Steven C. Mallam

Steven C. Mallam
University of South-Eastern Norway | USN

PhD

About

50
Publications
17,929
Reads
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401
Citations
Citations since 2016
39 Research Items
384 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120

Publications

Publications (50)
Article
Full-text available
When accidents occur in the maritime domain substantial efforts are devoted to their investigations in order to improve safety at sea. Investigations often result in detailed and elaborate descriptions of the sequence of events and root cause factors in the form of accident reports. Investigations carried out by governmental investigative bodies ar...
Article
Full-text available
OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS Social distancing restrictions imposed by the global outbreak of COVID-19 exposed vulnerabilities in traditional User-Centered Design processes. This paper presents a shift in methodological thinking and deployment of participatory processes toward a more dynamic and resilient approach of user-centered design in a multi-ye...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decade, virtual reality (VR) has re-emerged as a popular technology trend. This is mainly due to the recent investments from technology companies that are improving VR systems while increasing consumer access and interest. Amongst many applications of VR, one area that is particularly promising is for pedagogy. The immersive, experien...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A ship's bridge is a complex work environment where navigation crew must manage a plethora of interactions and tasks between people, technologies and systems both internal and external to the ship. In the 2017 collision between the US Navy Destroyer John S McCain and tanker Alnic MC in the Singapore Strait it was found that the design of the digita...
Article
Full-text available
The use of simulators in maritime education and training is an essential component for developing seafarer competencies. Emerging immersive technologies, such as virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR) and mixed reality (MR) have created new and differing possibilities for maritime simulations and simulators. The increasing advancements and te...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to systematically map and assess performance requirements for collision avoidance manoeuvring for two cases. A case where the navigator performs collision avoidance, and a case where collision avoidance is performed by collision avoidance system where the navigator acts as its supervisor. An appraisal of collision avoidance manoeuvr...
Article
Objective: In this review, we investigate the relationship between agent transparency, Situation Awareness, mental work-load, and operator performance for safety critical domains. Background: The advancement of highly sophisticated automation across safety critical domains poses a challenge for effective human oversight. Automation transparency is...
Article
Full-text available
Safety-critical industries have long been subjected to extensive research and development to enhance operator performance to improve their efficiency. From a human factors perspective, much of the work in process industries is related to either enhancing technical training of operators or related to improving the physical ergonomics of hazardous wo...
Chapter
Adequacy of Organisation (AOO) is a critical contributor in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). In this paper, the human, organisational and technological Performance Influencing Factors (PIFs) and sub-PIFs affecting AOO are identified. A novel hierarchical process is developed, in which PIFs and sub-PIFs are categorised horizontally according to the...
Conference Paper
Virtual Reality (VR) refers to a visual experience that creates a fully immersive sensation surrounded by three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic images of a virtually artificial or pre-recorded environment. Differing new aspects of VR usage in different domains (e.g., aviation, healthcare, military, education etc.) have sprung up in the past few decad...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Having empathy and being able to empathize refer to the ability to understand, view or feel the experiences and perspectives of others. In a work context, the ability of different actors to empathize with others can have positive effects in the design, organization and operations of complex systems. This article explores the value of empathy within...
Chapter
Full-text available
A ship’s bridge is a complex work environment that is typically outfitted with a range of equipment supplied from numerous different vendors (Lützhöft & Vu, 2018). Multivendor ship bridge systems (MBS) that merge independent equipment from different vendors can create disparities for navigation crew once all necessary equipment is installed into a...
Chapter
This paper presents a comparative study of training of non-technical skills in the maritime and lignite power domains. Non-technical skills (NTS) are the cognitive, social and personal resource skills that complement technical skills in operations within high-risk domains. Training NTS is essential to maintain safety in operational contexts, such a...
Article
Virtual Reality Head Mounted Displays (VR HMDs) offer highly immersive experiences that may alter users’ awareness and perception of the “real-world”. This paper investigates users’ perception of short duration (<5 minutes) time periods during simulated scenarios between two different simulation mediums. Fifty participants (Age: M=29.2 years; SD=10...
Chapter
