Steven Wilkins

Steven Wilkins
TNO | tno · Expertise Group for Powertrains

MEng (Hons), PhD, ACGI

About

85
Publications
28,936
Reads
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338
Citations
Citations since 2016
39 Research Items
227 Citations
201620172018201920202021202201020304050
201620172018201920202021202201020304050
201620172018201920202021202201020304050
201620172018201920202021202201020304050
Introduction
Focus on hybrid electric vehicle powertrain engineering, originally based at Imperial College London. He has been involved in a range of projects funded by EPSRC, Industrial, and the EC within FP5,6&7. He is involved in various EU Projects such as ABattReLife, TRANSFORMERS, EMC2, AMBER, FABRIC and others. He is an active member of EARPA within the HECS and the M&S Task Forces, and an active member of TNO within EGVIA. He is also a part-time Assistant Professor (0.2 fte) in EPE Group at TU/e.
Additional affiliations
July 2013 - present
Eindhoven University of Technology
Position
  • Research Assistant
September 1995 - December 2013
Imperial College London
Position
  • Visiting Research Associate

Publications

Publications (85)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents an optimization framework to determine the optimal sizing of main drivetrain components in a 48V battery electric vehicle applied for urban freight transport applications under a European project, namely URBANIZED. An evolutionary algorithm, NSGA-II, is adopted to solve a multi-objective optimization problem, which is formulated...
Conference Paper
Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries in electric vehicle (EV) applications must operate within a narrow temperature range to ensure safety, performance and longevity. Hence, advanced thermal management strategies should have access to internal cell temperatures in a battery pack. In real world application, surface temperatures can be measured, but it is...
Conference Paper
Range anxiety is one of the barriers for the customer acceptance of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). To cope with this limitation, this paper presents a Predictive Energy Management System (PEMS) that can reduce total battery energy consumption by using available up-coming route information such as traffic flow, speed limits and road slope. The de...
Article
Range anxiety is one of the barriers for the customer acceptance of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). To cope with this limitation, this paper presents a Predictive Energy Management System (PEMS) that can reduce total battery energy consumption by using available up-coming route information such as traffic flow, speed limits and road slope. The de...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Shift2Rail (S2R) develops fundamental building blocks for the future rail system, as demonstrated by the technological possibilities and evolutionary change envisaged in its work program and Multi‐Annual Action Plan (MAAP). However, S2R work programmes need to be continuously monitored and updated to ensure that it optimally makes use of the potent...
Conference Paper
Zero emission commercial transport remains a challenge for several industrial organisations. Amidst the transition towards commercial transport electrification, hydrogen powered-fuel cell electric hybrid trucks have the potential to play a significant role in commercial freight transport due to their extended range and quick refueling capabilities...
Conference Paper
In this paper, a modular equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) framework for hybrid vehicles is proposed. The approach is based on applying the dual decomposition to the ECMS optimal control problem. This allows the optimal control problem to be decomposed into smaller optimization problems related to each of the subsystems, for which...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a State of Charge prediction model (LSTM Neural Network) which was trained using a synthetic dataset generated by means of a backward facing drive cycle simulator via a Monte Carlo scheme. The trained model can be used to predict the SoC along a route of interest given a dataset-containing among other variables-, relevant operat...
Chapter
This work gives an outlook on the potential of automated driving functions (ADFs) to reduce real-world \(\mathrm {CO_2}\) and pollutant emissions for heavy-duty powertrains. Up to now, ADF research mainly focuses on increased traffic safety, driver comfort, and road capacity. Studies on emissions are lacking. By taking the driver out-of-the-loop, c...
Article
In this paper, a modular equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) framework for hybrid vehicles is proposed. The approach is based on applying the dual decomposition to the ECMS optimal control problem. This allows the optimal control problem to be decomposed into smaller optimization problems related to each of the subsystems, for which...
Article
This paper develops an optimization framework to minimize the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). In this paper, TCO is the summation of operational and main vehicle powertrain components cost. The developed optimization framework is formulated via combining convex optimization and Dynamic Programming techniq...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a co-design optimization framework for the heavy-duty trucks as a part of the ORCA European project. The proposed co-design framework composes of an optimal control strategy using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS), which is nested into a component sizing optimization loop employing Genetic Algorithms (GA)....
Preprint
This work is performed within the ORCA project's scope addressing topic GV-03-2016 "System and cost optimised hybridisation of road vehicles" regarding heavy duty vehicles. Although hybrid electric heavy duty vehicles (HEVs) are already in production, their market penetration is still relatively low and limited to certain vehicle classes. To increa...
