Steven K Malin

Steven K Malin
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey | Rutgers · Kinesiology and Health

PhD

About

204
Publications
38,281
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2,909
Citations
Citations since 2017
118 Research Items
2347 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
Introduction
Dr. Malin conducts clinical translational research to prevent/treat obesity and type 2 diabetes. To accomplish this, we view exercise as a drug and focus on improving metabolic health by optimizing the prescription of exercise in people at risk for chronic disease. We study the interaction of exercise intensity/mode with nutrient intake, pharmacology, and/or bariatric surgery to maximize improvements in insulin resistance, substrate oxidation, inflammation, and vascular function.
Additional affiliations
August 2014 - August 2020
University of Virginia
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
May 2011 - July 2014
Lerner Research Institute
Position
  • Post-doctoral Research Fellowship
August 2006 - May 2011
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
September 2004 - August 2006
University of Delaware
Field of study
  • Human Nutrition
August 2000 - May 2004
King's College
Field of study
  • Neuroscience

Publications

Publications (204)
Article
Objective This crossover study explored the impact of a single bout of exercise on insulin-stimulated responses in conduit arteries and capillaries. Methods Twelve sedentary adults (49.5 [7.8] years; maximal oxygen consumption [VO2max]: 23.7 [5.4] mL/kg/min) with obesity (BMI 34.5 [4.3] kg/m²) completed a control and exercise bout (70% VO2max to e...
Article
Key points: What is already known that led to the present work? Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increased in states of obesity and may play a role in altered insulin sensitivity and blood pressure. Aerobic exercise decreases fasting EV concentrations the following day in adults with obesity. What does this paper add to existing knowledge? This st...
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Full-text available
This consensus statement is an update of the 2010 American College of Sports Medicine position stand on exercise and type 2 diabetes. Since then, a substantial amount of research on select topics in exercise in individuals of various ages with type 2 diabetes has been published while diabetes prevalence has continued to expand worldwide. This conse...
Article
Purpose People characterized as late chronotype have elevated type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk compared to early chronotype. It is unclear how chronotype is associated with insulin sensitivity, metabolic flexibility, or plasma TCA cycle intermediates concentration, amino acids (AA), and/or beta-oxidation. Methods The Morning-Evening...
Article
Exercise is advised to improve overall cardiovascular health and endothelial function. However, the role of nutrition on this exercise induced endothelial adaptation is not clear. Here, we hypothesize that nutrients interact with exercise to influence endothelial function and chronic disease risk.
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Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2) is associated with caloric intake and glucose metabolism. Purpose: Assess if a low-calorie diet with interval exercise (LCD+INT) raises LEAP-2 more than LCD in relation to appetite and cardiometabolic health. Methods: Women with obesity were randomized to either 2 weeks of LCD (n = 13, ~1200 kcal/d)...
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Prediabetes raises cardiovascular disease risk, in part through elevated aortic waveforms. While insulin is a vasodilatory hormone, the gut hormone relation to aortic waveforms is less clear. We hypothesized that exercise, independent of intensity, would favor aortic waveforms in relation to gut hormones. Older adults (61.3 ± 1.5 yr; 33.2 ± 1.1 kg/...
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Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) raises cardiovascular disease risk. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important mediators of insulin sensitivity, although few studies on vascular function exist in humans. We determined the effect of insulin on EVs in relation to vascular function. Adults with MetS (n = 51, n = 9 M, 54.8 ± 1.0 years, 36.4 ± 0.7...
Article
Exercise has systemic health benefits in people, in part, through improving whole-body insulin sensitivity. The brain is an insulin sensitive organ that is often underdiscussed relative to skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. While brain insulin action may have only subtle impacts on peripheral regulation of systemic glucose homeostasis, it...
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Late chronotype (LC) correlates with reduced metabolic insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease. It is unclear if insulin action on aortic waveforms and inflammation is altered in LC versus early chronotype (EC). Adults with metabolic syndrome (n = 39, MetS) were classified as either EC (Morning-Eveningness Questionnaire [MEQ] = 63.5 ± 1.2) o...
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The purpose of the present study was to determine fasting and high-fat meal (HFM)-induced post-prandial systemic inflammation and airway inflammation (exhaled nitric oxide (eNO)) in older adults (OAs) compared to younger adults (YAs) before and after acute exercise. Twelve YAs (23.3 ± 3.9 y n = 5 M/7 F) and 12 OAs (67.7 ± 6 y, n = 8 M/4 F) complete...
