Steven P A Parker

Steven P A Parker
The School of Pharmacy · Health & Life Sciences De Montfort University Leicester UK

Doctor of Dental Surgery

About

83
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (83)
Article
Full-text available
The development of protocols for laser-assisted therapy demands strict compliance with comprehensive operating parametry. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the accuracy of correlation between laser control panel and fibre emission power values in a selection of diode dental lasers. Through retrospective analysis using successive syst...
Article
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Background: Dosimetry at a level of 2-8 J/cm2 at target cellular level has been accepted to represent the optimum range for the stimulatory benefits associated with photobiomodulation therapies. However, it has been proposed that a higher bracket of 10-30 J/cm2 at target tissue level may represent a good and effective range for analgesia, accompani...
Article
Full-text available
There are inconclusive results regarding etching and bonding protocol to achieve optimal bond strength and marginal integrity of adhesive composite resin restorations in erbium laser prepared cavities. This systematic review aimed to consider which adhesive system protocol may be optimal in achieving the bond strength and marginal integrity in erbi...
Article
Introduction: The aim of this article was to evaluate reports in the scientific literature that used antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) with a blue light source and curcumin and riboflavin as photosensitizers in the management of periodontitis. Methods: The search was conducted in electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and S...
Article
Full-text available
Background: During in-office bleaching, appropriate light sources are applied in order to enhance the activity of the bleaching gels applied onto teeth. For this method to be effective, a high absorption of light within the gel is necessary. Variation in the light attenuation capability of the gel, the duration of application and light activation...
Article
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It is a common experience amongst laser dentists and patients that mid-IR wavelength application in cavity preparation may be achieved without causing any associated pain. The erbium family of lasers (Er,Cr:YSGG 2780 nm and Er:YAG 2940 nm) are frequently used without employing injectable local anesthesia as an adjunct: the phenomenon arising from t...
Article
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Objective: To explore via systematic review the validation of uneventful post-surgical healing, associated with shorter and longer laser wavelength applications in minor oral surgery procedures. Methods: From April 28 to May 11, 2020, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and Google Scholar search engines were applied to identify human cl...
Article
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Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials examines a possible relationship between optical spot size at surface tissue, irradiance, radiant exposure, total energy delivered, operator technique and reported clinical outcomes. Background: Clinical photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy has achieved a h...
Article
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Background: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an effective alternative method for the adjunctive treatment of all classes of oral infections. The multifactorial nature of its mechanism of action correlates with various influencing factors, involving parameters concerning both the photosensitizer and the light delivery...
Article
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Dental implants are intended to provide long-term reliable dental restorations. Limited data exist on the comparison between different implant surfaces. This study aims to clarify whether there is a difference between airborne particle- abraded and acid-etched (SLA implants) and only acid-etched surfaces (Osseotite) in healthy and periodontally com...
Article
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(1) Background: dental lasers have numerous applications for periodontal therapy which include surgical procedures of soft tissue and osseous structures, and non-surgical treatments such as pathogen reduction, removal of surface accretions, and photobiomodulation. The aim of this review was to evaluate the scientific literature to ascertain whether...
Article
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Background: Gingival hyperpigmentation is a major concern for a significant number of patients, as a relevant aesthetic or cosmetic need. Oral melanin pigmentation is considered to be multifactorial and could be related to physiological or even pathological reasons and can be the consequence of a variety of local or systemic factors. This pigmenta...
Article
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Oral mucositis (OM) is a debilitating complication of chemotherapy, and head and neck radiotherapy. In an effort to offer the best possible advice within the limitations of published research, a systematic review with an extended discussion and commentary on dosimetry and dose delivery is presented. Using keywords as listed, Pubmed, Google Scholar...
Article
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Background: The aim of this systematic review is to compare the effectiveness of lasers in the treatment of implant mucositis and peri-implantitis compared to conventional treatment (non-surgical or surgical: resective or regenerative). Methods: Sources of PubMed, Cochrane and Google Scholar search engines were used on articles published from 19...
