Steven p Hooker

Steven p Hooker
San Diego State University | SDSU · Health and Human Services

PhD

About

210
Publications
29,157
Reads
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6,538
Citations
Citations since 2017
63 Research Items
3706 Citations
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Introduction
I have been involved in research investigating the development of tailored interventions for racial/ethnic minority men, and the associations of objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary time with several health-related outcomes in midlife and older adults.
Additional affiliations
August 2011 - present
Arizona State University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 2003 - July 2011
University of South Carolina
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Served as Director of the Prevention Research Center in the School of Public Health
October 1990 - May 1993
University of Southern California
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (210)
Article
Full-text available
Background Hispanic men have disproportionate rates of overweight and obesity compared with other racial and ethnic subpopulations. However, few weight loss interventions have been developed specifically for this high-risk group. Furthermore, the use of mobile health (mHealth) technologies to support lifestyle behavior changes in weight loss interv...
Article
Purpose: Sedentary behavior is associated with poor physical function in older adults which can lead to accelerated skeletal muscle aging (sarcopenia) and premature mortality. We examined the independent and joint effects of sedentary behavior and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) with measures of physical functioning. Metho...
Article
Importance: The amount and intensity of physical activity required to prevent stroke are yet to be fully determined because of previous reliance on self-reporting measures. Furthermore, the association between objectively measured time spent being sedentary as an independent risk factor for stroke is unknown. Objective: To investigate the associ...
Article
Introduction Latino men have been drastically under-represented in research to identify effective behavioral weight-loss interventions. This trial compared 2 interventions for weight loss: (1) a culturally adapted intervention (HOMBRE) and (2) a minimal-intensity intervention. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting/Participants Latino men wi...
Article
Introduction Post-stroke physical activity has widespread health benefits. Environmental exposures may shape post-stroke physical activity behavior. This study investigates the relationships between environmental exposures and post-stroke physical activity. Methods Stroke survivors (n=374) from a cohort of Black and White adults with post-stroke a...
Article
Communities of underserved and vulnerable populations (UVP) are particularly at risk for the negative health consequences related to inadequate physical activity. UVP include individuals from the following groups: racial and ethnic minorities, individuals with disability, those from rural and inner-city areas, elderly and pediatric populations, und...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental characteristics of early care and education centers (ECECs) are an important context for preschool-aged children’s development, but few studies have examined their relationship with children’s locomotor skills. We examined the association between characteristics of the ECEC environment with quantitatively (i.e., product-based) and qua...
Article
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Background The joint associations of total and intensity-specific physical activity with obesity in relation to all-cause mortality risk are unclear. Methods We included 34 492 adults (72% women, median age 62.1 years, 2034 deaths during follow-up) in a harmonised meta-analysis of eight population-based prospective cohort studies with mean follow-...
Article
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Introduction Potent lifestyle interventions to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are urgently needed for population-level chronic disease prevention. This trial tested the independent and joint effects of a mobile health system automating adaptive goal setting and immediate financial reinforcement for increasing daily walking among in...
Article
Background and Purpose We examined differences in the volume and pattern of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior between adults with and without stroke. Methods We studied cohort members with an adjudicated or self-reported stroke (n=401) and age-, sex-, race-, region of residence-, and body mass index-matched participants without a histo...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To examine the joint associations of daily time spent in different intensities of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep with all-cause mortality. Methods Federated pooled analysis of six prospective cohorts with device-measured time spent in different intensities of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep following a...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Although Latino men have the highest prevalence (45%) of obesity among all men in the US, traditional weight loss interventions do not engage this hard-to-reach and diverse group. Technology-mediated weight loss interventions may offer advantages given Latinos’ rapidly increasing access to the internet. OBJECTIVE We examined whether Lat...
Article
Background: Although Latino men have the highest prevalence (45%) of obesity among all men in the United States, traditional weight loss interventions have not effectively engaged this hard-to-reach and diverse group. Offering choices among technology-mediated weight loss interventions may offer advantages. Objective: The aim of this study is to...
Article
Exploring whether the mechanisms underlying the positive relationship between group exercise and physical activity are forms of social support – emotional, validation, informational, instrumental, and companionship and exercise identity. Participants (n = 506; M age = 34.3) completed a 235-item questionnaire assessing physical activity, exercise id...
