Steven J. Gibbons

Steven J. Gibbons
Norwegian Geotechnical Institute | NGI · Risiko, Skredgeoteknikk og Klimatilpasning

B.Sc. Ph.D.

About

112
Publications
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2,297
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Introduction
I am currently working at the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI: https://www.ngi.no/) on Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis as part of the ChEESE Center of Excellence https://cheese-coe.eu/

Publications

Publications (112)
Article
The evolution of High-Performance Computing (HPC) platforms enables the design and execution of progressively larger and more complex workflow applications in these systems. The complexity comes not only from the number of elements that compose the workflows but also from the type of computations they perform. While traditional HPC workflows target...
Article
Full-text available
Tsunamis constitute a significant hazard for European coastal populations, and the impact of tsunami events worldwide can extend well beyond the coastal regions directly affected. Understanding the complex mechanisms of tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation, as well as managing the tsunami risk, requires multidisciplinary research and inf...
Preprint
Full-text available
The evolution of High-Performance Computing (HPC) platforms enables the design and execution of progressively larger and more complex workflow applications in these systems. The complexity comes not only from the number of elements that compose the workflows but also from the type of computations they perform. While traditional HPC workflows target...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of High-Performance Computing (HPC) platforms enables the design and execution of progressively larger and more complex workflow applications in these systems. The complexity comes not only from the number of elements that compose the workflows but also from the type of computations they perform. While traditional HPC workflows target...
Article
Full-text available
In seismically active regions with variable dominant focal mechanisms, there is considerable tsunami inundation height uncertainty. Basic earthquake source parameters such as dip, strike, and rake affect significantly the tsunamigenic potential and the tsunami directivity. Tsunami inundation is also sensitive to other properties such as bottom fric...
Chapter
Glacially triggered faulting describes movement of pre-existing faults caused by a combination of tectonic and glacially induced isostatic stresses. The most impressive fault-scarps are found in northern Europe, assumed to be reactivated at the end of the deglaciation. This view has been challenged as new faults have been discovered globally with a...
Article
Full-text available
The detection and location capability of the International Monitoring System for small seismic events in the continental and oceanic regions surrounding the Sea of Japan is determined mainly by three primary seismic arrays: USRK, KSRS, and MJAR. Body wave arrivals are coherent on USRK and KSRS up to frequencies of around 4 Hz and classical array pr...
Article
Full-text available
Tsunami warning centres face the challenging task of rapidly forecasting tsunami threat immediately after an earthquake, when there is high uncertainty due to data deficiency. Here we introduce Probabilistic Tsunami Forecasting (PTF) for tsunami early warning. PTF explicitly treats data- and forecast-uncertainties, enabling alert level definitions...
Preprint
On 3 September 2017, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) carried out its sixth declared underground nuclear test (NK6) at the Punggye‐ri test site. With body‐wave magnitude 6.1, this explosion was significantly larger than any of the previous five explosions, and it has been followed by numerous smaller seismic events. The explosion ge...
Article
The mid-ocean ridge system is the main source of earthquakes within the Arctic region. The earthquakes are recorded on the permanent land-based stations in the region, although, smaller earthquakes remain undetected. In this study, we make use of three Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs) that were deployed offshore western Svalbard, along the spreadin...
Preprint
Between 2014 and 2017, almost 200 new seismic stations were installed in Alaska and northwestern Canada as part of the EarthScope USArray Transportable Array. These stations currently provide an unprecedented capability for the detection and location of seismic events in regions with otherwise relatively sparse station coverage. Two interesting ear...
Article
Full-text available
Inundation maps are a fundamental tool for coastal risk management and in particular for designing evacuation maps and evacuation planning. These in turn are a necessary component of the tsunami warning systems’ last-mile. In Italy inundation maps are informed by a probabilistic tsunami hazard model. Based on a given level of acceptable risk, Itali...
Article
Full-text available
Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) quantifies the probability of exceeding a specified inundation intensity at a given location within a given time interval. PTHA provides scientific guidance for tsunami risk analysis and risk management, including coastal planning and early warning. Explicit computation of site-specific PTHA, with an ade...
Article
Full-text available
‘Precision seismology’ encompasses a set of methods which use differential measurements of time-delays to estimate the relative locations of earthquakes and explosions. Delay-times estimated from signal correlations often allow far more accurate estimates of one event location relative to another than is possible using classical hypocentre determin...