Article
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(1) Background: Adjunctive instruments, such as lasers have been investigated to address the risk of failure of endodontic therapy due to the complexity of the root canal system. Lasers have been used therapeutically, in direct irradiation of the root canals or adjunct to irrigants placed into the canals, in combination with a photosensitizer (anti...
Article
Full-text available
Fundamental to the adjunctive use of laser photonic energy for delivering therapy and tissue management, is the ability of the incident energy to be absorbed by target tissues. The aim of this review is to examine the differential performance of the separate components of oral hard and soft tissues when exposed to laser photonic irradiance of varia...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of the chlorophyllin–phycocyanin mixture (Photoactive+) as a photosensitizer (PS) during antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) on the count of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) using different light sources. The antimicrobial effect of aPDT with chlorophyllin–phycocyanin mixture us...
Article
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Background: The use of lasers at different wavelengths has been proposed in combination with conventional non-surgical periodontal treatment in order to improve the clinical outcome of periodontal disease. However, the clinical use of laser photonic energy is still the subject of research and debate because the antibacterial activity of the laser...
Article
The goal of non-surgical treatment is to obtain an access to the root canal system in order to remove the previous filling. We analized 45 human single-canal roots, mesial roots of mandibular molars and distal roots of maxillary molars without previous endodontic treatment, fractures, resorptive defects or open apices. We evaluated the time require...
Article
Background: Enterococcus faecalis, as a major microorganism in persistent/secondary infections of endodontically treated teeth, is less likely to be eliminated during endodontic therapy. In this study, the effect of root canal disinfection and anti-virulence activities of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of E. faecalis utilizing reduced graphene ox...
Article
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Objective: This systematic review of published research evaluates the parameters and reported outcomes in photobiomodulation therapies (PBMTs) used in management of pain and accelerated tooth movement during orthodontic treatment. Background: Consequent to positive in vitro and animal studies, there has been considerable interest in the potential...
Article
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Objective: This systematic review of published data critically appraises the consistency in the reported delivery parameters used in photobiomodulation (PBM) therapies research within clinical dentistry and makes reporting recommendations for future clinical protocols. Background: Key to the standardization of randomized clinical trials and associ...
Article
Photobiomodulation relies on the transfer of energy from incident photons to a cell photoacceptor. For many years the concept of photobiomodulation and its outcome has been based upon a belief that the sole receptor within the cell was the mitochondrion. Recently, it has become apparent that there are other photoacceptors operating in different reg...
Article
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To evaluate the potential benefits of photobiomodulation therapy in the management of periodontitis
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Background: The clinical therapeutic benefits of Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy have been well established in many clinical scenarios. However, we are far from having developed a complete understanding of the underlying mechanisms of photon-biological tissue interactions. Concurrent to ongoing PBM studies, there are several parallel fields with e...
Article
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Aim: To evaluate the impact in terms of the benefit of adjunctive photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy associated with laser and LED irradiance on the management of periodontitis. Background: The pathogenesis of periodontitis has been well represented in peer-reviewed publications and is accepted as a complex interaction of multiple factorial agents. T...
Article
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Aim: The aim of this randomized clinical study was to evaluate the effect of laser-activated irrigation using a Photon-Induced Photoacoustic Streaming technique on postoperative pain following completion of root canal obturation. Methods: Fifty-six patients were enrolled in this randomized clinical trial. Fifty-six healthy premolars or molars with...
Article
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In the originally published article, the name of the first author Isabelle Fini Storchi was labeled incorrectly. The correct name shown below: Given name: Isabelle. Family name: Fini Storchi.
Article
Background: During antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the treatment of endodontic intracanal infection, it is extremely likely that microorganisms would be exposed to sub-lethal doses of PDT (sPDT). Although sPDT would not result in microorganism death, it can considerably influence microbial virulence. This study evaluated the effect of...