Article
New findings: What is the central question of this study? Chronotype reflects differences in circadian-mediated metabolic and hormonal profiles. But, does resting and/or exercise fuel use differ in early versus late chronotype as it relates to insulin sensitivity? What are the main finding and its importance? Early chronotypes with metabolic syndr...
Article
Elevated extracellular vesicles (EVs) are associated with glucose dysmetabolism. However, the effects of insulin on EVs and subsequent relationships with insulin sensitivity, substrate oxidation, and inflammation are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that insulin would lower EVs and relate to insulin action. Fifty-one sedentary adults (54.8 ± 1.0 y...
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Objectives To examine the effect of ad-libitum low-glycemic index (GI; high fiber) versus high-GI diet on energy intake, diet quality (Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015)), self-reported feelings of hunger and fullness, liking of the foods, and physical activity (PA) in preschoolers. Methods Twenty-five healthy preschoolers (aged 48 ± 7.3 mo, 47%...
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Background: Although Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes (RNC) are suggested to improve smoking cessation and cardiometabolic health in relation to cancer risk, the effectiveness of exercise training with RNC on smoking cessation and cardiometabolic health is unknown. Methods: Female smokers (N = 27) were randomized to: (1) usual nicotine cigarettes (i.e.,...
Article
Introduction: Nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) dipping is independently related to cardiovascular disease risk, but it is unclear if vascular insulin sensitivity associates with SBP dipping in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: Eighteen adults with MetS (ATP III criteria 3.3 ± 0.6; 53.2 ± 6.5 years; body mass index 35.8 ± 4...
Article
The objective of this study was to test if a low-calorie diet plus interval exercise (LCD+INT) reduced oxidized and non-oxidized phospholipids in relation to improved weight-related quality of life (QoL) to a greater extent than an energy-deficit matched LCD in obese females. Subjects (age: 47.2±2.6 years, body mass index: 37.5±1.3 kg/m²) were rand...
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We evaluated the effect of preoperative standard medical care (SC) vs. unsupervised aerobic exercise combined with SC (EX + SC) on cardiometabolic health and quality of life (QoL) 30 days after bariatric surgery. Bariatric patients (n = 14, age: 42.3 ± 2.5 years, body mass index: 45.1 ± 2.5 kg/m2 ) were match-paired to presurgical SC (n = 7) or EX...
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Background There are limited data from randomized control trials to support or refute the contention that whole-grains may enhance protein metabolism in humans. The objectives were threefold: 1) to examine the clinical effects of a whole-grain diet on whole-body protein turnover; 2) the cellular effects of whole-grains on protein synthesis in skele...
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A single high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal (HFHC) results in elevated postprandial glucose (GLU), triglycerides (TRG) and metabolic load index (MLI; TRG (mg/dL) + GLU (mg/dL)) that contributes to chronic disease risk. While disease risk is higher in older adults (OA) compared to younger adults (YA), the acute effects of exercise on these outcomes in...
Presentation
Elevated extracellular vesicles (EVs) are associated with glucose dysmetabolism. However, the direct effects of insulin on EVs and subsequent relationship with insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation is unknown in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fifty sedentary adults (54.5 ± 1.0 yr; VO2peak: 22.3 ± 0.6 ml/kg/min) with MetS (36.3 ± 0.7 k...
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Full-text available
Insulin resistance is a key etiological factor in promoting not only type 2 diabetes mellitus but also cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise is a first-line therapy for combating chronic disease by improving insulin action through, in part, reducing hepatic glucose production and lipolysis as well as increasing skeletal muscle glucose uptake and v...
Article
Introduction Patients with type 2 diabetes experience resolution of hyperglycemia within days after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. This is attributed, in part, to enhanced secretion of hindgut factors following exclusion of the gastric remnant and proximal intestine during surgery. However, evidence of the mechanisms of remission remain l...
Article
Adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) have increased fasting arterial stiffness and altered central hemodynamics that contribute, partly, to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Although insulin affects aortic wave reflections in healthy adults, the effects in individuals with MetS are unclear. We hypothesized that insulin stimulation would...
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Endothelium, acting as a barrier, protects tissues against factors that provoke insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and itself responds to the insult of insulin resistance inducers with altered function. Endothelial insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction occur early in the evolution of insulin resistance-related disease, can co-exist with a...
