Stuart A Kinner

Stuart A Kinner
Curtin University · School of Population Health

PhD

About

295
Publications
39,017
Reads
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5,332
Citations
Introduction
Professor Stuart Kinner is Head of the Justice Health Unit in the Centre for Health Equity, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne; and leads the Justice Health Group in the Centre for Adolescent Health, Murdoch Children's Research Institute. He also holds academic appointments at University of Queensland, Monash University, Griffith University, and the Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement.
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - present
University of Melbourne
Position
  • Honorary Professioral Fellow
January 2017 - present
Griffith University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2017 - present
Murdoch Children's Research Institute
Position
  • Senior Principal Research Fellow: vulnerable young people research

Publications

Publications (295)
Article
Full-text available
Background: The period after release from prison can be challenging, especially due to a higher risk of morbidity and mortality despite commonly increased use of healthcare services. However, little is known about the quality of the healthcare offered to this population, which limits the possibility of addressing this important health inequity. Th...
Article
Objectives: Guided by minority stress theory, we explored the association between sexual identity, justice system involvement, self-harm and suicide attempts, among a cohort of incarcerated adults in Australia. Methods: A sample of 2698 adults incarcerated in Queensland and Western Australia were surveyed between 1 August 2008 and 12 August 2016...
Article
Full-text available
Global progress towards universal coverage of essential health services, a component of UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3.8, is measured at the country level using the WHO Service Coverage Index. However, data collection for this crucial metric excludes prisons and youth detention centres, despite the health needs in these settings, chronic u...
Article
Background: People released from prison have poorer health than the general public, with a particularly high prevalence of mental illness and harmful substance use. High-frequency use of hospital-based services is costly, and greater investment in transitional support and primary care services to improve the health of people leaving prison may the...
Article
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Community disadvantage and a person's residential geographical location are believed to be risk factors for crime. This research aimed to go beyond examining individual-level risk factors for reincarceration and explored the impact of community disadvantage and residential geographical location on Australia's Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples’...
Article
Objective Rates of emergency department (ED) use are higher among people released from prison than in the general population. However, little is known about ED presentations specifically among people with a history of injecting drug use (IDU) leaving prison. We measured the incidence of ED presentation in the three months following release from pri...
Article
Background: People who experience incarceration are at increased risk of asthma and have a higher prevalence of risk factors associated with asthma-related mortality. However, there has been little research on the relationship between asthma and mortality in people released from prison. Objectives: This study examined the association between ast...
Article
Full-text available
Background People who experience incarceration die by suicide at a higher rate than those who have no prior criminal justice system contact, but little is known about the effectiveness of interventions in other criminal justice settings. We aimed to synthesise evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions to reduce suicide and suicide-relat...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Young people who have had contact with the youth justice system have an increased risk of dying from violence. Examining the context of violence-related deaths is essential in informing prevention strategies. We examined the circumstances and toxicology of violence-related deaths among young people who have had contact with the youth j...
Article
Objective The aim of this study was to identify potential model of care approaches and systems processes for people presenting to acute healthcare settings with mental health problems, including mental illnesses.Methods Five (consensus) nominal group technique sessions were conducted in 2019 with a purposive sample of stakeholders from health, poli...
Article
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Background: People released from incarceration have an increased risk of violence-related death. As deaths from violence are a rare event, meta-analysis is needed to calculate reliable estimates of this risk. We examined the crude mortality rates (CMRs), standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), and predictive factors for violence-related deaths among...
Article
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Background With over 11 million people incarcerated globally, prevention and control of COVID-19 in custodial settings is a critical component of the public health response. Given the risk of rapid transmission in these settings, it is important to know what guidance existed for responding to COVID-19 in the early stages of the pandemic. We sought...
Article
Background Community reintegration from prison is typically stressful, with several health and social outcomes impacting psychiatric well-being during this time, often exacerbated among individuals with histories of drug use. Longitudinal data was used to assess change in psychiatric well-being over 2 years following release from prison among men w...