Preprint
Battery thermal management is essential to efficienct and safe operation of Li-ion batteries, particularly in challenging applications such as fast charging. This work proposes a thermal management control framework based on MPC. The novelty of this approach resides in the focus on incorporating disturbance prediction into the control decision. Sim...
Preprint
Model based development methodologies have strong potential in reducing development effort of complex automotive systems. This paper presents a model based development methodology used to develop battery state estimation algorithms, and steps through all the steps required for this. The benefits of the mixed simulation and testing methodology are o...
Conference Paper
From national and european projects, various options are being considered for the greening of heavy-duty commercial vehicles. As we approach 2050, the urban and inter-urban transport of freight and people needs to transition towards more sustainable technologies and energy carriers. Furthermore, optimisation of powertrains and infrastructure needs...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article presents the approach used for the design optimization of heavy vehicles such as urban buses and delivery trucks as a part or the ORCA European Project. A methodology to find the optimal combination of hardware components and energy management strategy is presented and the use cases where it will be applied are described. To achieve t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates various methods to reduce the power consumption of a hydraulic active suspension system (AS) using improved control strategy or additional hardware with energy harvesting capability. Besides skyhook and other rule-based control strategies, control of the AS is typically formulated as an optimal control problem with an object...
Technical Report
Full-text available
There is growing consensus among governments, businesses and consumers about climate change and the required energy transition. At the Paris climate conference (COP21) in December 2015, 195 countries adopted the first-ever universal, legally binding global climate deal. The agreement sets out a global action plan to put the world on track to limit...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Late 2016, London Mayor Sadiq Khan announced to join 11 other major cities, including New York, Los Angeles, Copenhagen, Hamburg and Amsterdam, that have committed to begin moves to phase out their procurement of pure diesel buses by the end of 2020. With the initiative, major cities are working together to challenge bus manufacturers to produce mo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the main objectives of public transport companies is to optimize their cost of operation, this becomes prominent when migrating from conventional to electric buses. By exploiting the periodicity and predictable operation of the city buses an optimal charging strategy to minimize the battery charging costs of an electric bus is devised. For e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A view on the technologies and advances required to achieve a sustainable transport system
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Within hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) predictive energy management strategies (EMSs) have the potential to reduce the fuel consumption compared to conventional EMSs, where the drive cycle is unknown. Typically, predictive EMSs require a future vehicle speed profile prediction. However, when prediction is inaccurate, the systems fuel reduction perf...
Article
Within hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) predictive energy management strategies (EMSs) have the potential to reduce the fuel consumption compared to conventional EMSs, where the drive cycle is unknown. Typically, predictive EMSs require a future vehicle speed profile prediction. However, when prediction is inaccurate, the systems fuel reduction perf...
Article
Full-text available
For conventional buses, based on the decades of their operational knowledge, public transport companies are able to optimize their cost of operation. However, with recent trend in the usage of electric buses, cost optimal operation can become challenging. In this paper an offline optimal charging strategy is developed to minimize the energy cost. T...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the implementation and experimental demonstration of a capacity estimation method for lithium-ion battery cells based on two different least squares techniques , namely (weighted) ordinary least squares and (weighted) total least squares. The proposed approach is coupled with an extended kalman filter for state-of-charge estimat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hybird Electric Vehicles (HEVs) require sophisticated Energy Management Strategies (EMSs) to minimize the vehicles fuel consumption. In HEVs, predictive EMSs improve the fuel reduction performance compared to non-predictive strategies [1, 2]. However, if the prediction information is inaccurate, the system performance and robustness will be suffere...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Design of high performance, low cost and clean propulsion systems requires multiple disciplines such as physics, mathematics, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and specialisms like control engineering and safety. This paper details the program of EU FP7 Multi-ITN project ADvanced Electric Powertrain Technology (ADEPT) and presents a re...
Article
This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion power, the developed strategy optimizes the power dem...
Research
Full-text available
EcoDriving research at TNO; overview and motivations