Article
Weight loss outcomes among young adults in technology-based programs have been equivocal. The purpose of this study was to deliver digital weight loss treatments to young adults and examine the 6, 12, and 18 month effects on weight loss. Young adults with overweight/obesity (N = 459; 23.3 ± 4.4 years) were recruited from two university sites and ra...
Article
Context: Sport-related concussion (SRC) is characterized by a pathological neurometabolic cascade that results in an increased intracranial energy demand with decreased energy supply. Little is known about the whole-body energy-related effects of SRC. Objective: To examine factors associated with whole-body resting metabolic rate (RMR), total en...
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Abstract Objective: Examine if adding aerobic exercise to standard medical care (EX+SC) prior to bariatric surgery improves metabolic health in relation to surgical outcomes. Methods: Fourteen bariatric patients (age: 42.3±2.5y, BMI: 45.1±2.5 kg/m2) met inclusion criteria and were match-paired to pre-operative SC (n = 7) or EX+SC (n = 7; walking 3...
Article
Purpose: Arterial stiffness is considered a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Females have higher values of arterial stiffness than males, suggesting a greater risk of heart-related complications. While a low-calorie diet (LCD) reduces fasting arterial stiffness, in part through weight loss, it is unknown if interval exercise (INT) adds t...
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Metformin and exercise independently improve glycemic control. Metformin traditionally is considered to reduce hepatic glucose production, while exercise training is thought to stimulate skeletal muscle glucose disposal. Collectively, combining treatments would lead to the anticipation for additive glucose regulatory effects. Herein, we discuss rec...
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Objective Examine the effect of aerobic exercise (EX) combined with standard medical care (SC) (EX + SC) compared to SC alone on cardiometabolic health and quality of life in relation to surgical outcomes.Methods Patients receiving bariatric surgery were match-paired to 30 days of pre-operative SC (n = 7, 1 male, 39.0 ± 5.3 years, body mass index 4...
Article
Objective: To measure alterations in mood, psychological, and behavioral factors in collegiate athletes throughout recovery from sport concussion (SC) compared with matched controls. Setting: University research laboratory. Participants: Twenty (55% female) division I collegiate athletes with SC (19.3 ± 1.08 years old, 1.77 ± 0.11 m, 79.6 ± 23...
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Endothelial dysfunction is hallmark of type 2 diabetes that can have severe consequences on vascular function, including hypertension and changes in blood flow, as well as exercise performance. Because endothelium is also the barrier for insulin movement into tissue, it acts as a gate keeper for transport and glucose uptake. For this reason, endoth...
Article
Background Sport concussion (SC) causes an energy crisis in the brain by increasing energy demand, decreasing energy supply, and altering metabolic resources. Whole-body resting metabolic rate (RMR) is elevated after more severe brain injuries, but RMR changes are unknown after SC. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine energy-rela...
Article
Caloric restriction is suggested to increase hunger, in part, through complex interactions of hormones and behavior that contribute to challenges in long-term weight loss. Although intense exercise may attenuate appetite, no data exist testing the effects of interval exercise (INT) during a low-calorie diet (LCD) on appetite regulation. We hypothes...
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New findings: We investigated the effects of work-matched continuous versus high-intensity interval training for 2 weeks on adiposopathy and cardiometabolic risk in obese adults with prediabetes. We show that independent of intensity, short-term exercise improves adiposopathy and insulin sensitivity. While both exercise intensities reduced fasting...
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Introduction The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased in recent years. CKD is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, although the mechanism remains unclear. Elevated soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end products ( RAGE) is related to proinflammatory signaling pathways that may pro...
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Previous observational studies have shown that the endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with type 2 diabetes, but few studies have examined direct effects of BPA on human health. The purpose of this study is to determine whether orally administered BPA at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) safe dose of 50 μg/kg bo...
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Introduction: The impact of interval (INT) vs. continuous (CONT) exercise training on endothelial function in relation to glucose metabolism prior to clinically meaningful weight loss is unknown in adults with prediabetes. Methods: Twenty-six subjects with prediabetes (60 ± 1 y; 33 ± 1 kg/m2; 2-hr-PG OGTT: 145 ± 7 mg/dl) were randomized to 60 mi...
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Prediabetes is associated with impaired oxidative capacity and altered substrate utilization during exercise. The effects of continuous (CONT) versus interval (INT) exercise training on fat oxidation during an acute exercise bout at the same absolute and relative intensities are unknown in this population. Obese females/males (n = 17, n = 5) with p...