Article
Introduction People released from prison have an increased risk of morbidity, including from nonfatal violence. We examined the incidence and predictors of violence-related morbidity after release from prison and investigated whether there are differences according to sex and Indigenous status. Methods Baseline data were collected from 1325 people...
Article
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Background There are significant challenges associated with studies of people released from custodial settings, including loss to follow-up in the community. Interpretation of findings with consideration of differences between those followed up and those not followed up is critical in the development of evidence-informed policies and practices. We...
Article
Background More than 30 million adults are released from incarceration globally each year. Many experience complex physical and mental health problems, and are at markedly increased risk of preventable mortality. Despite this, evidence regarding the global epidemiology of mortality following release from incarceration is insufficient to inform the...
Article
Purpose People in prison are at a higher risk of preventable mortality from infectious disease such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and tuberculosis (TB) than those in the community. The extent of infectious disease-related mortality within the prison setting rema...
Article
Background People who inject drugs are overrepresented in prison and have diverse and complex health needs. However, outcomes after release from prison are poorly understood, limiting effective interventions supporting community reintegration. We describe the prevalence of socio-demographics, physical and mental health, alcohol and other drug use,...
Article
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Background: People recently released from prison are at increased risk of preventable death; however, the impact of the current overdose epidemic on this population is unknown. We aimed to document the incidence and identify risk factors for fatal overdose after release from provincial prisons in British Columbia. Methods: We conducted a retrosp...
Article
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Background: The transition from prison to the community can be a difficult process and may present different challenges for adolescents (aged < 25 years) compared with their older peers. Methods: Using data from a prospective cohort study in Australia, we compared the health and welfare outcomes of adolescents (aged < 25 years) and adults (aged ≥ 2...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background There are significant challenges associated with studies of people released from custodial settings, including loss to follow-up in the community. Interpretation of findings with consideration of differences between those followed up and those not followed up is critical in the development of evidence-informed policies and practices. We...
Article
Aims To estimate the treated prevalence of mental illness, substance use disorder (SUD), and dual diagnosis, and the association between dual diagnosis and fatal and non-fatal overdose, among residents of British Columbia, Canada. Design A retrospective cohort study using linked health, income assistance, corrections, and death records. Setting B...
Article
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Background Being recently released from prison or discharged from hospital, or being dispensed opioids, benzodiazepines, or antipsychotics have been associated with an increased risk of fatal drug overdose. This study aimed to examine the association between these periods and non-fatal drug overdose using a within-person design. Methods In this se...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Young people and adults released from incarceration have a risk of dying from violence that far exceeds that in the general population. Despite this, evidence regarding the incidence, elevated risk and predictive factors for violence-related deaths after release have not yet been synthesised. This information is important to inform the...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction There are conflicting perspectives as to whether antidepressant medication increases, decreases or has no effect on violence perpetration, impulsivity and aggressive behaviour. This is an important question given the widespread use of antidepressant medication and the significant medical, social, legal and health consequences of violen...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to determine whether a single session of a motivational interview (MI) reduces smoking relapse amongst people released from smoke-free prisons. Design/methodology/approach This study sought to recruit 824 ex-smokers from 2 smoke-free prisons in the Northern Territory, Australia. Participants were randomised to receive eithe...
Article
Introduction Epidemiologic studies have shown that people released from correctional facilities are at substantially increased risk of overdose-related death compared with the general population. However, the reported effect estimates are substantially heterogeneous, and the previous studies have important limitations in relative risk assessment fo...
Article
IntroductionThe province of BC, Canada is in the grips of a sustained overdose epidemic. People released from prison are at increased risk of fatal drug overdose, but the impact of the overdose epidemic on mortality after release from prison in BC is poorly understood. Few studies have been able to examine risk factors for overdose death in this po...
Article
Introduction More than 30 million adults are released from incarceration globally each year. Many experience complex physical and mental health problems, and are at markedly increased risk of preventable mortality. Despite this, evidence regarding the global epidemiology of mortality following release from incarceration is insufficient to inform th...