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Alternative energy sources for traditional combustion engines (e.g. fuel cells, solar cells, batteries) in vehicles like motorbikes, cars, trucks, boats, planes will go hand in hand with a massive growth of the application of electric machines inside (‘E-propulsion’). For automotive, marine, aerospace and other heavy duty transportation for traveli...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of the cells, to support functionalities such as bal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a method of predicting the maximum power capability of a Li-Ion battery, to be used for electric motor control within automotive powertrains. As maximum power is highly dependent on battery state, the method consists of a pack level state observer coupled with a predictive battery pack model. Results show that the pack level sta...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Battery Management Systems (BMS) have an essential role in hybrid and electric vehicles, contributing to the safety, performance and efficiency of the vehicle. In the years to come, BMS’s will increasingly rely on state estimation to increase the performance of their existing functionalities (such as State of Charge/State of Health estimation and c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The application of predictive information has the potential to yield significant fuel savings for various vehicle types. EHorizon is a grouping of approaches which concern the use of prediction information often to improve fuel economy or total cost of vehicle operation. This study presents simulation and demonstration of two approaches towards bot...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) is engaged in research, development and testing of a range of technologies relating to hybrid and electric vehicle energy management and performance. The impact of driver behaviour on vehicle energy consumption is a significant factor, and one which can often be reduced with eco-dri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a dynamic battery model describing the battery voltage...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Thermal Modelling of Battery Pack within Integrated Powertrain Control • Thermal management within the context of battery ageing • Simulation level assessment of the use of the battery under different operational conditions • On board monitoring, management, and prediction • System level control and energy management
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Driveability of BEVs is subject to the driver behaviour and in more extreme cases the powertrain is unable to adapt. The behaviour of drivers is categorized and presented here with comparison against more standard drive cycles. The extremes of the driver behaviour and this distribution is based on real-world measurements. A driver grading mechanism...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Thales was asked to look at the challenge of sensing Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) hazards in an urban environment. This initiated a line of research and development, leading to interesting improvements in the identification and detection of illicit substances in general.
Patent
Full-text available
An optical absorption spectroscopy apparatus comprises a multi-pass optical cell (1) having a first reflector (2) and a second reflector (4, 4′), a first light source (6) for light of a first waveband and a second light source (6′) for light of a second waveband. The cell (1) is constructed and arranged such that light entering the cell is reflecte...
Patent
Full-text available
An optical absorption spectroscopy apparatus comprises a light source, a detector for detecting an optical absorption spectrum of light transmitted from the source through a sample volume and one or more reflectors for reflecting the transmitted light multiple times through the sample volume. An adjuster device is provided for adjusting at least on...
Article
Shipping contributes 4.5% to global CO2 emissions and is not covered by the Kyoto Agreement. One method of reducing CO2 emissions on land is combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) or trigeneration, with typical combined thermal efficiencies of over 80%. Large luxury yachts are seen as an ideal entry point to the off-shore market for this develop...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Developments in sensing, positioning, communications and computing technologies have enabled the development of wireless sensor network technologies and their application to real world problems. The technologies developed in the Mobile Environmental Sensing System Across a Grid Environment (MESSAGE) project have been deployed in a series of real wo...
Patent
Full-text available
Apparatus and systems, preferably using UV spectroscopy, for the dynamic and continuous detection and quantification of a range of chemicals, particularly pollutants, in the environment, and to the production of a real-time display or map to display chemical levels in the environment are provided. By providing data packets which combine details of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes how the technologies developed in the MESSAGE project have been deployed in a series of real-world experiments to examine the relationship between transport and air pollution. Three different sensor systems have been developed to allow deployment on infrastructure, people and vehicles for both short and long term studies. This...
Article
Full-text available
MESSAGE set out to make use of the ever-increasing power of computer infrastructure in order to support the capture, processing, archiving, analysis and visualisation of pollution data. This paper describes how the MESSAGE e-Science architecture was developed facilitating the whole process from the capture of data through to its use. This covers th...