Stuart J. Mckelvie

Stuart J. Mckelvie
Bishop's University · Department of Psychology

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75
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (75)
Article
In this paper I investigate mistakes during the administration of the United States Presidential Oath of Office. Based on models of memory and of speech acts, it was hypothesized that errors would be more likely to occur if the oath was administered from memory and if the oath was broken down into fewer segments. It was found that errors were more...
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Replication of famous primacy effect.
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Replication of famous Luchins study of set
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Replicaiton of famous Barnums Effect of Forer
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This study investigated the relationship between sport-confidence and athletic performance. Fifty male lacrosse players competed against each other three times on three lacrosse skills. Sport-confidence was assessed before each trial using a modified version of the State Sport-Confidence Inventory (SSCI). Performance feedback was manipulated to boo...
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Using the Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT), which measures implicit learning, the present experiment investigated the consequences of sub-concussive impacts in soccer from trained and untrained heading techniques. Fifty-one participants were (n = 25) or were not (n = 26) given training in proper heading after which they were tested on a head-ball t...
Data
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In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott-Read-Solso (DRMRS) procedure, participants recall word lists constructed around central concepts that are not on the lists. Seventy participants were given experimentally manipulated feedback (positive, negative or none) about their performance after three lists (Block 1), and were then tested on six lists (Blocks 2...
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One hundred ninety-three undergraduates completed the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ) in the original (blocked) version or in a random format. Variances were unaffected, but as in previous research, mean scores were higher for the random version, indicating reports of less vivid imagery. Although these data do not show that the dis...
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The purpose of this study was to replicate postformal thinking as a predictor of creativity and to investigate whether it would also predict the identification and the subjective appreciation of metaphor and irony. Eighty seven undergraduate participants completed the Social Paradigm Belief Inventory (SPBI), the Divergent Thinking Test (DTT), the M...
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One hundred and eighteen men and women participated in a study of the relationship between attitude toward seeking psychological help and the personality variables of self-esteem, trait-anxiety, and internal/external locus of control. It was found that women had a more positive attitude toward help-seeking than men. Correlation analyses showed that...
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One-hundred-and-eighty-one university students and members of the general population were presented with either general information about psychology or with examples of well-known people who had sought professional psychological assistance for mental health issues or for performance optimization in sports. Following this, their attitude towards see...
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This study examined whether the perceived strength of alcohol solutions is masked by the presence of additional tastants. In Experiment 1, forty subjects made direct magnitude estimates of the concentration of vodka when mixed with water, sweetened water, cranberry juice, or sweetened cranberry, in proportions ranging from 0% to 90% in steps of 10%...
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This paper critically examines Alan Richardson's views on the role of subjective experience in psychology, particularly conscious imagery. He argues that subjective experience should be given the same status as behavior and physiology as a topic of study, and that individual differences in the conscious experience of imagery, particularly vividness...
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Reviews the book, Psychological Testing: A Practical Approach to Design and Evaluation by Theresa J. B. Kline (see record 2005-07748-000). Most textbooks on psychological testing cover purposes, history, classical theory, psychometric properties (norms, reliability, validity), test construction, issues such as group differences, heredity and enviro...
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In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott-Read-Solso (DRMRS) procedure, participants study lists of words associated with central concepts (critical themes) that are not on the lists, then their memory is tested. Based on 224 estimates, the rate of False Recognition of the nonstudied critical themes was .59 (95% confidence interval of .56 to .61), which is s...
Article
In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott-Read-Solso (DRMRS) procedure, which has recently enjoyed widespread use, participants try to remember lists of items constructed around critical themes that are not presented. The purpose of this quantitative review was to estimate the extent to which these themes are falsely recalled (Critical Intrusions) and to com...
Article
Two samples of undergraduates (36 women, 7 men; 44 women, 45 men) read a mock transcript in which a murderer's victim was a man or a woman, after which they made prison sentence and death penalty judgments. Female judges gave longer sentences for the female victim than for the male victim, whereas male judges gave longer sentences for the male vict...
