Steven R. Asher

Steven R. Asher
Duke University | DU · Department of Psychology and Neuroscience

Ph.D.--University of Wisconsin, Madison

About

98
Publications
54,689
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
16,315
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1998 - present
Duke University
Position
  • Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience
September 1971 - August 1999
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Position
  • Professor of Educational Psychology and Psychology

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
Loneliness is a sad, even painful emotional experience that is thought to result from deficiencies in the quantity or quality of one's social relationships. Assessments of loneliness have evolved to typically include diverse item content that assesses the causes of loneliness as well as the emotional experience of loneliness itself. This embedding...
Article
Full-text available
In order to better understand why some children retaliate when they feel provoked and others do not, the present study identified “pacifistically-oriented” children who made negative interpretations in response to unambiguous provocations, yet did not endorse revenge goals, and compared them to “revenge-seeking” children who also made negative inte...
Article
Research documents the strengths of girls’ friendships compared to boys’ friendships leading to the inference that boys are not very skilled as friends. In this article, we use a friendship tasks framework to propose that this inference is premature and should be reconciled with evidence that boys are as satisfied as girls with their friendships an...
Article
The goal of this study was to identify mechanisms associated with chronic loneliness by examining the effect of adolescents' accumulated history of loneliness on responses to new social situations. Specifically, this study investigated whether attributions and emotions in situations of social inclusion and exclusion differ between chronically lonel...
Chapter
Although loneliness and belongingness could be thought of as opposite ends of a single continuum, we propose that they are nonetheless distinct dimensions of psychological experience and should be studied as equally important and only partially related phenomena. As part of this proposal, we discuss a widespread assessment problem, namely that asse...
Article
Residential college environments provide young people with distinctive relationship opportunities and challenges. A major purpose of the present study was to learn whether college students respond differently to conflict‐of‐interest vignettes in three different relationship contexts. Students were more likely to make negative interpretations about...
Article
While the integration of theory and research on peer relationships and childhood disorder remains a relatively uncultivated area, the complementary strengths of these two research domains make this a particularly appealing union. Our primary goal in this chapter is to describe a developmental process-oriented approach designed to nurture an allianc...
Article
Although girls disclose to friends about problems more than boys, little is known about processes underlying this sex difference. Four studies (Ns = 526, 567, 769, 154) tested whether middle childhood to mid-adolescent girls and boys (ranging from 8 to 17 years old) differ in how they expect that talking about problems would make them feel. Girls e...
Article
Rejection among children is the central topic in this part. Elementary-school students are the subjects of the comprehensive research, which discusses an extensive list of rejection behaviors that will unfold and explain aspects of early childhood development. Analysis was derived from the examination of ways (through the cited dialogues between st...
Article
This article reviews theory and empirical research on loneliness with an emphasis on late childhood through late adolescence and early adulthood. The authors first discuss theoretical perspectives on loneliness from various intellectual traditions - with a particular focus on social needs perspectives on loneliness - and then briefly review differe...
Article
In this study, the prevailing view that girls are pervasively more skilled in their friendships than boys was challenged by examining whether girls respond more negatively than boys when a friend violates core friendship expectations. Fourth- and fifth-grade children (n = 267) responded to vignettes depicting transgressions involving a friend's bet...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the behavioral correlates of acceptance-rejection has been reviewed regularly and thoroughly by scholars such as Coie, Dodge, and Kupersmidt (1990), Hartup (1970, 1983), Ladd (2005), Newcomb, Bukowski, and Pattee (1993), Bierman (2004), and Rubin, Bukowski, and Parker (2006). We build on this foundation by summarizing what has been lear...
Article
Friendships are close relationships characterized by companionship, a shared history, mutual affection, and the recognition by both participants that the relationship has a special status. Having friends is associated with increased self-esteem, decreased likelihood of depression, decreased feelings of loneliness, protection from victimization, and...
Article
This study reports the findings of a multisite randomized trial evaluating the separate and combined effects of 2 school-based approaches to reduce violence among early adolescents. A total of 37 schools at 4 sites were randomized to 4 conditions: (1) a universal intervention that involved implementing a student curriculum and teacher training with...
Article
Bibliography: leaves 22-27 Supported in party by the National Institute of Education under contract no. US-NIE-C-400-76-0116
Article
This study evaluated the impact of a universal school-based violence prevention program on social-cognitive factors associated with aggression and nonviolent behavior in early adolescence. The effects of the universal intervention were evaluated within the context of a design in which two cohorts of students at 37 schools from four sites (N = 5,581...
