Steven P.C. Groot

Steven P.C. Groot
Wageningen University & Research | WUR · Wageningen Plant Research

PhD

About

200
Publications
78,254
Reads
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Citations
Introduction
I’m a biologist studying the amazing world of seeds. I want to learn how seeds have evolved mechanisms to survive such a long time, without ability for repair of oxidative damage in a dry condition. The results from our seed research is translated in practical applications for farmers, genebanks and seed companies, who finance part of our research. In private life I’m a SCUBA diving instructor and enjoy with partner and friends the wonderful underwater world.
Additional affiliations
May 2000 - present
Wageningen University & Research
Position
  • Course leader and lecturer Master Class Seed Technology
Description
  • My lectures are on seed longevity, storage, processes happening during seed germination, seed vigour analyses and novel methods for seed sorting. The course is presently provided every year. See www.seedcentre.nl.
July 1986 - present
Wageningen University & Research
Position
  • Wageningen University and Research centre
Description
  • Rsposible for research on seed science and technology
July 1976 - December 1976
University of Amsterdam
Position
  • advisor student housing policy
Education
June 1983 - June 1986
Wageningen University & Research
Field of study
  • Agricultural Sciences
September 1974 - June 1982
University of Amsterdam
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (200)
Article
The presence of less-mature seeds or seeds with cracks in a paddy rice seed lot may result in lower seed quality. The potential of chlorophyll fluorescence to provide information on the maturity of single seeds and X-ray analyses to identify seeds with cracks was evaluated in relation to paddy rice seed quality. Individual seeds from a paddy rice s...
Article
Full-text available
White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is a promising crop to meet the rising global demand for plant-based protein. The seed-borne pathogen Colletotrichum lupini, however, threatens lupin cultivation worldwide. Seed dressings using synthetic fungicides were shown effective to reduce infection levels, but their negative environmental impact and exclusion f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Organic agriculture, recognized as a more sustainable agricultural system, strongly de-pends on the use of highly resilient genotypes. Resilient seeds, with increased tolerance to germinate and provide vigorous seedlings under environmental stresses, currently represent one of the most important agronomical traits. Seed germination involves the act...
Poster
Full-text available
Organic agriculture, recognized as a more sustainable agricultural system, strongly depends on the use of highly resilient genotypes. Resilient seeds, with increased tolerance to germinate and provide vigorous seedlings under environmental stresses, currently represent one of the most important agronomical traits. Seed germination involves the acti...
Article
Full-text available
Peanuts are transported by ship from production regions to all across the globe. Quality problems are frequently encountered due to increased levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) and a decline in organoleptic quality through lipid oxidation occurring during transport and storage. We studied the role of moisture (water activityaw) in interaction with 8...
Article
Spinach growers face increasing problems of damping off in the production of fresh market (baby-leaf) spinach due to increasing restrictions on chemical treatments. Damping-off tolerant cultivars are increasingly important, requiring proper evaluation methods. From three locations in the Netherlands with a history of spinach cultivation and from on...
Presentation
Full-text available
Official seed tests determine seed quality, using standardised lab conditions with an early and final count of germinated seeds and counting the frequency of normal seedlings, while seed health is considered as the absence of seed borne pathogens. In the field however, the seed or seedling will encounter biotic and abiotic stresses, therefore emerg...
Article
Full-text available
Ethanol release was tested in relation to seed vigour measured by seedling emergence and controlled deterioration tolerance in radish, pepper, watermelon, aubergine, leek and onion seed lots. Ethanol release, measured with six lots from each species after four and eight hours at 40°C and 30% seed moisture, was highly negatively correlated with cont...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Because of the need for more sustainable agriculture, the European commission has set its target for 2030 to have at least one quarter of the farmland in the European Union under organic farming practices. The use of healthy seeds or vegetative propagation material forms the basis of sustainable crop production. The use of organic seeds is an integ...
Article
Full-text available
Seed longevity (storability) is an important seed quality trait. High seed quality is important in agriculture, for the industry, and for safeguarding biodiversity as many species are stored as seeds in genebanks. To ensure ex-situ seed survival, seeds are mostly stored at low relative humidity and low temperature. Oxidation is the main cause of se...