The use of complex simulators is an essential part of Maritime Education and Training. Increasing digitalization provides new opportunities for developing simulator-based teaching. As future maritime operations require increasingly specialized and broad competencies, the maritime education community must adapt and provide effective, efficient educa...
Article
Full-text available
Accelerating technological advancement in the maritime industry is gradually increasing the range of functions once performed by humans to become automated. In the era of autonomous shipping, where the autonomous operating system takes the lead and data flows define decision-making, how the ship and its leaders can successfully navigate these new w...
Chapter
The increasing levels of automation have redefined the nature of human-machine interactions in the process industry. The changing nature of work demands that Control-Room Operators and Field Operators are competent with the use of new and emerging methods and technologies in order to perform their tasks safely and effectively. A critical aspect of...
Article
Working at sea places individuals in an inherently dangerous environment for extended periods, exposing them to unique risks not found in land-based industries. Safety-critical socio-technical systems demand an inherent organizational safety culture for reliable and safe operations. Safety climate acts as a mediating factor between the broader orga...
Article
Modern virtual reality technologies increase the immersive experience for users. Increased immersivity may affect how users perceive, internalize, and thus, recall information about the virtual environment and experience compared to traditional mediums, such as desktop simulations. One critical aspect of recalling information is incidental memory,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Navigating crew on ship bridges are often using a variety of systems that lack consistent user interface design from one system to another. Consistency across systems is an essential aspect for reducing human error and increasing user ability in workplaces where users interact with a variety of physical and digital systems. Currently, a lack of reg...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As simulation and computing technologies advance, new pedagogic opportunities are enabled which can add value to student learning outcomes. This study examines simulator training in maritime education comparing the emerging state-of-the-art technology of Immersive Head Mounted Display (HMD) Virtual Reality (VR) and Non-immersive 3D Desktop Virtual...
Article
Full-text available
Maritime education and training (MET) has a long tradition of using simulator training to develop competent seafarers and relevant seafaring skills. In a safety critical domain like maritime industry, simulators provide opportunities to acquire technical, procedural and operational skills without the risks and expense associated with on‐the‐job tra...
Article
Full-text available
The role of the human element within complex socio-technical systems is continually being transformed and redefined by technological advancement. Autonomous operations across varying transport domains are in differing stages of realization and practical implementation, and specifically within maritime operations, is still in its infancy. This study...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
e-Learning is an increasingly popular solution for disseminating professional education and training in order to maintain and develop employee competencies. This paper investigates areas for improvement in an offshore oil and gas company’s current e-Learning platform. An online questionnaire addressing five dimensions of users’ e-Learning experienc...
Article
Equipment found on ship bridges rarely offer consistent user interface design across the numerous systems that seafarers interact with. It is well documented in human-computer interaction research that consistency is an important aspect for reducing human error and increasing user ability to efficiently use digital systems. Current workplace regula...
Chapter
Maritime domain is one of the most high-risk industry and it predominantly employs simulator training as a means to train the prospective operators. Maritime instructors need to train students who will become future sharp end operators and interact in highly safety critical environment. One of the goals of maritime education is therefore to create...
Chapter
As the sophistication and feasibility of implementing highly automated and autonomous technologies increases, the way in which the human element interacts and contributes to achieve a system’s goals continues to transform. The role of the human, including their required training, competencies and work tasks within complex socio-technical systems is...
Chapter
The use of computer-generated simulations have been standard practice in a wide range of tertiary and vocational education and training applications for decades. The growing ubiquity, relative affordability, increasing computing power and functionality of Virtual Reality headsets are creating new opportunities for personalized, immersive simulation...
Article
The maritime industry is considered the backbone of the global economy, enabling efficient transport of goods with a commercial value of about $829 Billion USD through a network of over 90,000 ships, and employing approximately 1.6 million people worldwide. Maritime navigation is a complex and dynamic operational process. On a vessel, demands are p...
Conference Paper