Article
Introduction Drug-related death is substantially higher in formerly incarcerated adults compared to the general population. Despite this, remarkably little is known about the epidemiology of drug-related death among justice-involved adolescents. A richer understanding of drug-related mortality in justice-involved young people is essential for the d...
Technical Report
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This factsheet is part of a series aiming to raise awareness about population groups at higher risk of vulnerability to COVId-19. The current one focuses on Children and adolescents deprived of liberty in detention facilities, who are at higher risk of being infected by COVID-19 than the general population given the restricted capacity for physical...
Article
To the Editor Dr Figueroa and colleagues¹ recognized the importance of social determinants in shaping health outcomes. Echoing a recommendation to study marginalized populations,² they recommended multisectoral data linkage as a promising means of examining these complex relationships. We agree with this recommendation but urge caution in pursuing...
Article
Safewards is a psychosocial intervention designed to improve practice and staff-patient interactions in mental health wards. However, evidence regarding the impact of training on implementing change initiatives in this setting is mixed. Pre- and post-training surveys were completed by staff from 18 inpatient wards across seven health services in Vi...
Article
Objective People detained in police custody are a vulnerable population with complex health needs, sometimes requiring emergency care. This study evaluated the effect of a 24/7 nursing presence in a police watch house on police presentations to the emergency department (ED).Methods This was a retrospective observational study conducted in a regiona...
Article
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PurposeTo estimate the prevalence of dual diagnosis and identify health, social and criminal justice factors associated with dual diagnosis among incarcerated adults in Australia and Brazil.Methods We compared data from cross-sectional surveys of incarcerated adults (aged ≥ 18 years) in Australia and Brazil. Using data from linked emergency departm...
Article
Background: In population studies, the risk of injury declines after early adulthood. It is unclear if a similar age difference in the risk of injury exists among people released from prison. Methods: Prerelease survey data collected between 1 August 2008 and 31 July 2010, from a representative cohort of sentenced adults (≥18 years) in Queenslan...
Article
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Links between crystalline methamphetamine (CM) use and criminal offending are often drawn in the media; however, there has been little scientific research into this relationship. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and correlates of lifetime CM use among a sample of young people in detention in Australia and to examine whether an...
Article
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Background: Remarkably little is known about drug use during imprisonment, including whether it represents a continuation of pre-incarceration drug use, or whether prison is also a setting for drug use initiation. This paper aims to describe drug use among people in prison in Norway and investigate risk factors associated with in-prison drug use....
Article
Objective To determine the care pathway and rate and predictors of mental health care contact within seven days of discharge from acute care following self‐harm. Method In a representative cohort of adults released from prisons in Queensland, Australia, we probabilistically linked person‐level, statewide ambulance, emergency department, and hospit...
Article
Prison visitation is believed to protect against reincarceration post-release. This research explored differences in prisoner visitation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, the predictors of visitation and the effects of visitation on the risk of reincarceration. Descriptive analyses, logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards model...
Article
Issues: Methamphetamine use is a problem for health and criminal justice systems (CJS) worldwide. Methamphetamine is used at higher rates in CJS-involved populations than the general community. This systematic review synthesises the evidence for health and CJS outcomes post-CJS contact for people reporting pre-CJS methamphetamine use. Approach:...
Article
Full-text available
IntroductionMore than 30 million adults are released from incarceration globally each year. Many experience complex physical and mental health problems, and are at markedly increased risk of preventable mortality. Despite this, evidence regarding the global epidemiology of mortality following release from incarceration is insufficient to inform the...
Article
People released from prison are a socially marginalized group and are at high risk of death from preventable causes, including violence. Despite this, little is known about the epidemiology of violence-related death (VRD) after release from prison. This knowledge is essential for developing targeted, evidence-informed violence prevention strategies...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents detained within the criminal justice system are affected by complex health problems, health-risk behaviours, and high rates of premature death. We did a global synthesis of the evidence regarding the health of this population. We searched Embase, PsycINFO, Education Resources Information Center, PubMed, Web of Science, CINCH, Global Hea...