Article
Full-text available
Uniform seedling emergence is crucial for economically viable spinach ( Spinacia oleracea ) leaf production. However, non-uniform seed germination occurs due to variation in moisture sensitivity between and within spinach seed lots. To test moisture sensitivity, we developed a floating germination system with fixed distances between germination pap...
Article
Full-text available
This issue of Seed Science and Technology contains a number of interesting papers worth giving additional attention. There are five papers that deal with analysis and breaking of seed dormancy, an important issue, not only for commercial practice and breeding, but also for regeneration of habitats and safeguarding bio­diversity. One paper in this i...
Poster
Full-text available
This Practice Abstract is about the importance of proper seed storage. Seed quality is very important for the start of a crop. Accumulation of damage during storage can result in abnormal seedlings or even failure of emergence. To avoid too much ageing, seeds need to be stored in the most optimal way. Seed ageing is caused by oxidation of the cell...
Poster
Full-text available
This Practice Abstract is about the importance of high seed vigour. Seeds are living organisms and sensitive to stress during storage or treatments, which can result in reduction of seed vigour. Vigour can be seen as the tolerance of seeds to emerge under non-optimal conditions. Low vigour seeds give upon sowing in the field no or weaker seedlings....
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Primed celery seeds are reputed for their short shelf life, often only a few weeks. We received commercially primed and pelleted celery seeds from a seed company. The seeds were already a few weeks old and below commercial quality, but still more than 90% of the seeds gave a good seedling. The seeds were stored for three weeks under different condi...
Article
Full-text available
Plant development is highly malleable, as evidenced by the ability of cultured cells, tissues and organs to regenerate into whole plants in vitro. The ability of plants to regenerate in vitro is influenced by many different factors, including the donor plant growth conditions and the type of explant. Empirical trial and error manipulation of these...
Chapter
This chapter reviews various factors that influence organic seed quality and availability; methods for seed sorting, upgrading and storage; methods of seed sanitation that are applicable for organic seeds; and seed certification systems. It describes recent research that has resulted in commercially available methods for improving seed quality and...
Article
Full-text available
Seed dormancy determines the timing of seed germination and may be released by dry storage, also referred to as after-ripening. Studies on dormancy-release mechanisms are often hampered by the long after-ripening requirements of seeds. After-ripening is thought to be mainly caused by oxidative processes during seed dry storage. These processes are...
Article
Full-text available
Genebanks aim to optimize their storage conditions in order to postpone seed ageing as long as possible. As most genebanks have a relatively short life history, empirical data about seed longevity during ex situ storage are almost absent. Based on seed characteristics, theoretical predictions indicate that cereal seeds can be stored without substan...
Article
Full-text available
Brassica oleracea plants can suffer from shoot apical meristem arrest, when sown at cold temperatures, giving rise to so-called blind seedlings that stop development and the formation of new leaves. We developed a seed treatment that strongly reduces the occurrence of this meristem arrest in kohlrabi and cabbage seedlings. The developed treatment i...
Article
Full-text available
Seed quality is of major importance for the start of a crop and its productivity. Rapid emergence results in early seedling establishment and better competition against weeds. A faster growing root system enables a better uptake of nutrients. Proper storage proves to be a key factor in maintaining seed quality. The article describes research perfor...
Article
Full-text available
Most of the above ground tissues in higher plants originate from stem cells located in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Several plant species can suffer from spontaneous stem cell arrest resulting in lack of further shoot development. In Brassica oleracea this SAM arrest is known as blindness and occurs in an unpredictable manner leading to conside...
Article
Full-text available
The seed industry in the Netherlands is the largest exporter of horticultural seeds, reaching farmers in every country of the world. High seed quality is one of the key factors of this success. Maintaining and increasing the level of seed quality requires skilled staff, innovation and collaboration. Seed companies all over the world share one conce...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental seed ageing approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the ‘elevated partial pressure of oxygen’ (EPPO) approach affects dry seed stored at ambient temperatures by high oxygen pressure. To analyse geneti...