Article
We examined individual and parental demographics and home environment factors associated with locomotor skills in predominantly Hispanic preschool-aged children. We used questionnaires to survey parents, included inquiries regarding parenting practices, parents’ physical activity levels, and home-based physical activity resources; and we administer...
Article
Full-text available
Major life events, such as retirement, may lead to dramatic shifts in physical activity (PA) patterns. However, there are limited empirical data quantifying the magnitude of these changes. Our aims were to objectively measure PA before and after retirement and to describe changes in participation in various types of PA. Participants were employed b...
Article
Full-text available
Background: WalkIT Arizona was a 2×2 factorial trial examining the effects of goal type (adaptive versus static) and reinforcement type (immediate versus delayed) to increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among insufficiently active adults. The 12-month intervention combined mobile health (mHealth) technology with behavioral strateg...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To examine the joint associations of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time with all-cause mortality. Methods We conducted a harmonised meta-analysis including nine prospective cohort studies from four countries. 44 370 men and women were followed for 4.0 to 14.5 years during which 3451 participants died (7.8% morta...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many older adults in the U.S. do not achieve the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) to fully realize a myriad of health benefits. Adiposity is one of those important correlates of PA and sedentary behaviors. However, the full extent to which adiposity is associated with PA and stationary time (STA) is uncertain. Therefore, we...
Article
Importance Sedentary behavior is associated with several health outcomes, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Less is known about the association between objectively measured sedentary behavior and cancer mortality, as well as the association with physical activity. Objective To examine the association between acce...
Article
Hispanic women are at high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), with obesity and unhealthy eating being important contributing factors. A cross-sectional design was used in this study to identify dietary patterns and their associations with diabetes risk factors. Participants completed a culturally adapted Food Frequency Questionnaire capturing intake o...
Preprint
BACKGROUND WalkIT Arizona was a 2x2 factorial trial examining the effects of goal type (adaptive vs. static) and reinforcement (immediate vs. delayed) to increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among insufficiently active adults. The 12-month intervention combined mobile health (mHealth) technology with behavioral strategies to test...
Article
The association between objectively measured physical activity and atrial fibrillation (AF) has not been examined. Therefore, we examined the association between moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with incident AF in 5,147 participants who completed accelerometer assessment for 4 to 7 consecutive days in the REasons for Geographic and R...
Article
Full-text available
Background Smart Walk is a culturally relevant, social cognitive theory–based, smartphone-delivered intervention designed to increase physical activity (PA) and reduce cardiometabolic disease risk among African American (AA) women. Objective This study aimed to describe the development and initial usability testing results of Smart Walk. Methods...
Preprint
Background: Many older adults in the U.S. do not achieve the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) to fully realize a myriad of health benefits. Adiposity may be one of those important correlates of PA and sedentary behaviors. However, the full extent to which adiposity is associated with PA and sedentary time (SED) is uncertain. Therefore,...
Article
Full-text available
Hispanics are the fastest growing segment of the aging population. Little is known about acceptable intervention approaches for Hispanic men. Purpose: To explore perceptions of acceptable intervention characteristics for middle-aged Hispanic men. Methods: Eighteen key informants (KIs) with expertise in delivering programs to the Hispanic community...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about middle-aged Hispanic men’s perceptions of physical activity (PA). Purpose: To examine perceived barriers, facilitators, and benefits of PA and what types of PA are enjoyable. Methods: Seven focus groups (FGs) were conducted with middle-aged Hispanic men (mean age 51.6±6.1 years; n=32) who primarily self-identified as Mexican (...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To examine the dose-response associations between accelerometer assessed total physical activity, different intensities of physical activity, and sedentary time and all cause mortality. Design Systematic review and harmonised meta-analysis. Data sources PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, Sport Discus from inception to 31 July 201...
Article
Full-text available
Background Previous cross‐sectional studies have shown conflicting results regarding the effects of television viewing and occupational sitting on cardiovascular disease ( CVD ) risk factors. The purpose of this study was to compare the association of both television viewing and occupational sitting with CVD events and all‐cause mortality in blacks...
