Steven C Wallace

Steven C Wallace
East Tennessee State University | ETSU · Department of Geosciences

PhD Geosciences (Vertebrate Paleontology)

About

69
Publications
23,070
Reads
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526
Citations
Citations since 2017
36 Research Items
300 Citations
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Introduction
Dr. Wallace has been at the ETSU since completing his PhD at the University of Iowa in 2001. Currently, he is a Full Professor in the Dept. of Geosciences. In addition, he serves as a Curator at the East Tennessee State University and General Shale Brick Natural History Museum, and the Site Director of the Gray Fossil Site, Washington Co., TN. Current research interests include small carnivorans (mostly Musteloids), but also Felids, Canids, and Perissodactyls (specifically Tapirs & Rhinos).
Education
August 1997 - May 2001
University of Iowa
Field of study
  • Vertebrate Paleontology

Publications

Publications (69)
Poster
Full-text available
Mustelids, members of the weasel family, are the most species rich and ecologically diverse family within the order Carnivora. However, fossil mustelids are poorly understood due to their rarity in the fossil record. Fossils of “Eurasian” badgers in particular, subfamily Melinae, only include three stem and two crown genera: Arctomeles, Arctonyx, F...
Chapter
This chapter deals with the advanced members of Ailuridae. Aside from a few well-represented taxa such as Simocyon batalleri and Pristinailurus bristoli, the fossil record of Ailuridae consists of mostly isolated teeth and fragmentary specimens. However, these two taxa are beginning to shed new light on this group of specialized carnivorans. In par...
Chapter
Once a geographically widespread lineage of carnivorans, all that remains of the family Ailuridae is the crown clade member, Ailurus fulgens. Recent genomic work has proposed that the two subspecies of A. fulgens, A. f. styani (Chinese red panda) and A. f. fulgens (Himalayan red panda) be elevated as separate species. Given that this taxon is endan...
Poster
Full-text available
Relationships among the three feliform cat-like lineages: Felidae, Nimravidae, and Barbourofelidae remain controversial, with barbourofelids either falling within Nimravidae, or elevated to family. Ecomorphological studies of locomotion can be used to infer anatomical relationships, which may provide insight to phylogeny. Previous studies often use...
Poster
Report of a new MNI for T. polkensis from the Gray Fossil Site. A demographic based on established age classes for T. polkensis suggests the site was an attritional deposit.
Article
Full-text available
Paleontologists and paleoanthropologists have long debated relationships between cranial morphology and diet in a broad diversity of organisms. While the presence of larger temporalis muscle attachment area (via the presence of sagittal crests) in carnivorans is correlated with durophagy (i.e. hard-object feeding), many primates with similar morpho...
Presentation
A proposal to study subtle variations in early Homo species in the posterior region of the zygomatic arch.
Article
Prairie (Microtus ochrogaster) and woodland (Microtus pinetorum) voles, which exhibit distinctly different ecological preferences (grassland versus forest), commonly co-occur in paleontological deposits in eastern North America. Despite their ecological differences, their molar morphology is similar. Assuming that those ecologic differences occurre...
Poster
Full-text available
The Gray Fossil Site is located in northeastern Tennessee and consists of multiple coalesced sinkholes infilled with fossil-bearing lacustrine sediments (Shunk et al., 2006, 2008; Whitelaw et al., 2008; Zobaa et al., 2011). Initial age estimates (4.5-7 Ma) were broad and based on limited biostratigraphy (Wallace and Wang, 2004). Subsequent palynolo...
Article
Full-text available
A new species of rhinoceros, Teleoceras aepysoma n. sp., is described from the late Hemphillian-aged Gray Fossil Site of eastern Tennessee. Fossils from a minimum of six individuals, including two nearly complete, articulated skeletons, have been found at the Gray Fossil Site. Availability of such complete specimens enables a thorough morphological...
Method
A more detailed description and justification will be added later, but for now enjoy this tutorial on the use of micro-explosives at the Gray Fossil Site. Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IZXZYB07ISI
Article
Full-text available
Two peccary species, Mylohyus elmorei and Prosthennops serus are described from the medium-bodied fauna of the Gray Fossil Site (GFS) of northeastern Tennessee. This site, recognized as an oak-hickory forest, is latest Hemphillian or earliest Blancan based on mammalian biochronology, with an estimated age of 4.9–4.5 Ma. The GFS represents the only...
Article
Full-text available
The limb skeleton of tapirs (Perissodactyla: Tapirus spp.) was traditionally thought to exhibit morphological variation only as a result of changes in body size. Here, we test whether forelimb variation exhibited by Tapirus is solely an artefact of size fluctuations through the tapir fossil record or whether it is influenced by habitat differences....
Data
Supplementary FIle for MacLaren et al. 2018. Contents include: 1. Body Mass Calculations 2. Correcting for allometry 3. Phylogenetic Reconstruction 4. Multivariate Regression 5. Pairwise perMANOVAs 6. Phylogenetic Signal 7. Isotope Values 8. Supplementary phyMANOVAs 9. Supplementary References A list of specimens used in the analyses can be provide...
Data
Supplementary file for MacLaren et al. (2018) A morphometric analysis of the forelimb in the genus Tapirus (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) reveals influences of habitat, phylogeny and size through time and across geographical space. Including body mass calculations, allometric corrections, phylogenetic reconstruction and phylogenetic signal calculation...