Article
Full-text available
br/>Jonge tomaten- en paprikaplanten, maar ook een aantal andere gewassen, houden soms opeens op met groeien. Koploosheid was lange tijd een lastig maar zeer slecht begrepen fenomeen. De laatste jaren is het inzicht in een stroomversnelling gekomen. In ieder geval is het aantal mogelijke oorzaken drastisch ingeperkt.
Article
Full-text available
The genetic basis of seed germination and seedling vigor is largely unknown in Brassica species. We performed a study to evaluate the genetic basis of these important traits in a B. rapa doubled haploid population from a cross of a yellow-seeded oil-type yellow sarson and a black-seeded vegetable-type pak choi. We identified 26 QTL regions across a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For conservation of desiccation tolerant seeds by gene banks, dry and cool storage conditions are recommended to reduce seed ageing. Maintenance of seed quality during storage is also important for farmers. The seed industry performs fast ageing test by storing the seeds at a relative high humidity and temperature to estimate the shelf life of trea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Deterioration of seed is initially not noticed until germination slows down and becomes more obvious when the frequency of normal seedlings drops and ultimately total germination. Measuring the ethanol degradation capacity with a breath analyser provides a fast and simple tool to detect an early stage of seed deterioration, which we assume to be re...
Article
Full-text available
Plant genetic resources are conserved by genebanks mainly in the form of seeds. In most of the cases, the dried seeds can be stored for a considerable period of time, but eventually seed deterioration results in the inability to generate healthy seedlings. Prolonging seed longevity during storage reduces the frequency of regeneration, which is bene...
Chapter
Full-text available
Propagation material is an integral part of the crop produc­ tion chain. The genetic constitution of the cultivar should guar­ atee optimal adaptation to the growing conditions and a good yield with the desired quality characteristics. Healthy and vig­ orous seeds, seed tubers, or transplants are essential for rapid establishment of the crop. Use o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Crop seeds can often survive for a considerable time under dry conditions, but eventually they lose their germination capacity due to accumulating damage. There is a large variation in shelf life between seeds of different crops. Whereas primed seeds deteriorate relatively fast. To reduce the rate of ageing and prolong shelf life of the seeds, it i...
Book
Full-text available
Daniel Danial Wageningen UR-Plant Breeding, P.O. Box 386 6700 AJ, Wageningen, The Netherlands. E-mail: daniel.danial@wur.nl. Introducción y el enfoque general que se utiliza en el curso El método de entrenamiento utilizado durante el curso, se basa en la combinación de los conocimientos locales con tecnologías innovadoras introducidas. Se ha demo...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under h...
Article
The most common way to test seed quality is to use a simple and reliable but time- and space-consuming germination test. In this paper we present a fast and simple method to analyse cabbage seed deterioration by measuring ethanol production from partially imbibed seeds. The method uses a modified breath analyser and is simple compared to gas chroma...
Article
In opdracht van het Productschap Tuinbouw hebben onderzoekers van Plant Research International (onderdeel van Wageningen UR) een methode ontwikkeld om de trosaanleg bij jonge tomatenplanten eenduidig te meten. De methode is door zes deelnemende bedrijven in de praktijk getest en de plantontwikkeling is onder begeleiding van de onderzoekers gedurend...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the lack of foliar fungicide use, the organic produc-tion of Brassica seeds free of Alternaria spp. is difficult. Therefore, effective seed treatments certified for use in organic farming are needed to eradicate or at least effec-tively reduce the seed-borne inoculum. We here report results of greenhouse and field experiments in which non-ch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Maintenance of seed longevity is an important issue in the conservation of plant genetic resources by genebanks. A decrease in seed viability may result in loss of genetic variation and requires a new cycle of propagation, which may weigh heavy upon the limited budgets of gene banks. Gene banks generally store seeds at low moisture levels and tempe...
Article
Full-text available
Een nieuwe test maakt het mogelijk de houdbaarheid van zaaizaad nauwkeuriger vast te stellen. Dat geeft meer zekerheid bij bewaring en kan ook helpen bij de veredeling op houdbaarheid van zaad.