Article
Previous studies have demonstrated that children's goals are associated with their success in peer relationships. The current study extends earlier findings by examining changes in children's goals during hypothetical conflicts. Participants were 252 children ages 9 to 12 years old (133 boys, 119 girls). As predicted, children's goals changed signi...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether the perception of self as socially rejected might contribute to increased physical aggression among elementary-school children. It was hypothesized that physically aggressive children would become more physically aggressive over time if they perceived that they were rejected and tended to blame peers for social failu...
Article
The present research tested whether children's responses to help-giving and help-seeking friendship tasks predicted how many friends they had and the quality of their best friendship. Fifth-grade children (N=511; typically 10 or 11 years old) responded to vignettes in which they could either give help to a friend or seek help from a friend. Childre...
Article
This paper provides an over-view of the Multisite Violence Prevention Project, a 5-year project to compare the effects of a universal intervention (all students and teachers) and a targeted intervention (family program for high-risk children) on reducing aggression and violence among sixth graders. First, the paper describes the role of the Centers...
Article
Although loneliness is a normative experience, there is reason to be concerned about children who are chronically lonely in school. Research indicates that children have a fundamental understanding of what it means to be lonely, and that loneliness can be reliably measured in children. Most of the research on loneliness in children has focused on t...
Article
Developing a more comprehensive understanding of social competence and the reasons for social relationship difficulties requires attention to the kinds of goals children are pursuing in specific social situations. In this article, the authors describe several theoretical models of social information processing, each of which includes goals as a cru...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the skills required for friendship, as distinct from those required for peer acceptance. The present study examined whether children's goals and strategies in friendship conflict situations are predictive of their friendship adjustment, after accounting for level of peer acceptance. Fourth- and 5th-grade children (N = 696) res...
Article
Children with language disorders have higher than average rates of peer relationship problems, suggesting that they are also at risk for loneliness. A review of research on loneliness as an emotional consequence of peer relationship difficulties in childhood is preceded by a discussion of the particular relevance of this literature for children wit...
Article
The purposes of this study were to learn whether children’s beliefs about the legitimacy of aggression can be reliably assessed and whether these beliefs relate to children’s everyday social behavior with peers, as well as their responses to hypothetical ambiguous provocation situations. Fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 781) responded to a 16-...
Article
Full-text available
Examined whether the generalization about the prosocial style of well-accepted children would apply to peer conflicts involving a rights infraction. From a sample of 867 4th and 5th-grade children, 144 were individually interviewed about their strategies for handling hypothetical situations in which a peer infringes upon their rights. Results revea...
Chapter
Full-text available
An all-new & greatly expanded version of NASP's highly successful 1987 volume, designed to provide psychologists, mental health workers, & special educators with a single, authoritative source for practical, accurate & up-to-date information on the problems & issues facing children. Contains nearly 90 concise chapters covering child & adolescent de...
Article
This study examined whether children who vary in their behavioral responses (aggression vs. withdrawal vs. problem solving) to ambiguous provocation but who are similar in their attributional processes differ in their social goals and self-efficacy perceptions. In response to 10 hypothetical situations involving ambiguous provocation, fourth- and f...
Article
This study examined whether children who vary in their behavioral responses (aggression vs. withdrawal vs. problem solving) to ambiguous provocation but who are similar in their attributional processes differ in their social goals and self-efficacy perceptions. In response to 10 hypothetical situations involving ambiguous provocation, fourth- and f...
Article
Investigated whether children's goals in peer conflict situations are related to resolution strategies, sex differences in goals and strategies, and how strategies relate to acceptance by peer group. 142 4th–6th graders (aged 9–12 yrs) were asked about their goals and strategies in response to 12 hypothetical peer conflict situations. Results indic...
Article
The purposes of this study were to examine academically relevant characteristics of different sociometric status groups and to learn about the academic orientations of behavioral subgroups of rejected children. Results from a sample of 423 sixth and seventh graders (ages 11-13) suggested that sociometrically neglected children have quite positive a...
Article
The purposes of this study were to examine academically relevant characteristics of different sociometric status groups and to learn about the academic orientations of behavioral subgroups of rejected children. Results from a sample of 423 sixth and seventh graders (ages 11–13) suggested that sociometrically neglected children have quite positive a...
Article
Full-text available
The distinction between friendship adjustment and acceptance by the peer group was examined. Third- through 5th-grade children ( N = 881) completed sociometric measures of acceptance and friendship, a measure of loneliness, a questionnaire on the features of their very best friendships, and a measure of their friendship satisfaction. Results indica...
Article
The distinction between friendship adjustment and acceptance by the peer group was examined. Third- through 5th-grade children (N = 88 1 ) completed sociometric measures of acceptance and friendship, a measure of loneliness, a questionnaire on the features of their very best friendships, and a measure of their friendship satisfaction. Results indic...
