Stuart Lane

Stuart Lane
University of Lausanne | UNIL · Institute of Earth Surface Dynamics

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388
Publications
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Publications

Publications (388)
Article
Global warming-induced melting and thawing of the cryosphere are severely altering the volume and timing of water supplied from High Mountain Asia, adversely affecting downstream food and energy systems that are relied on by billions of people. The construction of more reservoirs designed to regulate streamflow and produce hydropower is a critical...
Presentation
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Rapid glacier retreat leads to the emergence of new rocky landscapes. The common assumption of the presence of bare bedrock underlying glaciers and the closely related assumption that glacier and snow melt manifest themselves essentially as surface runoff, is challenged by the rapid sediment accumulation and the formation of geomorphological landfo...
Conference Paper
Benthic biofilms have received great attention in recent decades but their development and survival in glacial stream systems is less well-known. Glacial stream systems are highly dynamic and partially define how habitats develop in front of retreating glaciers. The habitats that lead to biofilm development require environmental conditions that are...
Article
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Understanding and predicting bedload transport is an important element of watershed management. Yet, predictions of bedload remain uncertain by up to several order(s) of magnitude. In this contribution, we use a 5‐year continuous time series of streamflow and bedload transport monitoring in a 13.4‐km² snow‐dominated Alpine watershed in the Western...
Article
There is well-established evidence that dams disconnect upstream to downstream sediment flux in rivers and that this may have negative impact on downstream ecosystems. For this reason, the development of environmental flows now includes sediment supply and transport whether through reconnecting upstream supplied sediment to a river downstream of a...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Mountain glaciers have been melting and retreating more rapidly since the onset of accelerated atmospheric warming in the late 1980s. Our study examines 22 Swiss glaciers in order to understand why, for some glaciers, the ice surface close to the glacier margin breaks down and forms collapse features, and for others, it does...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ambition of this symposium was to review and create knowledge and praxis in bedload management, support the implementation of restoration measures in Switzerland and strengthen the international network among scientists and practitioners. Switzerland has the legal goal and the financial tools to restore its rivers from the impacts of sediment...
Article
Beavers (Castor fiber, Castor canadensis) are one of the most influential mammalian ecosystem engineers, heavily modifying river corridor hydrology, geomorphology, nutrient cycling, and ecosystems. As an agent of disturbance, they achieve this first and foremost through dam construction, which impounds flow and increases the extent of open water, a...
Article
• Primary production is a fundamental ecosystem process that influences nutrient and carbon cycling, and trophic structure in streams. The magnitude and timing of gross primary production (GPP) are typically controlled by hydrology, light, nutrient availability and grazers. Estimates of GPP and its drivers in high-mountain streams remain elusive at...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The river discharge of recently deglaciated headwater catchments shows strong variations at daily, seasonal and annual time-scales. These cycles are susceptible to changes in the near future due to rapid glacier retreat combined with warmer winters and earlier snowmelt. Low discharges, in particular, are not only driven by climatic conditions but a...
Article
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Studying subglacial drainage networks is important for understanding the potential relationship between channel dynamics and rapid glacier recession as well as the role of subglacial channels in subglacial sediment evacuation. In order to delineate the planform geometry of snout marginal subglacial channels, densely spaced ground-penetrating radar...
Article
Full-text available
The temporal variability in sediment export yield from glaciers over a timescale of multiple glacial cycles (e.g. 1 × 10² − 1 × 10⁶ years) is of interest for a wide range of applications in glaciology, sedimentology, geomorphology, climatology and environmental engineering. However, the time required for the products of glacial erosion to be transf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Biofilms have received great attention in the last few decades including their potential contribution to carbon fluxes and ecosystem engineering in aquatic ecosystems. Quantifying the spatial distribution of biofilms and their dynamics through time is a critical challenge. Satellite imagery is one solution, and can provide multi- and hyper-spectral...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Environmental seismology is the discipline that uses ambient noise to detect and to measure geomorphic processes. The basic principle relies on the unique seismic signal, in terms of excited frequencies and amplitudes, generated by such processes which is then propagated and recorded to sensors (geophones). Recent developments of this technique are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over the past two decades, several semi-automated approaches for identifying debris covered ice have been proposed but challenges remain. Manual delineation of debris-covered glaciers has been recognized as an accurate method but is labor- and time-intensive for large regions. Geomorphological mapping in complex mountain environments is recognized...
Article
Full-text available
Whilst time‐series of sediment transport in gullies in both laboratory experimental and field settings can be determined through instrumentation, quantifying the spatial distribution of transport rates remains challenging. The morphological method, which was proposed for estimating bed‐material transport in both 1D and 2D in rivers, provides an alt...
Article
Full-text available
The confluence of rivers is characterized by highly complex internal processes. The hydrodynamic aspects of river confluences have received a lot of attention in recent years. For modeling purposes, it is generally assumed that the water densities of the rivers under consideration are close, and the density effects associated with their difference...