Article
112 undergraduates separately judged, the size of the numbers 9 then 221 or 221 then 9 on a 10-point scale or on a continuous line that were both anchored only at the extremes by "very, very small" and "very, very large." Replicating the 1999 Birnbaum study, 9 was given a higher rating than 221 when the numbers were judged first by different people...
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One hundred undergraduates heard 6 lists of 14 words that were each associated with 1 of 6 central concepts not on the lists (the DRMRS procedure). The participants were instructed to recall as many words as possible (free retrieval) or to fill all 14 spaces (forced retrieval) and were subsequently given a recognition test. False recall and recogni...
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Canadian post-secondary students with a moderate level of second language competence in English or French took the Wonderlic Personnel Test with the standard 12-min time limit or with no time limit. Participants who took the timed test in their second language scored lower than those who took it in their mother tongue, but the disadvantage was grea...
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Surveyed the emphasis given to courses in statistics, methods and psychological testing in 51 Canadian undergraduate psychology programs. The survey form consisted of two major questions about courses in statistics, method and testing: (1) Is there a course offering? And (2) Is the course offering required for the major and honours degrees. Results...
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French-Canadian high school students (N = 196) completed different forms of the Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT; E. F. Wonderlic, 1983) on two occasions. Before the second test, they received negative or positive bogus feedback about their initial performance. Most students (n = 158) were informed that the WPT measured intelligence, and the instructi...
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Sixty-three undergraduates listened to a list of 26 names (13 famous men and 13 nonfamous women or 13 famous women and 13 nonfamous men), then judged how many men's and women's names there seemed to be. Subjects gave higher estimates for the gender that was famous, an effect size that was moderate ( d = 0.53). However, this effect of fame availabil...
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Assessed the construct validity of the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ) on the basis of a quantitative review of content validity, reliability, and criterion-related validity. Consideration of the test instructions, items, rating scale, and distribution of scores revealed a number of flaws that challenged content validity. There was...
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Responds to comments by A. Ahsen, F. S. Bellezza, A. Campos, C. Cornoldi, M. Denis, S. Hishitani, A. N. Katz, G. Kaufmann, R. G. Kunzendorf, D. F. Marks, D. G. Pearson, A. Richardson, J. T. Richardson, P. W. Sheehan, J. A. Slee, and B. Wallace (see PA, Vol 83:29135, 003, 004, 005, 006, 007, 008, 009, 010, 011, 012, 013, 014, 015, 016, and 017, resp...
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To aid researchers in evaluating the construct validity of self-report imagery questionnaires in the context of their use as research instruments, standards are proposed for correlation coefficients under the headings of reliability, criterion validity, and content validity. Guidelines for deciding whether relationships are acceptable are also reco...
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Responds to comments by R. H. Bradshaw et al (see record 1995-01642-001) on B. McLellan and S. J. McKelvie's study (see record 1993-45212-001) investigating the effects of age and gender on attractiveness of photographs of faces. Although the major result of this study was a negative relationship between age and perceived attractiveness, the auth...
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Explored gender differences in recognition memory for faces and cars in 2 experiments with a total of 50 undergraduates (25 male and 25 female). Stimuli were line drawings of cars and of adult men and women (Exp 1) and photographs of real cars and of real boys and girls (Exp 2). In both experiments, performance was better on faces than on cars. Reg...
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Twenty subjects were administered a distractor-free recognition memory test for 20 photographs of faces (10 with and 10 without spectacles) that they had seen 1 week earlier. Hit rates were less than 1 and were similar for the two kinds of faces. Since the same results were obtained for hits on a conventional test, it was argued that the distractor...
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Examined 2 alternative predictions: (1) that Ss would find others similar to themselves as most attractive or (2) that men would prefer younger women and women more mature men. 22 men and 25 women (aged 17–29 yrs), 16 men and 18 women (aged 30–49 yrs) and 18 men and 32 women (aged 50+ yrs) rated the physical attractiveness of 72 photographs of face...