Article
Background. Hispanic males have the highest rates of overweight and obesity compared with men of all other racial/ethnic groups. While weight loss can significantly reduce obesity-related health risks, there is limited research examining effective gender- and culturally tailored behavioral weight loss programs for Hispanic men. Objective. To assess...
Article
Full-text available
This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the literature on early care and education center (ECEC)-based physical activity interventions to identify ecologic environmental factors that improve cardiovascular fitness (CVF) in preschool-aged children. Data sources included PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Trials, CINHAL, Science Direc...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Dietary behaviors contribute to an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease in Hispanic men. Few studies have assessed Hispanic men's perspectives on healthy eating. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify perceived barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in middle-aged, Hispanic men of Mexican descent. Methods: Si...
Article
Full-text available
Patients who receive weight loss advice from a health care provider (HCP) are more likely to eat healthy. The food environment affects eating behaviors. This study explored how the community food environment may moderate the relationship between HCP advice to lose weight and eating behaviors. Data were obtained from a household telephone survey in...
Article
Little change over the decades has been seen in adults meeting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines. Numerous individual-level interventions to increase MVPA have been designed, mostly static interventions without consideration for neighborhood context. Recent technologies make adaptive interventions for MVPA feasible. Unlike st...
Article
Full-text available
Background There have been mixed findings regarding the relationship between walkability and level of physical activity in adults. Methods Participants from The REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort (N=7561) were used to examine the association between Walk Score and physical activity measured via accele...
Article
Little is known concerning the type of activity that should be substituted for sedentary time and its potentially most hazardous form (prolonged sedentary bouts) to impart health benefit. We used isotemporal substitution techniques to examine whether 1) replacing total sedentary time with light-intensity or moderate to vigorous physical activity (L...
Article
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Background: The United States Department of Agriculture's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the country's largest nutrition assistance program for low-income populations. Although SNAP has been shown to reduce food insecurity, research findings on the diet quality of program participants are inconsistent. Objective: This study...
Article
Full-text available
Approximately 83% of Hispanic men of Mexican origin are overweight or obese, which are both associated with increased risk of chronic disease and all-cause mortality. Consequently, men of Mexican origin have some of the highest prevalence rates of obesity-related comorbidities. Physical activity (PA) may be an important strategy for Hispanic men of...
Chapter
Stroke is a leading cause of disability, with increasing incidence in younger adults. In the past two decades, evidence has emerged that physical inactivity is the second biggest risk factor for stroke, in part due to high prevalence in the community. Regular physical activity and increased cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with lower incide...
Article
Evidence suggests that men’s health disparities are linked to attitudes and beliefs toward health promotion and risk reduction, participation in high-risk behaviors, and limited health care access and use influenced by socioeconomic challenges. However, we know less about the specific factors related to health disparities in older Mexican American...
Article
Background: African American (AA) women perform low levels of physical activity (PA) and are disproportionally burdened by cardiometabolic disease conditions when compared to White women and the U.S. population as a whole. These disparities emphasize the need for innovative and effective interventions to increase PA and reduce cardiometabolic dise...
Article
Objective: To examine the association between estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) and incident stroke by black and white race. Participants and methods: A total of 24,162 participants from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study (13,232 [54.8%] women; 9543 [39.5%] blacks; mean age, 64.6±9.3 years) without stroke...
Article
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Objective: To examine the relationship between estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) using nonexercise equations and all-cancer mortality in a representative sample of the US population. Participants and methods: A total of 8506 study participants were derived from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from O...
Article
Full-text available
Hispanic men have the highest rates of overweight and obesity when compared to men of other racial/ethnic groups, placing them at increased risk for obesity-related disease. Yet, Hispanic men are grossly underrepresented in weight loss research. Tailored intervention strategies to improve obesity treatment programs for this vulnerable racial/ethnic...
Article
Full-text available
Background African American (AA) women face unique sociocultural barriers to physical activity (PA) engagement. Such barriers may contribute to their low PA levels and high cardiometabolic disease burden. One particular barrier reported among AA women in recent research is that being physically active can have an undesirable effect on the hairstyle...