Article
Full-text available
Spiderplant (Cleome gynandra) is an African indigenous vegetable (AIV) in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, especially in most countries in eastern and southern Africa, where it is a semi-cultivated popular tropical species. In Kenya, it is among the most popular AIVs, particularly in the western and coastal regions. Seed supply systems for spiderp...
Article
Full-text available
In opdracht van het Productschap Tuinbouw hebben onderzoekers van Plant Research International (onderdeel van Wageningen UR) een methode ontwikkeld om de trosaanleg bij jonge tomatenplanten eenduidig te meten. Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd op verzoek van de plantenkwekers die behoefte hebben aan zo’n methode om de effecten van het kasklimaat op de tr...
Article
Full-text available
Biologische telers zijn verplicht biologisch uitgangsmateriaal te gebruiken, maar daarvan is niet altijd voldoende beschikbaar. Onderzoek op het gebied van uitgangsmateriaal, gerichte veredeling en samenwerking in de keten moeten het aanbod en het gebruik van biologisch uitgangsmateriaal stimuleren. Dit bioKennisbericht geeft een tussenstand van de...
Presentation
Full-text available
Seed quality is important for crop establishment. To improve it many procedures are performed, including, grading, sorting and physical or chemical sanitation. These treatments can have a profound effect on subsequent performance of the seed lots. Fast and reliable assays are needed to test their effect on seed quality. The most common way of testi...
Article
Full-text available
The current study was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and agents of natural origin (resistance inducers, plant derived products, micro-organisms) as seed treatments of carrots for control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina. Control of both Alternaria species by seed treatment wi...
Article
Full-text available
De biologische landbouw heeft rassen nodig die zich krachtig ontwikkelen na uitzaai, een goede weerbaarheid hebben tegen ziekten en plagen en die bestand zijn tegen lage bemestingsniveaus. Veredeling van robuuste rassen is daarom een belangrijk speerpunt in het onderzoek Robuust Plantaardig Uitgangsmateriaal. Dit geldt ook voor het verbeteren van d...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to identify seed treatment methods for eradicating Phoma valerianellae from lamb`s lettuce seeds in organic vegetable production. Using seeds naturally infested with the pathogen, the effect of three physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and different agents of natural origin (micro-organis...
Article
Full-text available
Greenhouse trials were carried out in order to test the efficacy of different seed treatments as alternatives to chemicals against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum cause of anthracnose on bean and Ascochyta spp. cause of Ascochyta blights on pea, respectively. Resistance inducers, commercially formulated microorganisms, non-formulated selected strains...
Article
Full-text available
Physical treatments of seeds to eradicate pathogens have the risk of reducing vitality of the seeds. Seed lots may differ in sensitivity to these treatments, therefore factors influencing this sensitivity, including the physiological condition of the seeds, should be identified. In this study priming was used to mimic the effect of pre-harvest onse...
Article
Full-text available
A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to account for the extension of life span in seeds (seed longevity). In this work, we used Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds as a model and carried out differential proteomics to investigate this trait, which is of both ecological and agricultural importance. In our system based on a controlled dete...
Article
Full-text available
European law provides that, in organic farming, organically produced seed should be used. Therefore new sanitation treatments need to be developed which do not use classical fungicides but still produce seed free from pathogens which can strongly affect yield of the crop. Greenhouse trials were carried out in order to test the efficacy of different...
Article
Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the highest activity against the seed borne pathogens X...
Article
Full-text available
Het doel van dit project was overzicht te verschaffen in de stand van de kennis en de meest recente onderzoekservaringen rondom smaak in de biologische keten. Hiertoe zijn de Nederlandse onderzoeksprojecten gericht op smaak geïnventariseerd. Naast de resultaten uit onderzoek zijn ook de obstakels voor verdere toepassing van deze resultaten in het o...
Article
Full-text available
This report describes an analysis of the impact of workflow and storage conditions at the Centre for Genetic Resources the Netherlands (CGN) on the quality of seed samples in their genebank collection which is maintained under low temperature and low relative humidity conditions. Emphasis is placed on seed longevity and health.