Article
Following a theoretical account of the repetition, spacing, and lag effects, their application to the teaching of certain ideas in an introductory psychology course is described. The structure and sequence of course topics is described, including the timing of the presentation of particular concepts: Hebb's physiological behavioristics, Skinner's r...
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Twenty male and 20 female undergraduates viewed photographs of 30 graduating women, 15 of whom had been rated as more and 15 as less physically attractive. The subjects answered a questionnaire in part of which they rated the likelihood that 10 statements concerning women's rights applied to the posers. Consistent with previous research, the likeli...
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70 subjects participated in a study designed to replicate the 1968 claim of Gardner and Long that the horizontal-vertical illusion is larger with the vertical than with the horizontal as standard. The effect did not appear in Exp. 1 when subjects made judgments under both the reproduction and graded-series methods but &d in a pilot study and in Exp...
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The behavior of 600 automobile drivers was unobtrusively observed at stop signs during the day and at night. The frequency of complete stops and of no-stops increased at night, at least for single drivers approaching the sign in the absence of oncoming traffic. This pattern of response appeared to result from increased stops for females and increas...
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Fifty undergraduate students (27 female, 23 male) completed measures of verbal intelligence and locus of control, together with the Responsibility scale of the California Psychological Inventory and a student-written scale of Personal Responsibility. On the basis of correlational and multiple-regression analyses, it was found that Intelligence and...
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In a 1985 observational study of 176 private car drivers at stop signs in eight locations in a town setting in Quebec, 42% came to a complete stop, 43% slowed, and 15% did not stop or slow. Relative to previous years (1979 to 1983), these data show a general deterioration in performance that cannot be accounted for by changes in the density of traf...
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24 internal and 24 external (Rotter's Internal–External Locus of Control Scale) undergraduates read 6 passages representing 3 operationally-defined levels of relevance under either a cued (informed of memory test) or uncued (not informed of memory test) condition. On a retention test 24 hrs later, internals scored consistently higher than externals...
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On the basis of Chapin Social Insight Test scores from two samples of male and female undergraduates representing a university population in consecutive years, estimates of split-half ( ns = 66, 128), and test-retest ( ns = 44, 99) reliability were obtained. In addition, for 63 students in the second sample, correlations between test scores and cou...
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Assessed the importance of note taking (an encoding function) and note reviewing (an external storage function) on memory for a lecture. One week following various conditions of film-viewing, note taking, and review of notes, 144 psychology students (aged 17–19 yrs) completed a quiz based on the contents of a videotaped lecture dealing with an unfa...
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Two groups of 21 college team athletes identified as high and low on competitive trait anxiety on the Illinois Competitive Questionnaire—Form A ([ICQ]; R. Martens, 1977) completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory (Martens, 1977) on 4 occasions around a league game: day before (during practice), just before, just after, and day after. 18 coll...
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Generated and tested predictions concerning behavior of drivers at stop signs. First, a survey of 225 Ss showed that the rate of stopping was thought to be higher in the presence than in the absence of another vehicle and for females and older drivers than for males and younger ones. Second, 895 drivers were unobstrusively observed at stop signs ov...
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Three groups (students, nonprofessionals, and professionals) of 24 subjects differing in age and education completed a 60-item spiral omnibus test and two criterion measures (Intellectual Efficiency scale and Life Attitude Profile). Half of the omnibus questions (based on general information, social judgement, and numerical ability) had been judged...
Article
Using the materials and general procedure described by Rock and Gutman (1981), 160 subjects were required to attend selectively to a series of 10 red or green outlines of two overlapping contours. Immediately afterwards, six groups of 20 subjects were administered various kinds of recognition tests involving attended, unattended, or new figures, an...
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40 undergraduates categorized photographs of faces on the basis of sex or liking and then attempted to recognize them in normal or inverted orientations. For photographs which were normally oriented, accuracy and confidence were greater for pictures initially categorized for liking than for pictures initially categorized for sex. However, for inver...