Article
Recent studies indicate that feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction can be reliably assessed with third- through sixth-grade children, and that children who are sociometrically rejected by their peers are significantly more lonely than other children. The present research was designed (a) to examine whether loneliness could be reliably a...
Article
Recent studies indicate that feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction can be reliably assessed with third- through sixth-grade children, and that children who are sociometrically rejected by their peers are significantly more lonely than other children. The present research was designed (a) to examine whether loneliness could be reliably a...
Article
Identifies patterns of behavior and emotional response associated with peer rejection in early adolescence. Seventh- and 8th-grade middle-school students ( N = 450) were administered positive and negative sociometric nominations, peer behavioral assessment items, a loneliness and social dissatisfaction questionnaire, and a newly developed interpers...
Article
This research was designed to identify patterns of behavior and emotional response associated with peer rejection in early adolescence. Seventh- and eighth-grade middle-school students (N = 450) were administered positive and negative sociometric nominations, peer behavioral assessment items, a loneliness and social dissatisfaction questionnaire, a...
Article
This study was designed to determine whether children with mild mental retardation understand the concept of loneliness, whether their feelings of loneliness at school can be reliably assessed, and whether there are differences in loneliness between children with and without mental retardation. Results from a sample of 62 students with mild mental...
Book
Introduction 1. Recent advances in the study of peer rejection S. R. Asher Part I. Behavioural Characteristics of Peer Rejected Children: 2. Peer group behavior and social status J. D. Coie, K. A. Dodge and J. Kupersmidt 3. Children's entry behavior M. Putallaz and A. Wasserman 4. Preschooler's behavioral orientations and patterns of peer contact:...
Article
In a study of links between group acceptance and friendship among children in elementary school, 278 third- through sixth-graders, nearly evenly divided by sex, were assessed with measures of level of peer acceptance, primary and secondary friendship, friendship quality, loneliness, and social dissatisfaction. Findings suggested that the distinctio...
Chapter
In his 1917 sixteen-volume series Practical Child Training, educator R. C. Beery offered advice to mothers whose children have few friends and are reticent to approach others. Beery urged mothers to facilitate get-togethers with peers, such as backyard picnics that include the child’s schoolmates, and to help the children “have a royal good time” (...
Article
Full-text available
In this review, we examine the oft-made claim that peer-relationship difficulties in childhood predict serious adjustment problems in later life. The article begins with a framework for conceptualizing and assessing children’s peer difficulties and with a discussion of conceptual and methodological issues in longitudinal risk research. Following th...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to assess the social adaptation of mainstreamed mildly retarded children, comparing them to a matched sample of regular education students. Results indicated that mildly retarded children were quite rejected by their peers, and, compared to nonretarded classmates, they reported significantly more dissatisfaction...
Article
Recent research indicates the importance of distinguishing between sociometrically neglected children and sociometrically rejected children. However, making the distinction between neglected status and rejected status traditionally has required administering a negative-nomination sociometric measure, a measure viewed by some researchers and school...
Article
A significant correlation between academic achievement and peer popularity has long been established in the educational literature. Nonetheless, comparisons between high- and low-status children have often ,failed to take achievement into account. In this study, low-achieving third- and fourth-grade boys of low sociometric status were compared to h...
Article
Describes recent research advances on children's peer relationships, and suggests strategies whereby social workers can facilitate children's social development. Evidence points to deficits in social skills as a major contributor to children's problems with their peers, and suggests that providing children with direct instruction in social interact...
Article
Recent research indicates that a considerable number of children report extreme feelings of loneliness and that unpopular children are more lonely than popular children. In the present study, we assessed feelings of loneliness of two subgroups of unpopular children, those who were sociometrically rejected versus those who were sociometrically negle...
Article
A series of studies was conducted to investigate the nature of children's goals and the role of goals in children's competence in peer relations. First, a conceptual framework was devised which consisted of eight goal types reflecting social-interpersonal and task-related achievement aspects of game playing: task mastery, approach-oriented performa...
Article
Discusses 3 issues addressed by F. Gresham (see record 1984-09242-001) in his commentary on the present authors' (see record 1984-01107-001) study of children's social goals—the social validity of social goals assessment, the correspondence between social knowledge and behavior, and the situation specificity of behavior. It is concluded that rese...
Chapter
Until recently children’s social competence has been defined as children’s ability to accomplish their goals in interaction with others (e.g., Combs & Slaby, 1977; O’Malley, 1977). Thus, for example, researchers have studied the ways in which children join groups (Corsaro, 1981; Putallaz, 1983; Putallaz & Gottman, 1981) or the ways in which they ma...