Data
List of specimens included in the analyses for MacLaren et al. (2018) A morphometric analysis of the forelimb in the genus Tapirus (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) reveals influences of habitat, phylogeny and size through time and across geographical space.
Article
Full-text available
The wolverine (Gulo gulo) is the largest living terrestrial member of the Mustelidae; a versatile predator formerly distributed throughout boreal regions of North America and Eurasia. Though commonly recovered from Pleistocene sites across their range, pre-Pleistocene records of the genus are exceedingly rare. Here, we describe a new species of Gul...
Data
Gulo gulo (ETVP 291) photographed in two different orientations (A) Palate parallel to the photographic plane. (B) Alveolar margin of P4 parallel to the photographic plane. Note that in A the lingual cingulum along the P4 metastyle is obscured, but it is visible in B. Scale bar equals 1 cm. Photographs by Joshua Samuels.
Data
Dental measurements (in mm) of gulonines and some other mustelid species used in comparative analyses Data were derived from measurements of specimens and consultation of cited literature sources.
Data
Occurrences of Gulo in the fossil records of North America and Eurasia Data were derived from a wide range of literature sources, as well as occurrences listed in the MIOMAP/FAUNMAP Databases (Carrasco et al., 2007; Graham & Lundeliu Jr, 2010; http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/neomap/) and NOW Database (Fortelius, 2013; http://pantodon.science.helsinki....
Conference Paper
Ailuridae (Carnivora, Musteloidea) was once diverse in species, diet, and distribution (covering most of the northern hemisphere). However, relationships within the family are poorly understood because of a limited fossil record and the existence of only one extant taxon; the highly derived red panda (Ailurus fulgens). In particular, most fossil ai...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation of the first results testing the size-shape relationship in the genus Tapirus through geological time and across geographic space. Size, phylogeny and adaptive morphology are all tested to ascertain whether body size (mass) is the only factor affecting post-cranial morphological differences in tapirs using the tetradactyl forelimb.
Article
Full-text available
Morphometric measurements were used to classify 11 mustelid dentaries from Snake Creek Burial Cave (SCBC), a late Pleistocene to early Holocene–aged paleontological locality in eastern Nevada, that were undifferentiated between Mustela nigripes (black-footed ferret) and Neovison vison (American mink) due to their similar size and morphology. We, th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pristinailurus bristoli is only known from the late Hemphillian Gray Fossil Site (Washington County, TN). Since its description in 2004 based on an isolated M1, several specimens have been found, bringing the MNI up to seven. Among the new material are two nearly complete specimens: ETMNH 3596 (~98% complete) and ETMNH 15000 (~75% complete). Th...
Poster
Hemphillian localities are rare within the eastern United States, being predominantly restricted to Florida. The Gray Fossil Site (GFS), constrained to approximately 7 to 4.5 Ma, is one of the few sites that represent this time interval through the preservation of a diverse biota from a lacustrine setting. Flora identified within the site indicates...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Gray Fossil Site (Washington County, TN) is unique, because it is the only late Hemphillian locality in the Appalachian region. As would be expected, this site is home to a diverse fauna. Highlights include dwarf tapirs (Tapirus polkensis), a meline badger (Arctomeles dimolodontus), short-legged rhinoceros (Teleoceras sp.), an unidentified p...
Article
Full-text available
Dentaries of 6 species of Myotis from eastern North America were analyzed, using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, and were distinguished with 83.3% accuracy, although sexes were poorly discriminated using this technique. Fossils of Myotis from Bat Cave, KY, were studied in an attempt to identify these specimens to species level. Southeastern...
Article
Full-text available
A tooth recovered from the middle Miocene Choptank Formation (Chesapeake Group) of Maryland is identified as a new cynarctin borophagine (Canidae: Borophaginae: Cynarctina), here called Cynarctus wangi n. sp. The tooth, identified as a right upper second molar, represents the first carnivoran material reported from the Choptank Formation and part o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Influence on the body size of Bison has been forced prehistorically by climate, and historically by anthropogenic selection for breeding. Specifically, bison body size appears to be diminishing due to increasing temperatures and/or abrupt climate change. High resolution relative temperature changes occur within centuries and decades in many cases,...
Article
Full-text available
A second nearly complete skeleton of the fossil ailurid Pristinailurus bristoli was recently recovered from the Hemphillian (late Miocene) Gray Fossil Site of northeast Tennessee. It appears to be significantly larger than the previously known skeleton of P. bristoli, which was surprising as the living red panda Ailurus fulgens is thought to be gen...
Article
Full-text available
The phylogenetic position of Panthera atrox within Felidae is still controversial despite many morphological and molecular studies addressing its relationships. This is in part due to the lack of consensus on a tree for Panthera. These inconsistencies suggest the need for further analysis and perhaps even different methodology to better understand...
Article