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On the basis of surveys completed by 105 male participants in a popular marathon, a multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify the variables contributing significantly to the prediction of final time. Overall prediction was successful, with R = .896, and training pace was the most important factor in the equation, speedier workouts bein...
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Data from several studies of college students yielded moderate correlations among faces recognition scores (ratings, answers to questions), but association between visual imagery and recognition memory for faces was small to medium. Women reported more vivid and better controlled visual imagery for faces than men.
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46 students were administered the Luchins' water-jar problems, measuring susceptibility to set and inability to overcome set, and the Maier two-string task, in which choice of solution object reflected functional fixedness. 18 subjects showed functional fixedness and 28 did not. 15 of each group were susceptible to set, and 13 of the former but onl...
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In response to a U.S. Government accusation of political bias in social science research discussed by Hogan and Schroeder in 1981, 23 introductory psychology textbooks were examined for evidence of left-wing rhetoric in their discussions of mental illness. Although most texts presented the sociocultural approach to the problem, very few clearly def...
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Two groups of undergraduates, identified as high scorers ( n = 24) or low scorers ( n = 23) on the Study Habits section of the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, were administered alternate forms of the Wonderlic Personnel Test on two occasions, one with limited and one with unlimited time. Since high-scoring subjects performed better than low s...
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Recognition memory for photographs of faces, which were initially shown in the normal orientation, then tested either normally (unchanged) or laterally reversed (changed), was examined in four experiments involving different experimental designs (between and within group) and different methods of testing (yes-no and forced-choice). Although the ove...
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92 athletes (members of university and college teams) and 93 non-athletes (a representative sample of the university population) completed the Illinois Competition Questionnaire measuring trait anxiety in competitive sports situations and the Rotter I-E scale measuring locus of control. No differences between the groups were found on either test, a...
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156 subjects (students and working adults) completed Marks' Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire in one of two formats reflecting item order (blocked, random) under one of three instructional conditions (easy, neutral, difficult) reflecting ease of image formation. Although the effect of instructions (but not format) was significant, scores we...
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Seventy high school students completed the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ). Two months later, the 16 highest scores (low visualizers) and the 16 lowest scores (high visualizers) took part in a memory experiment involving abstract words, concrete words and pictures. Analyses of variance showed that high visualizers were superior to...
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Selected on the basis of their scores on the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, 16 High Visualizers and 14 Low Visualizers (equally divided by sex) completed various cognitive tasks thought to involve visual (Space Relations, Watch Rotation) and non-visual (Verbal Reasoning, Abstract Reasoning, Numerical Ability) processes. Although Low Vis...
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Following the procedure used by Rule (1972), 25 subjects judged whether the mid-point (standard) of two numbers was subjectively closer to the higher or lower number. Since subjects generally chose the higher number as closer more often than the lower number, the results were interpreted as supporting Rule's hypothesis that subjective number is a n...
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S~mrnury.40 subjects gave ratings of liking for photographs of 24 females who were either physically attractive or unattractive and who were described as having a favourable or unfavourable character. Contrary to expectancy-value theory, both attractiveness and character contributed significantly to the ratings of liking. although character had a s...
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Subjects were presented 27 photographs of faces for inspection with or without transformation (the faces' eyes or mouths masked) and tested for recognition with or without the same transformation. Subjects were just as confident, just as quick to respond, but made more errors when the eyes were masked than when the mouths were. Masking the eyes cau...
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Test-retest, split-half, and parallel-form reliability estimates were obtained for the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire and the Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control. Although the Vividness of Imagery questionnaire was internally consistent, its reliability over time and form was unsatisfactory. In contrast, the Gordon scale lacked interna...
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Obtained handwriting samples from 108 university students who rated the extent to which Ss believed that graphology reveals personality. Five days later, 58 experimental Ss received their personality profile, rated the profile, and again stated their belief in graphology (BIGR). 50 controls rated their BIGR before and after receiving and rating the...
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--McGill University, 1972. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 141-163). Microfilm of typescript.

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