Article
We provide a GIS data inventory of confirmed and proposed glacially-induced faults. Stresses, perturbated as a response to the advance and retreat of continental ice sheets and glaciers, can reactivate pre-existing faults. Previously referred to as "PostGlacial Faults" (PGFs), these faults are now called "Glacially-Induced Faults" (GIFs). More than...
Article
Full-text available
Human activity causes vibrations that propagate into the ground as high-frequency seismic waves. Measures to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic caused widespread changes in human activity, leading to a months-long reduction in seismic noise of up to 50%. The 2020 seismic noise quiet period is the longest and most prominent global anthropogenic seismic...
Article
Between 2014 and 2017, almost 200 new seismic stations were installed in Alaska and northwestern Canada as part of the EarthScope USArray Transportable Array. These stations currently provide an unprecedented capability for the detection and location of seismic events in regions with otherwise relatively sparse station coverage. Two interesting ear...
Article
The Mw 4.5 southern Viking graben earthquake on 30 June 2017 was one of the largest seismic events in the Norwegian part of the North Sea during the last century. It was well recorded on surrounding broadband seismic stations at regional distances, and it generated high signal‐to‐noise ratio teleseismic P arrivals at up to 90° with good azimuthal c...
Article
ABSTRACT: The receiver-to-source backazimuth of atmospheric infrasound signals is biased when crosswinds are present along the propagation path. Infrasound from 598 surface explosions from over 30 years in northern Finland is measured with high spatial resolution on an array 178 km almost due North. The array is situated in the classical shadow-zon...
Preprint
Full-text available
The receiver-to-source backazimuth of atmospheric infrasound signals is biased when crosswinds are present along the propagation path. Infrasound from 598 surface explosions from over 30 years in northern Finland is measured with high spatial resolution on an array 178 km almost due North. The array is situated in the classical shadow-zone distance...
Poster
Full-text available
The receiver-to-source backazimuth of atmospheric infrasound signals is biased when crosswinds are present along the propagation path. Infrasound from 598 surface explosions from over 30 years in northern Finland is measured with high spatial resolution on an array 178 km almost due North. The array is situated in the classical shadow-zone distance...
Article
Full-text available
In September 2014, the ARCES array in Northern Norway was upgraded to consist of 3-component instruments at each of its 25 sites. It is thereby the first array station of the International Monitoring System to be fully 3-component. S-phases are of paramount importance for the detection and location of seismic events at regional distances, especiall...
Chapter
Infrasound can provide unique data on extreme atmospheric events such as meteor impacts, severe weather systems, man-made explosions, and volcanic eruptions. Use of infrasound for remote event detection and location requires high-quality temporal and spatial atmospheric models, and infrasound generated by so-called Ground Truth events (for which th...
Article
Full-text available
The European Infrasound Bulletin highlights infrasound activity produced mostly by anthropogenic sources, recorded all over Europe and collected in the course of the ARISE and ARISE2 projects (Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe). Data includes high-frequency (> 0.7 Hz) infrasound detections at 24 European infrasound arrays from...
Article
On 3 September 2017, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) carried out its sixth declared underground nuclear test (NK6) at the Punggye-ri test site. With body-wave magnitude 6.1, this explosion was significantly larger than any of the previous five explosions, and it has been followed by numerous smaller seismic events. The explosion ge...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews recent progress toward understanding the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in the framework of the Atmospheric Dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe (ARISE) initiative. The middle atmosphere, integrating the stratosphere and mesosphere, is a crucial region which influences tropospheric weather and climate. Enhancing the unde...
Article
Seismic arrays enhance signal detection and parameter estimation by exploiting the time-delays between arriving signals on sensors at nearby locations. Parameter estimates can suffer due to both signal incohrence, with diminished waveform similarity between sensors, and aberration, with time-delays between coherent waveforms poorly represented by t...
Preprint
Correlation detectors are becoming a standard method for identifying seismic signals from repeating sources. These highly sensitive, source-specific detectors frequently facilitate a reduction in the detection threshold by around an order of magnitude. Detections are typically declared when the value of the correlation coefficient (CC), or a relate...