Here, we describe saber-toothed cat remains from the early Early Pleistocene (∼2.0 Ma) of Yanliang Cave, Fusui County, Guangxi Province, South China. Specimens, including a complete left dentary and right m1, are identified as Megantereon based on mandibular and dental characters. The Yanliang Megantereon is the smallest representative of the genus...
Article
Wild canid populations exhibit different anatomical morphologies compared to domesticated dogs in North America. This is particularly important concerning archaeological sites, which may contain early domesticated species, for the proper identification of osteological remains. Previous studies have indicated domestic dogs exhibit a shorter rostrum...
Article
Full-text available
The extinct taxon Dasypus bellus has long been considered identical to the extant Dasypus novemcinctus osteologically when disregarding allometric differences. In this study, we undertake a preliminary investigation into this extinct taxon and an extant relative D. novemcinctus, by comparing the calcanea of these two dasypodids. Clear osteological...
Article
Full-text available
South-central Florida's latest Hemphillian Palmetto Fauna includes two machairodontine felids, the lion-sized Machairodus coloradensis and a smaller, jaguar-sized species, initially referred to Megantereon hesperus based on a single, relatively incomplete mandible. This made the latter the oldest record of Megantereon, suggesting a New World origin...
Data
Character used in this analysis (1-25 modified from [20] ). (DOC)
Data
Supplemental text. (DOC)
Article
Full-text available
The extant venomous Gila monster and beaded lizards, species of Heloderma, live today in southwestern USA and south along the Pacific coastal region into Central America, but their fossil history is poorly understood. Here we report helodermatid osteoderms (dermal ossicles) from the late Miocene-early Pliocene Gray Fossil Site, eastern Tennessee US...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter deals with the advanced members of Ailuridae. A side from a few well-represented taxa such as Simocyon batalleri and Pristinailurus bristoli, the fossil record of the Ailuridae consists of mostly isolated teeth and fragmentary specimens. However, these two taxa are beginning to shed new light on this group of specialized carnivorans. T...
Conference Paper
Previous studies of Guy Wilson Cave (GWC) in Sullivan County, Tennessee revealed an abundance of late Pleistocene large mammal fossils, mostly herbivores such as deer (Odocoileus sp.) and flat-headed peccary (Platygonus compressus). Along with the herbivore remains were some bones of dire wolf (Canus dirus) and bear (Ursus sp.). Based on analysis o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Previous studies of Guy Wilson Cave (GWC) in Sullivan County, Tennessee revealed an abundance of late Pleistocene large mammal fossils, mostly herbivores such as deer (Odocoileus sp.) and flat-headed peccary (Platygonus compressus). In addition were some bones of dire wolf (Canus dirus) and bear (Ursus sp.). Based on analysis of wear patterns on pe...
Conference Paper
Previous studies of Guy Wilson Cave (GWC) in Sullivan County, Tennessee revealed an abundance of late Pleistocene large mammal fossils, mostly herbivores such as deer (Odocoileus sp.) and flat-headed peccary (Platygonus compressus). Along with the herbivore remains were some bones of dire wolf (Canus dirus) and bear (Ursus sp.). Based on analysis o...
Article
The Saltville Valley of southwestern Virginia contains an abundance of extinct Late Pleistocene megafauna. Recent excavations in the valley produced two particularly notable discoveries, the remains of a scavenged mammoth (Mammuthus sp.) and a giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus). The bear is the first carnivoran record from Saltville, and its l...
Article
Full-text available
The previously poorly known "Tapiravus" polkensis Olsen, 1960 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Tapiridae) is now known from abundant, well preserved specimens from both the type area in central Florida and from the Gray Fossil Site (GFS) in eastern Tennessee. The latter has produced over 75 individuals, the greatest number of tapirids from a single fossi...
Article
Neogene land-mammal localities are very rare in the northeastern U.S.; therefore, the late Miocene/early Pliocene Gray Fossil Site in eastern Tennessee can clarify paleoecological dynamics during a time of dramatic global change. In particular, the identification of ancient forests and past climate regimes will better our understanding of the envir...
Article
Full-text available
The distinct ecological requirements of Microtus xanthognathus (yellow-cheeked vole or taiga vole) and M. pennsylvanicus (meadow vole) warrant accurate discrimination of their remains in studies of paleoecology and past biogeographical shifts. An occlusal length of the lower 1st molars (ml) that is >3.2 mm for M. xanthognathus is the method most fr...
Article
The selection of an appropriate data acquisition method is a significant phase of GIS design, because the data determine the scale and accuracy of the analysis in the GIS. In the case of fossils, the method selected must provide precise mapping of all sizes of fossils uncovered at the paleontological site. Historically, paleontologists have used di...
Article
Full-text available
Late Cenozoic terrestrial fossil records of North America are biased by a predominance of mid-latitude deposits, mostly in the western half of the continent. Consequently, the biological history of eastern North America, including the eastern deciduous forest, remains largely hidden. Unfortunately, vertebrate fossil sites from this vast region are...
Article
Identification of Arvicoline (Microtine) rodent molars from archaeological and palaeontological sites is especially desirable because they are conspicuous, frequently recovered in quantity, often contemporaneous with occupation, good palaeoenvironmental indicators, and morphologically distinct. In many cases, the rodent taxa themselves comprised a...