Article
Purpose: To investigate the predictive value of in-hospital posture and ambulatory activity for 30-d following discharge on functional status in older patients with heart failure. Methods: Prospective observational pilot study of 27 patients (78 ± 9.8yrs; 51.8% female) admitted with heart failure. Participants wore two inclinometric acceleromete...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Limited research has examined how aspects of religion and spirituality can be incorporated into community-based physical activity programs delivered outside of religious institutions. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how spirituality and religion can be leveraged in the design of community-based physical activity pro...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Excessive sedentary time is ubiquitous in Western societies. Previous studies have relied on self-reporting to evaluate the total volume of sedentary time as a prognostic risk factor for mortality and have not examined whether the manner in which sedentary time is accrued (in short or long bouts) carries prognostic relevance. Objectiv...
Article
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Objective: We examined the cultural relevance of Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) in the design of a physical activity intervention for African-American women. Methods: A qualitative study design was used. Twenty-five African-American women (Mean age = 38.5 years, Mean BMI = 39.4 kg·m2) were enrolled in a series of focus groups (N = 9) to elucidate...
Article
Background: Prevalence of obesity and related diseases are quickly reaching epidemic proportions among Hispanic males in the U.S. Hispanic males suffer from the highest prevalence of obesity-related diseases when compared to all other racial/ethnic groups. Despite evidence showing that weight loss can significantly reduce the risk of obesity-relat...
Article
Full-text available
This study involved examining the ability of a postadoption intervention to reduce returns of newly adopted dogs to shelters by encouraging physical activity between adopters and their dogs. Guardians in the intervention group received emails with dog behavior and human activity advice as well as invitations to join weekly dog walks. Both the inter...
Article
Background: To test inter-rater reliability of the online Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) tool between raters with varying familiarities of Phoenix, Arizona. Methods: The online MAPS tool, based on the MAPS in-field audit tool and scoring system, was used for audits. Sixty route pairs, 141 segment pairs, and 92 crossing pairs in...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To investigate associations of estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a representative US population. Participants and Methods A total of 12,834 participants, aged 20 to 86 years at baseline, were included in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. They w...
Article
To examine the effects of a park awareness campaign on park use in 6 community parks. One-group pretest-posttest design. Six community parks located in a South Carolina county. Children, adolescents, and adults observed in community parks. A 1-month awareness campaign that culminated in single 1.5-hour events at 6 parks in April 2011 and May 2011....
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Emerging evidence suggests physical activity (PA) is associated with cognitive function. To overcome limitations of self-report PA measures, this study investigated the association of accelerometer-measured PA with incident cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognition among older adults. Methods: Participants were recruited from the...
Chapter
Wayfinding is more complex than generally believed suggesting the need for a multidisciplinary, cross-sector approach to achieve excellence in the scientific, practice, and policy arenas. The purpose of this concluding chapter is to consider how best to distill, share, and build upon the many sources of wayfinding knowledge for the journey forward....
Book
Wayfinding is the process of finding our way from place to place. It is an essential part of everyday life, dependent not only on our personal resources but also the legibility of community environments and availability of aids to support wayfinding. Community Wayfinding: Pathways to Understanding examines the process and consequences of human wayf...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Previous studies have reported conflicting results as to whether an association exists between sedentary time and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among African Americans. These studies, however, were limited by lack of consideration of sedentary behavior in leisure versus non-leisure settings. To elucidate this relation, we investiga...
Article
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between TV/video viewing, as a measure of sedentary behavior, and risk of incident stroke in a large prospective cohort of men and women. Methods: This analysis involved 22 257 participants from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who re...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Health disparities exist between rural and urban residents; in particular, rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases and obesity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity and promote health equity. In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended 24 p...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cognitive function in white and black older adults. DesignCross-sectional. SettingREasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. ParticipantsOlder adults who provided valid data from accelerometer and cognitive function tests (N=...
Article
Full-text available
Hispanic males have the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity among men in the United States; yet are significantly underrepresented in weight loss research. The purpose of the current study was to examine Hispanic male's perspectives of health behaviors related to weight management to refine the methodologies to deliver a gender-sensitive a...
Article
The health-enhancing benefits of regular physical activity have been theorized for thousands of years. Within the past 25 years, public health agencies, health-related organizations, and health-focused foundations have recognized regular physical activity as a major factor in preventing premature morbidity and mortality. Colleges and universities h...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in a national cohort of U.S. middle-aged and older adults and determine factors that influence prolonged sedentary behavior. Methods: We studied 8,096 participants from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study,...