Article
Introduction: There is a paucity of information on the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults and how this clustering may vary based on whether or not they perform sufficient levels of physical activity. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from 346 young adults (23.3±4.4 y) participating in the Healthy Body Healthy U (HBHU) cl...
Article
Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are purported to mediate type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and development. Physical activity and a balanced diet reduce disease risk, but no study has tested the hypothesis that short-term interval (INT) training would reduce EVs compared with continuous (CONT) exercise in adults...
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Full-text available
We determined if interval exercise plus a low-calorie diet (LCD + INT) increases endothelial function more than an energy-matched LCD. Obese women (47.2 ± 2.6y, 37.5 ± 1.3kg/m2 ) were randomized to 13 days of a LCD (n = 12; mixed meals of ~ 1200kcal/d) or LCD + INT (n = 13; 12 supervised 60-min INT bouts of 3 min at 90% and 50% HRpeak ). LCD + INT...
Article
Background and aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive hepatic fat accumulation. Increased hepatic saturated fats and decreased hepatic polyunsaturated fats may be particularly lipotoxic, contributing to metabolic dysfunction. We compared hepatic lipid subspecies in adults with and without NAFLD, and examined lin...
Article
Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2019, 63, 1800967 DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201800967 Epidemiological studies suggest that whole grains may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. In article number 1800967, John P. Kirwan and co‐workers study pertinent changes in systemic physiology conferred by 8 weeks of a whole‐grain‐enriched diet. The cover image shows an increase in...
Article
Objective: It is unclear whether acute weight loss or the chronic trajectory of weight loss after bariatric surgery is associated with long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) glycemic improvement. This ancillary study of the Surgical Treatment and Medications Potentially Eradicate Diabetes Efficiently (STAMPEDE) trial aimed to answer this questio...
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Full-text available
Although extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a novel biomediator of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the effects of hyperglycemia on EVs in humans is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) would promote changes in EVs in relation to CVD risk. Twenty-five obese adults (Age: 52.4 ± 3.2 yea...
Article
The objective of this study was to test if a low-calorie diet plus interval exercise (LCD+INT) improves adiposopathy, an endocrine dysfunction, when compared with an energy-deficit-matched LCD in obese women. Subjects (age: 48.2 ± 2.4 years, body mass index: 37.8 ± 1.3 kg/m2) were randomized to a 13-day LCD (n = 12; mixed meals of ∼1200 kcal/day) o...
Article
Introduction : Few data exist examining the effects of whole grain (WG) versus refined grain (RG) diets on glucose‐stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and β‐cell function. Methods : In a double‐blind crossover randomized controlled trial, 13 sedentary prediabetic adults (37.2±1.8 y, BMI: 33.6±1.4 kg/m², 2h glucose: 146.9±11.6 mg/dl) were provided...
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Accumulating evidence linking trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has prompted interest in developing therapeutic strategies to reduce its production. We compared two lifestyle intervention approaches: hypocaloric versus eucaloric diet, combined with exercise, on TMAO levels in relation to CVD risk factors. Sixteen ob...
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No short-term exercise data exist testing whether training intensity modifies hormonal and perceived appetite in obese adults with prediabetes. Therefore, we compared the effects of short-term moderate-continuous (CONT) vs. high-intensity interval (INT) training on appetite regulation. Twenty-eight obese adults [age: 61.3 ± 1.5 yr; body mass index...
Chapter
The development of obesity is cornerstone in the etiology of metabolic and vascular insulin resistance and consequently exacerbates glycemic control. Exercise is an efficacious first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes that improves insulin action through, in part, reducing hormone mediated inflammation. Together, improving the coordination of skeleta...
Article
Objective Alterations in energy expenditure have been observed following moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in animals and humans. However, few data exist characterizing how mild TBI, specifically concussion, affects whole-body energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to examine resting metabolic rate (RMR) following sport co...
Article
New findings: What is the central question of this study? We compared high-intensity interval versus continuous training on fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness in people with prediabetes. What is the main finding and its importance? We show, for the first time, that exercise improves the augmentation index during the postprandial state, bu...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of work-matched exercise intensity on β-cell function is unknown in people with prediabetes prior to clinical weight loss. We determined if short-term moderate continuous (CONT) versus high intensity interval (INT) exercise increased β-cell function. Thirty-one subjects (Age: 61.4±2.5 yr; BMI: 32.1±1.0 kg/m2) with prediabetes (ADA criter...