The role of non-engineering design disciplines (such as industrial design and interior design) and their applications in the marine industry is vague. People, as “users” of a ship, are commonly utilized as a source of design input for non-engineering design disciplines. Differing types of people inhabit a ship simultaneously and have differing role...
Article
The benefits of a human-centred approach to design have been widely recognised throughout industry, in the research community and by regulatory bodies. In the maritime domain, it is also beginning to make an impact. This article explores how a human-centred approach may successfully be achieved within the context of ship design using a case study f...
Article
Computer-aided solutions are essential for naval architects to manage and optimize technical complexities when developing a ship's design. Although there are an array of software solutions aimed to optimize the human element in design, practical ergonomics methodologies and technological solutions have struggled to gain widespread application in sh...
Article
Ship procurement is a globalized, multidisciplinary development process that demands lean manufacturing solutions for the highly competitive and safety-critical shipping industry. This article presents the software prototype E-SET (Ergonomic Ship Evaluation Tool), specifically created to facilitate participatory design processes throughout ship dev...
Thesis
Naval architecture design procedures focus primarily on the technical aspects of engineering specifications, mission requirements and overall survivability of ships and marine structures. In contrast, often little attention or importance is placed on the operational demands of onboard crew and the detailed design characteristics of a ship’s work en...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The maritime shipping industry is a safety-critical domain where onboard work organization continues to evolve with advancing technologies. Recent research has revealed that altering operational conditions and task demands are not supported or optimized by typical onboard working environments. The application of ergonomics and participatory design...
Article
BACKGROUND: Physical environments influence how individuals perceive a space and behave within it. Previous research has revealed deficiencies in ship engine department work environments, and their impact on crew productivity, health and wellbeing. OBJECTIVE: Connect operational task demands to pragmatic physical design and layout solutions by impl...
Thesis
Physical environments influence how individuals perceive, behave and perform within an operational space and system. Marine engine department operations have dramatically developed from the initial introduction of ship mechanization in the nineteenth century, to ever increasing levels of computerized and automated functions today. This development...
Article
A ships’ engine control room (ECR) is of central importance to the engine department and overall vessel operation. Modern day ships are becoming increasingly technologically sophisticated and computerization has a growing presence in the engine department. A large portion of marine engineering duties are now dedicated to remotely managing equipment...
Conference Paper
The prevailing knowledge of ergonomics is not always taken into consideration while designing ships or introduced too late for it to be effective. Studies have shown that improvements of the working environment can be done with small efforts. Dissemination of research results is not always straight forward or effective due to failure to present res...
Article
Full-text available
Maritime emergencies often occur rapidly in unpredictable circumstances. In a scenario where it becomes necessary to abandon a vessel or offshore platform evacuation, personal flotation and thermal protection greatly increase chances of survival for individuals escaping directly into water. Marine abandonment immersion suits, intended to be quickly...

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Projects

Projects (7)
Archived project
This project investigates the donning of marine abandonment immersion suits under dynamic simulated conditions. User performance measures, error rates and immersion suit design are examined to better understand current training practices and suit systems. This research aims to inform safety training facilities, instructors, immersion suit manufactures and users for better preparedness for emergencies at sea.
Archived project
Naval architecture design procedures focus primarily on the technical aspects of engineering specifications, mission requirements and overall survivability of ships and marine structures. In contrast, often little attention or importance is placed on the operational demands of onboard crew and the detailed design characteristics of a ship’s work environment. However, the design and layout of a ship’s work environment influences how crew execute their tasks. Ship designs not optimized for crew and their work demands can contribute to decreased safety and efficiency, while increasing the physical demands of onboard operations. Inadequate design is a common causal factor of maritime accidents, and thus, should be addressed and mitigated during conceptual design development. The aim of this project is to investigate and identify strategies that facilitate the implementation of user-centred design solutions during new ship development, and ultimately optimize the onboard work environment for crew. This project has a design-centred scope which explores and develops pragmatic methods and tools to improve knowledge mobilization and participatory design processes between multidisciplinary, geographically-distributed stakeholders involved in new ship development.