffe...
Article
Objective To examine the effects of community-based resistance training (RT) on physical function for older adults with mobility disability. Data Sources Four databases (PEDro, MedLine, Ovid, CINAHL and Web of Science) were searched from inception to February 2, 2021. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials that examined community-based RT f...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review Prehabilitation prepares patients to withstand the rigors of surgery; however, there is little consensus on nutritional prehabilitative support for surgical patients. In this narrative review, we offer our perspectives on the role of protein in surgical prehabilitation. Recent Findings While the exact dietary protein requirements...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the effects of higher-load (HL) versus (lower-load) higher-volume (HV) resistance training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, strength, and muscle-level molecular adaptations. Trained men (n = 15, age: 23 ± 3 years; training experience: 7 ± 3 years) performed unilateral lower-body training for 6 weeks (3× weekly), where single legs were r...
Article
Background & aims Excessive adiposity in pregnancy is associated with an altered cardiometabolic profile and adverse maternal and offspring outcomes. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (pBMI) is a proxy measure for adiposity that is most often used in clinical settings; however, it may not identify at-risk pregnancies caused by adiposity-related cardiom...
Article
Full-text available
This invited editorial celebrates the distinguished professional life of Professor Kevin D. Tipton, who sadly passed away on January 9, 2022. Professor Tipton made an outstanding contribution to the scientific field of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism over an exceptional 30-year career. He dedicated his academic career to understanding the r...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract We performed a systematic review, meta‐analysis, and meta‐regression to determine if increasing daily protein ingestion contributes to gaining lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength, and physical/functional test performance in healthy subjects. A protocol for the present study was registered (PROSPERO, CRD42020159001), and a systematic sear...
Article
Full-text available
A randomized two-arm prospective superiority trial tested the efficacy of a novel structured and monitored nutrition (bi-weekly counselling for individualized energy and high dairy protein diet) and exercise program (walking goal of 10,000 steps/day) (intervention) compared to usual care (control) in pregnant women to achieve gestational weight gai...
Article
Insulin resistance (IR) contributes to the pathophysiology of diabetes, dementia, viral infection, and cardiovascular disease. Drug repurposing (DR) may identify treatments for IR; however, barriers include uncertainty whether in vitro transcriptomic assays yield quantitative pharmacological data, or how to optimise assay design to best reflect in...
Article
Full-text available
Mobility disability is the impairment in function that affects the performance of daily tasks due to declines in physical function. Exercise interventions, particular resistance training, may have a positive impact on mobility disability, but the evidence for the effects of resistance training in older adults with mobility disability has not been p...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementation of whey protein (WP) versus leucine-matched collagen peptides (CP) on muscle thickness (MT) and performance after a resistance training (RT) program in young adults. Twenty-two healthy untrained participants were randomly assigned to either a WP (n = 11) or leucine-matched...
Article
Full-text available
This opinion paper presents a short review of the potential impact of protein on muscle anabolism in cancer, which is associated with better patient outcomes. Protein source is a topic of interest for patients and clinicians, partly due to recent emphasis on the supposed non-beneficial effect of proteins; therefore, misconceptions involving animal-...
Article
Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid mediator proposed to increase muscle protein synthesis via direct stimulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and may act as an anabolic supplemental aid. Evidence on the effectiveness of PA as an anabolic supplement is equivocal. We aimed to systematically assess the effect of PA on performance and bod...
Article
Background: The stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) by dietary protein is reduced with age. We hypothesized that twice-daily milk consumption would increase daily rates of MPS in older women relative to a non-dairy milk alternative and that MPS would be enhanced by increased physical activity (PA). Methods: Twenty-two older women were...
Article
Full-text available
Skeletal muscle adaptations to resistance and endurance training include increased ribosome and mitochondrial biogenesis, respectively. Such adaptations are believed to contribute to the notable increases in hypertrophy and aerobic capacity observed with each exercise mode. Data from multiple studies suggest the existence of a competition between r...
Article
Full-text available
Muscle disuse leads to a rapid decline in muscle mass, with reduced muscle protein synthesis (MPS) considered the primary physiological mechanism. Here, we employed a systems biology approach to uncover molecular networks and key molecular candidates that quantitatively link to the degree of muscle atrophy and/or extent of decline in MPS during sho...
Article
Full-text available
Hypertrophy can be operationally defined as an increase in the axial cross-sectional area of a muscle fiber or whole muscle, and is due to increases in the size of pre-existing muscle fibers. Hypertrophy is a desired outcome in many sports. For some athletes, muscular bulk and, conceivably, the accompanying increase in strength/power, are desirable...
Article
Full-text available
This consensus statement is an update of the 1987 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) position stand on the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). Substantial data have been collected since the previous position stand, and AAS use patterns have changed significantly. The ACSM acknowledges that lawful and ethical therapeutic use of AAS is...
Article
Full-text available
IntroductionUnderstanding the impact of lockdown upon resistance training (RT), and how people adapted their RT behaviours, has implications for strategies to maintain engagement in similar positive health behaviours. Further, doing so will provide a baseline for investigation of the long-term effects of these public health measures upon behaviours...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim We evaluated the effects of higher-load (HL) versus (lower-load) higher-volume (HV) resistance training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, strength, and muscle-level molecular markers. Methods Trained men (n=15, age: 23±3 y; training experience: 7±3 y) performed unilateral lower body training for 6 weeks (3x weekly), where single legs were assign...