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Projects

Projects (9)
Project
To study the endocranial anatomy of a recent fossil tapir and make comparisons extant tapirs.
Project
Identify, describe, and publish the peccary material from the Gray Fossil Site in northeastern Tennessee.
Project
A detailed podcast created by lab and field manager, Shawn Haugrud, and museum specialist, Brian Compton, on the happenings of the Gray Fossil Site (Mio-Pliocene aged site; Washington County, TN, USA), including but not limited to techniques used, discoveries, and special guest interviewers. All podcasts are available on https://atouchofgraypodcast.podbean.com/ however for the purpose of researchgate, postings will be limited to more academically/research oriented episodes. Listen to the weekly podcast through iTunes, via the website http://www.atouchofgraypodcast.com/ , and follow the Facebook page https://www.facebook.com/atouchofgraypodcast/ The views, information, or opinions expressed during A Touch of Gray Podcast series are solely those of the individuals involved and do not necessarily represent those of East Tennessee State University, the Center of Excellence in Paleontology, the ETSU Museum of Natural History, or employees and affiliates. East Tennessee State University is not responsible and does not verify for accuracy any of the information contained in the podcast series available for listening on this site. The primary purpose of this podcast series is to share stories, provide historical context, and entertain. If you hear misinformation on the podcast, please let us know and we will try and address it in a future episode.