Chapter
The oral cavity is a relatively confined anatomical region, with a close approximation of hard and soft tissue structures. The comparatively delicate nature of each tissue structure places demands on surgical techniques using lasers and the maximum power parameters used.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate positive effects of the carbon dioxide laser (CO2, 10,600 nm) with acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel on enamel acid resistance. Twenty extracted human third molars (40 surfaces) were randomly assigned into four groups: group C, untreated control; group L, CO2 laser alone group; group F, APF 1.23%...
Article
Full-text available
Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a manipulation of cellular behavior using non-abla-tive low intensity light sources. This manipulation triggers a cascade of metabolic effects and physiological changes resulting in improved tissue repair, of benefit in the treatment of tissue injury, degenerative or autoimmune diseases. PBM has witnessed an exponential...
Article
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Snoring is a sleep phenomenon due to the partial upper airway obstruction during sleep which causes vibration of the tissues of the rhino-oro-hypopharynx and less frequently the larynx. This study evaluated the use and effectiveness of the erbium:YAG 2940-nm laser as an adjunctive in providing treatment for patients suffering from chronic snoring-r...
Article
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of laser-activated irrigation by photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) in the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in root canal disinfection, varying laser energy output, and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) concentration. For effective removal of the smear layer, the seq...
Chapter
Laser use in general dental practice has grown considerably over the past 25 years, both in numbers of machines and the scope of usage. General and specific measures must be employed to ensure the safe use of lasers in dentistry. Regulations – specific to lasers or within the licenced scope of practice – apply a duty of care to all dental healthcar...
Chapter
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“Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding (of the natural and social world) following a systematic methodology based on evidence” – source: ► www.sciencecouncil.org. Within such a generalized statement, there is much to commend on the acquisition of knowledge and understanding when using a dental laser of any descriptio...
Chapter
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The potential for laser–tissue interaction forms the basis of the usefulness of predictable employment of laser photonic energy as an adjunct to clinical dental and oral therapy. Appreciation of the underlying mechanisms together with acknowledgement of limitations will help the clinician to provide laser therapy and minimize collateral damage.
Article
Few studies exist to explore the potential photobiomodulation (PBM) effect of neodymium:yttrium-aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation using a flat-top handpiece delivery system. In this study, we explored the photobiomodulation effect of that laser, on Paramecium primaurelia. The parameters for the different study groups were: 0.50 W, 10 Hz,...
Article
Background: Secondary/persistent endodontic infection can be the outcome of failure of endodontic treatment. Photo-activated disinfection (PAD) can be a useful adjunct to mechanical and antimicrobial agents in eliminating endopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we evaluated the effect of PAD on diversity and count of microbiota related to se...
Book
This book provides information on the basic science and tissue interactions of dental lasers and documents the principal current clinical uses of lasers in every dental discipline. The applications of lasers in restorative dentistry, endodontics, dental implantology, pediatric dentistry, periodontal therapy, and soft tissue surgery are clearly desc...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Photobiomodulation is proposed as a non-linear process. Only the action of light at a low intensity and fluence is assumed to have stimulation on cells; whereas a higher light intensity and fluence generates negative effects, exhausting the cell's energy reserve as a consequence of a too strong stimulation. In our work, we detected the...
Article
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of washing and non-washing of indocyanine green (ICG) as photosensitizer (PS) on bacterial count, biofilm formation, development and degradation of Enterococcus faecalis. Methods: The anti-bacterial, anti-biofilm formation, anti-biofilm development and biofilm degradatio...
Article
In Paramecium cilia beating is correlated to intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Recent findings affirm that photobiomodulation (PBM) can transiently increase the [Ca2+]i in mammalian cells. In the present study we investigated the effect of both 808nm and 980nm diode laser irradiated with flat-top hand-pi...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The current periodontal literature has been inconsistent in finding an added advantage to using lasers in periodontal therapy. The aim of this study was to compare treatment outcomes following root surface instrumentation alone (NL group), or with adjunctive use of Erbium, Chromium: Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser (L...