Preprint
North Korea announced a second nuclear test on 25 May 2009, the first having taken place on October 9, 2006. Both tests were detected by the global seismic network of the Comprehensive nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organisation. We apply a correlation detector using a 10-s signal template from the 2006 test on the MJAR array in Japan to: 1) assess the po...
Preprint
The detectability of low magnitude seismic events in the European Arctic is determined primarily by the small-aperture International Monitoring System arrays ARCES and SPITS. In August 2004, the SPITS array was upgraded to a broadband array with an increase in the sampling rate from 40 to 80 Hz. Most important, however, for the detection and locati...
Preprint
We describe the seismoacoustic monitoring network in Fennoscandia and North West Russia and present how it is being used to characterize infrasound studies in that part of the world. The history of the infrasound array network is presented, together with a description of array processing considerations, and examples of infrasound signals recorded f...
Preprint
It has long been accepted that occurrences of a known signal are most effectively detected by cross-correlating the incoming data stream with a waveform template. Such matched signal detectors have received very little attention in the field of detection seismology because there are relatively few instances in which the form of an anticipated seism...
Preprint
The IMS infrasound arrays have up to 15 sites with apertures up to 3 km. They are distributed remarkably uniformly over the globe, providing excellent coverage of South America, Africa, and Antarctica. Therefore, many infrasound arrays are in regions thousands of kilometers from the closest seismic array. Existing 3-component seismic stations, co-l...
Preprint
Aftershock sequences following very large earthquakes present enormous challenges to near‐real‐time generation of seismic bulletins. The increase in analyst resources needed to relocate an inflated number of events is compounded by failures of phase‐association algorithms and a significant deterioration in the quality of underlying, fully automatic...
Preprint
The oceanic boundary separating the Eurasian and North American plates between 70 and 84 degrees North hosts large earthquakes which are well recorded teleseismically, and many more seismic events at far lower magnitudes that are well recorded only at regional distances. Existing seismic bulletins have considerable spread and bias resulting from li...
Preprint
Characterizing the seismicity of Novaya Zemlya and the surrounding Arctic seas requires accurate event‐location estimates. Low‐magnitude events in this region are currently observed only by a small number of stations in the European Arctic, with a large azimuthal gap, making the accuracy of regional velocity models all the more important. Regional...
Preprint
The M=7.6 October 8, 2005, Kashmir earthquake generated thousands of aftershocks. Existing catalogs are coarse, omitting data from key stations and not correcting bias. We target arrivals on unexploited regional stations with optimized signal processing. A multiple event Bayesian relocation results in far more structured clusters of seismicity. All...
Preprint
Declared North Korean nuclear tests in 2006, 2009, 2013 and 2016 were observed seismically at regional and teleseismic distances. Waveform similarity allows the events to be located relatively with far greater accuracy than the absolute locations can be determined from seismic data alone. There is now significant redundancy in the data given the la...
Article
Full-text available
We analyse microseismicity induced during the Decatur, Illinois, carbon capture and storage (CCS) demonstration project. More than 10,000 microseismic events were detected during the injection of 1 Mio metric tons of CO2 over the course of 3 years. The seismicity occurs in distinct clusters and shows little to no correlation to the progressing CO2...
Article
Aftershocks of the October 8, 2005, M=7.6 Kashmir earthquake continued for many weeks and covered a region extending over an aperture exceeding 100 km. Several hundred events were recorded well at teleseismic distances while many hundreds more are only observed at regional distances. Existing earthquake catalogs for this sequence are poor given an...
Article
Seismicity induced by CO2 injection at Decatur, Illinois, occurs in distinct clusters and shows no obvious correlation with the proceeding pressure front. We analyse some of these clusters in more depth by using a waveform cross-correlation approach. With this approach we can associate about 1400 events from two clusters, with moment magnitudes bet...
Article
Full-text available
An areal distribution of sensors can be used for estimating the direction of incoming waves through beamforming. Beamforming may be implemented as a phase-shifting and stacking of data recorded on the different sensors (i.e., conventional beamforming). Alternatively, beamforming can be applied to cross-correlations between the waveforms on the diff...
Article
The oceanic boundary separating the Eurasian and North American plates between 70° and 84° north hosts large earthquakes which are well recorded teleseismically, and many more seismic events at far lower magnitudes that are well recorded only at regional distances. Existing seismic bulletins have considerable spread and bias resulting from limited...