Article
Full-text available
High‐resolution time series of dissolved oxygen (DO) have revealed different ecosystem energetics regimes across various stream types. Ecosystem energetic regimes are relevant to better understand the transformation and retention of nutrients and carbon in stream ecosystems. However, the patterns and controls of stream energetics in high‐mountain l...
Article
Climate change impacts on sediment production and transfer processes on hillslopes and through channels are governed by possible changes in precipitation, runoff, and air temperature. These hydrological and geomorphological impacts are difficult to predict in temperature-sensitive Alpine environments. In this study, we combined a stochastic weather...
Article
Full-text available
Setting environmental flows downstream of hydropower dams is widely recognized as important, particularly in Alpine regions. However, the required flows are strongly influenced by the effects of the physical environment of the downstream river. Here, we show how unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based structure-from-motion multiview stereo (SfM-MVS) ph...
Preprint
Beavers (castor fiber, castor canadensis) are the most influential mammalian ecosystem engineer, heavily modifying river corridors and influencing hydrology, geomorphology, nutrient cycling, and ecosystems. As an agent of disturbance, they achieve this first and foremost through dam construction, which impounds flow and increases the extent of open...
Article
Full-text available
Current understanding of the role that dunes play in controlling bar and channel-scale processes and river morphodynamics is incomplete. We present results from a combined numerical modeling and field monitoring study that isolates the impact of dunes on depth-averaged and near-bed flow structure, with implications for morphodynamic modeling. Numer...
Article
Full-text available
A rapid downstream weakening of the processes that drive the intensity of transverse mixing at the confluence of large rivers has been identified in the literature and attributed to the progressive reduction in channel scale secondary circulation and shear-driven mixing with distance downstream from the junction. These processes are investigated in...
Article
Full-text available
Emergency responders must reach urgent cases within mandatory timeframes, regardless of weather conditions. However, flooding of transport networks can add critical minutes to travel times between dispatch and arrival. Here, we explicitly model the spatial coverage of all Ambulance Service and Fire and Rescue Service stations in England during floo...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Allondon River (Canton of Geneva) is a historically well-documented piedmont river system that reflects interactions between an evolving climate, a changing catchment and local management practices and the suite of internal biogeomorphological responses and feedbacks that result. Over the last century, the river has been evolving from a braided...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Glaciers are important sources of fresh water particularly in arid regions which have low summer precipitation. Moreover, retreating glaciers can cause serious hazards by destabilizing slopes or causing outbursts of glacial lakes. Therefore glacier monitoring is an essential task for water resources and risk management. Recently, efforts have been...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Confluences are common components of all riverine systems, and are characterized by converging flow streamlines and mixing of separate flows, which can take some significant distance to be complete. Whilst turbulent diffusion and Taylor dispersion are expected to affect mixing in any open channel flow, the analysis of mixing at river confluences sh...
Article
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UAVs and structure‐from‐motion photogrammetry enable detailed quantification of geomorphic change. However, rigorous precision‐based change detection can be compromised by survey accuracy problems producing systematic topographic error (e.g. ‘doming’), with error magnitudes greatly exceeding precision estimates. Here, we assess survey sensitivity t...
Article
Increasing air temperature and declining winter snowfalls are resulting in rapid glacier recession and the expansion of proglacial margins in Alpine regions. Such margins include substantial debris accumulations (e.g. frontal/lateral moraine ridges; till-covered and steep valley sidewalls) which may be unstable due to glacial debuttressing. Rainfal...
Article
Full-text available
Alpine hydroelectric power exploitation often aims to increase the volume of water stored behind impoundments which may be achieved through flow abstraction and lateral transfer to storage. Intakes are designed to separate water from sediment which accumulates in settling basins and may be flushed sometimes at sub‐daily frequencies in glaciated bas...
Article
This short editorial reflects upon and explains ESPL's policy with respect to data sharing. Whilst there are clearly a number of important reasons why data should be shared, notably to support transparency in science and to support the long‐term monitoring of geomorphological change, data sharing comes with some concerns. Data sharing cannot become...
Article
At present, a significant weakening of the intensity of transverse mixing at the confluence of large rivers, which is observed in a number of cases, is widely discussed. Since the observed features of the confluence of large watercourses are not only of research interest but also of significant economic importance associated with the characteristic...
Article
The term “ecosystem engineering” emerged in the 1990s and is commonly used to refer to the activities of larger organisms like beavers and trees in rivers and streams. The focus on larger organisms may be motivated by their more visible effects on the environment. However, while it may be intuitive to suggest that the bigger the organism the bigger...
Preprint
Secondary circulation in river confluences results in a spatial and temporal variation of fluid motion and a relatively high level of morphodynamic change. Acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp) vessel‐mounted flow measurements are now commonly used to quantify such circulation in shallow water fluvial environments. It is well established that su...
Article
Secondary circulation in river confluences results in a spatial and temporal variation of fluid motion and a relatively high level of morphodynamic change. Acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp) vessel‐mounted flow measurements are now commonly used to quantify such circulation in shallow water fluvial environments. It is well established that su...