Article
Full-text available
Photobiomodulation is proposed as a non-linear process, and only low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is assumed to stimulate exposed cells, whereas high powered laser and fluences can cause negative effects, exhausting the cell's energy reserve as a consequence of excessive photon-based stimulation. In our work, we investigated and compared the effects...
Data
Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 40 years. Unfortunately, conflicting literature has led to the labelling of PBM as a complementary or alternative medicine approach. However, past and ongoing clinical and research studies by reputable investigators have re-established the merits of PBM as a genuine medical t...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this research is to evaluate those techniques and optimal parameters of Erbium Chromium Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser use in delivering predictable painless (or with very limited discomfort) restorative cavity preparation without the aid of injected local anesthesia. This study was conducted on 30 patients (26 adults...
Article
Full-text available
Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 40 years. Unfortunately, conflicting literature has led to the labelling of PBM as a complementary or alternative medicine approach. However, past and ongoing clinical and research studies by reputable investigators have re-established the merits of PBM as a genuine medical t...
Article
Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 40 years. To clarify the mechanisms of action of PBM at cellular and organism levels, we investigated its effect on Paramecium primaurelia (Protozoa) irradiated by a 808 nm infrared diode laser with a flat-top handpiece (1 W in CW). Our results lead to the conclusion that: 1)...
Article
Objective: Photobiostimulation and photobiomodulation (PBM) are terms applied to the manipulation of cellular behavior using low intensity light sources, which works on the principle of inducing a biological response through energy transfer. The aim of this investigation was to identify a laboratory assay to test the effect of an infrared diode la...
Article
Objective and background: Odontomas are hamartomatous developmental malformations of the dental tissues. We present a retrospective study of recent clinical experience using erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) (wavelength 2940 nm) and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet lasers (Er,Cr:YSSG) (wavelength 2780 nm) for the surgical...
Article
Full-text available
Light-activated chemical therapy - generally known as photodynamic therapy (PDT) - has been developed within medicine, to allow the use of an applied agent (photosensitiser) that could be activated using laser photonic energy, leading to the destruction of target cellular structures. In clinical dentistry, PDT has been utilised within a wide scope...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of erbium lasers for retrograde endodontic treatment, in terms of clinical outcome and therapeutic success. Apicoectomy with retrograde filling is a well-established surgical procedure to treat teeth affected by persistent periapical lesions. The apical root end is generally removed with burs,...
Article
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical treatment that uses light to activate a photosensitizing agent (photosensitizer) in the presence of oxygen. Its use in dentistry is increasing, particularly for the treatment of oral cancer, and bacterial and fungal infection. This article provides an overview of PDT
Article
Full-text available
If conventional endodontic treatment is not possible or not successful, apical endodontic surgery may be indicated. New techniques, materials and technologies have been used to increase the already high success rate of root canal treatment. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of the Erbium:YAG (2,940 nm) laser in treatment of apicect...
Article
During the development of the first laser prototype, it was realized that the intense energy generated posed safety risks. Early pioneers of laser use on human tissue quickly adopted, albeit rudimentary, physical barriers to protect non-target tissue for both the clinician and the patient. As the application of laser energy in medicine increased, s...
Article
In the third article of his series, Steven Parker describes how the emergence of a range of dedicated dental lasers should allow the benefits of laser soft tissue surgery to become more widespread in general practice.
Article
In the second article of a series, Steven Parker explains the use of lasers in dentistry for the dental nurse. His article covers undertaking clinical procedures on hard tissue with lasers in comparison to using rotary instruments.
Article
Full-text available
In the first article of a series, Steven Parker gives an introduction to lasers in dentistry for the dental nurse. His article covers the theory behind the production of laser light, the types of laser available and the benefits of lasers in a variety of uses.