Article
The large and growing population of people who experience incarceration makes prison health an essential component of public health and a critical setting for reducing health inequities. People who experience incarceration have a high burden of physical and mental health care needs and have poor health outcomes. Addressing these health disparities...
Article
Abstract Several conditions related to health and development in adolescence can increase the risk that a young person will be exposed to the criminal justice system. Such determinants include neurodevelopmental disability, poor mental health, trauma, and experiences of maltreatment. Furthermore, the risk of exposure to the criminal justice system...
Article
Objective The rapidly growing number of people in prison in Australia, combined with the high prevalence of mental disorder in this population, results in high demand for mental health services in prison settings. Despite their critical role as part of a national mental health response, prison mental health services (PMHS) in Australia have been po...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper was to identify characteristics and predictors of frequent emergency department (ED) use among people released from prisons in Queensland, Australia. Baseline interview data from a sample of sentenced adults were linked to ED and hospital records. The association between baseline characteristics and frequent ED attendance was...
Article
Background: Adults released from prison are at increased risk of poor health outcomes and preventable mortality, including from overdose. Non-fatal overdose (NFOD) is a strong predictor of future overdose and associated with considerable morbidity. This study aims to the determine the incidence, predictors and clinical characteristics of NFOD foll...
Article
Background: Self-reported non-fatal overdose (NFOD) is a predictor of future overdose and is often used to target overdose prevention for people released from prison. However, the level of agreement between self-reported and medically-verified NFOD history remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the agreement between, and predictive value o...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Inpatient mental health wards are reported by many consumers to be custodial, unsafe, and lacking in therapeutic relationships. These consumer experiences are concerning, given international policy directives requiring recovery-oriented practice. Safewards is both a model and a suite of interventions designed to improve safety for consu...
Article
The involvement of families, carers and significant others (i.e. social support networks) has a positive corollary for a person experiencing mental health problems. Accordingly, in Australia involvement of social support networks within mental health services is endorsed in national health policy and service guidelines. Despite the endorsement, thi...
Article
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Introduction: Mental health professionals working in acute inpatient mental health wards are involved in a complex interplay between an espoused commitment by government and organizational policy to be recovery-oriented and a persistent culture of risk management and tolerance of restrictive practices. This tension is overlain on their own professi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Smoke-free policies have been introduced in prisons internationally. However, high rates of relapse to smoking after release from prison indicate that these policies typically result in short-term smoking cessation only. These high rates of relapse, combined with a lack of investment in relapse prevention, highlight a missed opportun...
Article
The number of people presenting to EDs with mental health problems is increasing. To enhance and promote the delivery of safe and efficient healthcare to this group, there is a need to identify evidence‐based, best‐practice models of care. This scoping review aims to identify and evaluate current research on interventions commenced or delivered in...
Article
People brought in by police (BIBP) to the ED are a potentially vulnerable group. This narrative scoping review aimed to identify, evaluate and summarise current literature regarding the frequency of presentation, demographic and clinical profile of patients (including reason for presentation), care delivery, and outcomes for people BIBP to the ED,...
Article
Full-text available
People who inject drugs (PWID) are disproportionately represented among individuals who experience imprisonment and often have more complex physical and mental health needs than people in prison without injecting histories. The trajectories of PWID after prison release are poorly understood, hampering the development of effective strategies to addr...
Article
Background: The prevalence of smoking among people entering prisons is high. Despite increasing adoption of prison smoke-free policies, relapse to smoking after release from prison is nearly universal, and policy to effectively mitigate this is largely absent. Informed by a risk environment framework, we aimed to identify key barriers and facilita...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Rapid demographic, epidemiological, and nutritional transitons have brought a pressing need to track progress in adolescent health. Here, we present country-level estimates of 12 headline indicators from the Lancet Commission on adolescent health and wellbeing, from 1990 to 2016. Methods: Indicators included those of health outcomes...