Article
Full-text available
The export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from catchments is considered as an important energy flux through streams and a major connection between terrestrial and aquatic systems. However, the impact that predicted hydrological changes due to glacier retreat and reduction in snow cover changes will have on DOC export from high‐mountain streams r...
Article
Remote sensing and geophysical imaging techniques are often limited in terms of spatial resolution. This prevents the characterization of physical properties and processes at scales finer than the spatial resolution provided by the imaging sensor. In the last decade, multiple-point statistics simulation has been successfully used for downscaling pr...
Article
Human activities have increasingly strong impacts on the sediment dynamics of watersheds, directly, for example through water abstraction and sediment extraction, but also indirectly through climate change. This study aims at disentangling these impacts on natural sediment fluxes for the Borgne river, located in the Alps of South‐West Switzerland,...
Article
Full-text available
The Anthropocene has been proposed as a profound, globally synchronous rupture in the history of the Earth System with its current state fundamentally different to that of the Holocene and driven by the geological force of human activity. Here, we show how stratigraphy is being made in a lake that is heavily impacted upon by climate change and huma...
Article
Salmonid populations are widely distributed globally and are of economic, cultural and ecological importance. Evidence suggests that they are in decline in many parts of the world and one of a number of hypotheses for their decline is the degradation of spawning habitat. Knowledge of spawning sites and their evolution through time is a means of est...
Article
Full-text available
The colonisation of proglacial margins by vegetation following glacier recession is a slow process, not least because glacially produced sediments are commonly well‐drained. Following from human‐induced climate change, warming could increase both growth rates and water availability because of glacier melting, so compensating for situations where cl...
Article
Full-text available
Braided gravel‐bed rivers show characteristic temporal and spatial variability in morphological change and bedload transport under steady flow and sediment supply rates. Their morphodynamic behavior and long‐term evolution in response to non‐stationary external forcing is less well known. We studied daily morphological changes in a well‐constrained...
Article
As a topographic modelling technique, structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry combines the utility of digital photogrammetry with a flexibility and ease of use derived from multi‐view computer vision methods. In conjunction with the rapidly increasing availability of imagery particularly from unmanned aerial vehicles, SfM photogrammetry represen...
Article
Research in the 1990s showed that bed‐material transport rates could be estimated at the reach scale in both one‐dimension and, over small spatial scales (10s of m), in two‐dimensions. The limit on the latter was the spatial scale over which it was possible to obtain distributed data on morphological change. Here, we revisit the morphological metho...
Article
Full-text available
The seasonal dynamics and spatial variability of macroinvertebrate assemblages in Alpine streams are becoming better understood. However, the implications of this knowledge for indices used in monitoring programs have yet to be fully considered. Establishing the ecological status of such streams using macroinvertebrates may then be difficult if wha...
Article
Full-text available
Quantification of climate forcing of glacial hydrological systems at the decadal scale is rare because most measurement stations are too far downstream for glacier impacts to be clearly detected. Here we apply a measure of daily hydrograph entropy to a unique set of reliable, high-altitude gauging stations, dating from the late 1960s. We find a pro...
Article
Full-text available
Shallow rivers provide important habitat for various aquatic and terrestrial species. The bathymetry of such environments is, however, difficult to measure as devices and approaches have been traditionally developed mainly for deeper waters. This study addresses the mapping of shallow water bathymetry with high spatial resolution and accuracy by co...
Article
Full-text available
Matthews’ 1992 geoecological model of vegetation succession within glacial forefields describes how following deglaciation the landscape evolves over time as the result of both biotic and abiotic factors, with the importance of each depending on the level of environmental stress within the system. We focus in this paper on how new understandings of...
Article
Full-text available
Images from specially‐commissioned aeroplane sorties (manned aerial vehicle, MAV), repeat unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) surveys, and Planet CubeSat satellites are used to quantify dune and bar dynamics in the sandy braided South Saskatchewan River, Canada. Structure‐from‐Motion (SfM) techniques and application of a depth‐brightness model are used...
Article
Sediment export from glaciated basins involves complex interactions between ice flow, basal erosion and sediment transfer in subglacial and proglacial streams. In particular, we know very little about the processes associated with sediment transfer by subglacial streams. The Haut Glacier dꞋArolla (VS, Switzerland) was investigated during the summer...
Article
Improved water management strategies necessitate a solid understanding of environmental impacts associated with various flow release policies. Habitat suitability models use hydrodynamic simulations to generate weighted usable area curves, which are useful in characterizing the ecological suitability of flow release rules. However, these models are...
Article
In Alpine streams, humans have strongly modified the interactions between hydraulic processes, geomorphology and aquatic life through dams, flow abstraction at water intakes and river channel engineering. To mitigate these impacts, research has addressed both minimum flows and flow variability to sustain aquatic ecosystems. Whilst such environmenta...