Article
Background Sarcopenia plays a central role in the development of frailty syndrome. Nutrition and exercise are cornerstone strategies to mitigate the transition to frailty; however, there is a paucity of evidence for which dietary and exercise strategies are effective. Objective This large, multifactorial trial investigated the efficacy of differen...
Article
Skeletal muscle is the organ of locomotion, its optimal function is critical for athletic performance, and is also important for health due to its contribution to resting metabolic rate and as a site for glucose uptake and storage. Numerous endogenous and exogenous factors influence muscle mass. Much of what is currently known regarding muscle prot...
Article
Full-text available
Background Acute protein turnover studies suggest lower anabolic response after ingestion of plant vs. animal proteins. However, the effects of an exclusively plant-based protein diet on resistance training-induced adaptations are under investigation. Objective To investigate the effects of dietary protein source [exclusively plant-based vs. mixed...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Physical activity and a healthy diet are important in helping to maintain mobility and quality of life with aging. Delivery of physical activity and nutrition interventions in a group setting adds the benefits of social participation. Objectives This umbrella review aims to identify group-based physical activity and nutrition interventi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Limited data are available examining dietaries for optimizing protein and leucine intake to stimulate muscle protein synthesis in older humans. Objectives We aimed to investigate the aminoacidemia and appetite responses of older adults after consuming breakfast, a meal frequently consumed with high-carbohydrate and below-par amounts of...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the association between genotype and resistance training‐induced changes (12 wk) in dual x‐ray energy absorptiometry (DXA)‐derived lean soft tissue mass (LSTM) as well as muscle fiber cross‐sectional area (fCSA; vastus lateralis; n = 109; age = 22 ± 2 y, BMI = 24.7 ± 3.1 kg/m2). Over 315 000 genetic polymorphisms were interrogated from...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Resistance exercise training (RET) induces muscle hypertrophy that, when combined with co-temporal protein ingestion, is enhanced. However, fewer studies have been conducted when RET is combined with multi-ingredient supplements. Purpose: We aimed to determine the effect of a high-quality multi-ingredient nutritional supplement (SU...
Article
Full-text available
Skeletal muscle is the largest organ of the human body and plays a pivotal role in whole-body homeostasis through the maintenance of physical and metabolic health. Establishing strategies aimed at increasing the amount, and minimising loss, of muscle mass are of upmost importance. Muscle mass is primarily dictated by the meal-to-meal fluctuations i...
Article
Muscle disuse rapidly induces insulin resistance (IR). Despite a relationship between intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content and IR, during muscle-disuse IR develops before IMCL accumulation, suggesting that IMCL are not related to disuse-induced IR. However, recent studies show that it is not total IMCL, but IMCL size and location that are related...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cardiac rehabilitation exercise reduces the risk of secondary cardiovascular disease. Interval training is a time-efficient alternative to traditional cardiac rehabilitation exercise and stair climbing is an accessible means. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a high-intensity interval stair climbing intervention on improving cardi...
Article
Background: Using residual values calculated from models regressing appendicular lean mass on fat mass and height is one of several suggested strategies for adjusting appendicular lean mass for body size when measuring sarcopenia. However, special consideration is required when using this technique in different subgroups in order to capture the co...
Article
Full-text available
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current gold standard for measuring changes in muscle size (cross-sectional area [CSA] and volume) but can be cost-prohibitive and resource-intensive. We evaluated the validity of B-mode ultrasonography (US) as a low-cost alternative to MRI for measuring muscle hypertrophy and atrophy in response to resistanc...
Article
Purpose This is the first study to examine whether age impacts the response of single muscle fibers to high/low frequency and high/low volume electrical pulse stimulation. We performed in vitro experiments to evaluate the effect of low-frequency high-volume electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) on mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), mitogen-activa...
Article
Purpose: There is a lack of knowledge as to how different exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation programming affects skeletal muscle adaptations in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. We first characterized the skeletal muscle from adults with CAD compared to a group of age- and sex-matched healthy adults. We then determined the effects of a tr...
Article
Full-text available
PRESENT 2020: Texto que desarrolla la lista de verificación para el adecuado informe de la evidencia en ensayos clínicos de deporte y nutrición del ejercicio (Traducción Inglés-Español)
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Sleep loss has emerged as a risk factor for the development of impaired glucose tolerance. The mechanisms underpinning this observation are unknown; however, both mitochondrial dysfunction and circadian misalignment have been proposed. Given that exercise improves glucose tolerance, mitochondrial function, and alters circadian rhythms, w...
Article
Full-text available
Football is a global game which is constantly evolving, showing substantial increases in physical and technical demands. Nutrition plays a valuable integrated role in optimising performance of elite players during training and match-play, and maintaining their overall health throughout the season. An evidence-based approach to nutrition emphasising...
Article
A progressive decrement in muscle mass and muscle function, sarcopoenia, accompanies ageing. The loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is the main feature of sarcopoenia. Preventing the loss of muscle mass is relevant since sarcopoenia can have a significant impact on mobility and the quality of life of older people. Dietary protein and physica...