Article
Declared North Korean nuclear tests in 2006, 2009, 2013, and 2016 were observed seismically at regional and teleseismic distances. Waveform similarity allows the events to be located relatively with far greater accuracy than the absolute locations can be determined from seismic data alone. There is now significant redundancy in the data given the l...
Article
Full-text available
Characterizing the seismicity of Novaya Zemlya and the surrounding Arctic seas requires accurate event‐location estimates. Low‐magnitude events in this region are currently observed only by a small number of stations in the European Arctic, with a large azimuthal gap, making the accuracy of regional velocity models all the more important. Regional...
Article
Aftershock sequences following very large earthquakes present enormous challenges to near‐real‐time generation of seismic bulletins. The increase in analyst resources needed to relocate an inflated number of events is compounded by failures of phase‐association algorithms and a significant deterioration in the quality of underlying, fully automatic...
Article
Full-text available
Microseisms in the period of 2-10 seconds are generated in deep oceans and near coastal regions. It is common for microseisms from multiple sources to arrive at the same time at a given seismometer. It is therefore desirable to be able to measure multiple slowness vectors accurately. Popular ways to estimate the direction of arrival of ocean induce...
Article
Full-text available
Dynamic glacier activity is increasingly observed through passive seismic monitoring. We analysed near-regional-scale seismicity on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard to identify seismic icequake signals and to study their spatial–temporal distribution within the 14-year period from 2000 until 2013. This is the first study that uses seismic data re...
Article
Full-text available
We present and describe strong-motion data observations from the 2015 M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake sequence collected using existing and new Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) and U.S. Geological Survey NetQuakes sensors located in the Kathmandu Valley. A comparison of QCN data with waveforms recorded by a conventional strong-motion (NetQuakes) instrum...
Article
This study demonstrates probabilistic infrasound propagation modelling using realistic perturbations. The ensembles of perturbed analyses, provided by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), include error variances of both model and assimilated observations. Ensemble spread profiles indicate a yearly mean effective sound sp...
Article
Full-text available
(No abstract) Link to published version http://srl.geoscienceworld.org/content/early/2015/06/05/0220150068.short
Article
Full-text available
(No abstract: First paragraph as follows ... ) The International Monitoring System (IMS) for verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear‐Test‐Ban Treaty (CTBT) comprises sensors associated with four monitoring technologies: seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide. The so‐called waveform technologies (seismic, infrasound, and hy...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The IMS infrasound array IS37, near Bardufoss in northern Norway, started providing data in October 2013. In the boreal summer, the stratospheric waveguide promotes the observation at IS37 of infrasound from numerous military and industrial sources of repeating explosions to the east and southeast at distances between 200 and 800 km. In August and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The IMS infrasound array IS37, near Bardufoss in northern Norway, started providing data in October 2013. In the boreal summer, the stratospheric waveguide promotes the observation at IS37 of infrasound from numerous military and industrial sources of repeating explosions to the east and southeast at distances between 200 and 800 km. In August and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The sensitivity of correlation detectors increases greatly when the outputs from multiple seismic traces are considered. For single-array monitoring, a zero-offset stack of individual correlation traces will provide significant noise suppression and enhanced sensitivity for a source region surrounding the hypocenter of the master event. The extent...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We demonstrate that the reflectivity method can be applied to the modelling of infrasound propagation. The reflectivity method is a slowness (or wavenumber) integration method widely applied in the seismological community to generate synthetic seismograms in layered media. The integrated function essentially describes the reflection coefficients be...
Article
In this study we have analyzed passively recorded data utilizing the Life of Field Seismic (LoFS) system at the Ekofisk field in the North Sea. The system recorded a perforation shot consisting of 1.6 kg explosives (corresponding to about a moment magnitude of Mw 0) at about 2.1 km depth below seabed. To confirm the location of the perforation shot...
Article
Full-text available
The frequency-wavenumber (fk) and Capon methods are widely used in seismic array studies of background or ambient noise to infer the backazimuth and slowness of microseismic sources. We present an implementation of these techniques for the analysis of microseisms (0.05–2 Hz) which draws on array signal processing literature from a range of dis