Chapter
Social skill training research with children has accelerated rapidly with more than 30 studies published in the last 7 years (Ladd & Asher, 1985). This research has been extensively reviewed of late (e.g., Asher & Renshaw, 1981; Conger & Keane, 1981; Ladd & Mize, 1983; Wanlass & Prinz, 1982), and it is clear that considerable diversity exists under...
Article
Children experiencing difficulties in their peer relations have typically been identified using external sources of information, such as teacher referrals or ratings, sociometric measures, and/or behavioral observations. There is a need to supplement these assessment procedures with self-report measures that assess the degree to which the children...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether unpopular children exhibit a bossy interpersonal style in a problem-solving situation. Accordingly, a detailed sequential category coding system was constructed, focusing on patterns of influence among children. Sociometric measures were used to pair 44 third- and fourth-grade children int...
Article
Full-text available
Pages numbered 1-70 Bibliography: p. 47-69 Supported in part by the National Institute of Education under contract no. NIE-400-81-0030
Article
The commentary highlights the many conceptual and methodological advances contained in the Coie and Kupersmidt, Dodge, and Putallaz papers. It also focuses on the important intervention implications of the research. Compared with earlier work on the behavioral correlates of status, these papers break with tradition by studying social interactions o...
Article
Previous research on the development of social competence has focused on children's overt behavior and on their knowledge of interaction strategies. The present research tested the hypothesis that children differ not only in behavior and strategies but in the kinds of goals they pursue in interpersonal situations. 126 3rd–6th graders were shown 4 h...
Article
This is a report on a study of racial interrelationships among students in desegregated schools. Sociometric measures of third graders' willingness to play and work with their classmates (indicating cross-race acceptance) showed evidence of racial bias; however, the amount of bias appeared small compared to the findings of earlier studies which use...
Chapter
Sociometric status in the peer group is a fairly stable phenomenon (Asher, Singleton, Tinsley, & Hymel, 1979; Roff, Sells, & Golden, 1972), and longitudinal research suggests that low status is predictive of later life adjustment (Cowen, Pederson, Babigian, Izzo, & Trost, 1973; Roff et al., 1972; Ullmann, 1957). However, the reasons for poor accept...
Article
This paper critically evaluates a widely used method of identifying children as at risk in their peer relations. This method emphasizes children's total rate of peer interaction, regardless of the quality or skillfulness of the interaction. Children whose total rate is considerably below average for the group are referred to as socially withdrawn a...
Article
Assessed whether teaching children to engage in comparison activity improves their referential communication performance. In contrast to previous communication training studies, the training focused on a specifiable unitary skill, employed a teaching procedure with known effectiveness, and controlled for practice and other familiarity effects. Two...
Article
Discusses how sociometric methods can be used to assess various dimensions of social status within mainstreaming settings and how direct measures of social competence can evaluate particular social skills gained from an integrated experience. Techniques examined include peer nomination, rating scales, paired comparison, and the How-I-Feel-Toward-Ot...
Article
Full-text available
To appear in W.P. Dickson (Ed.), Children's Oral Communication Skills. New York : Academic Press. Includes bibliographical references (p. 37-42) Research reported herein was supported in part by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development grant, in part by the University of Illinois Research Board, and in part by the National Insti...
Article
Previous research employing nomination sociometric measures indicates a strong racial bias in children's friendship choices. The present study examined cross-race acceptance on a rating-scale measure which assessed liking rather than "best friendship." Children were asked to indicate how much they liked to play and work with each of their classmate...
Article
Examined the reliability of a rating-scale sociometric technique with 19 4-yr-old children. The test–retest reliability of scores Ss received over a 4-wk interval was high compared to the stability of the traditional positive and negative nomination scores. This preschool sociometric measure has applications for the study of the behavioral correlat...
Article
Aggressive preschool children were instructed by their teacher on the harm that results from aggression, its lack of effects as an interpersonal strategy, and the benefits that result from prosocial alternatives. Results from a time-lagged design indicated that aggressive behavior decreased and positive behavior increased as a result of these instr...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research indicates that children comprehend more of high-than low-interest material when each child is given a mixture of both types of material. This effect could be due to a contrast effect whereby children selectively respond to the more appealing topics in their set of passages. In the present study fifth grade children each received e...
Article
Assessed social interaction among Black and White 3rd-grade children in 9 classrooms. The children were in integrated schools since kindergarten. Two methods were employed: a roster-and-rating sociometric technique and a classroom behavioral observation procedure using sequential time sampling. Sociometric data were obtained for 179 White and 48 Bl...
Article
Third- and fourth-grade socially isolated children were coached in social skills. The coaching condition included (1) instructions from an adult in social skills relevant to friendship making, (2) playing games with peers to practice social skills, and (3) a postplay review session with the coach. In a second condition (peer pairing), isolated chil...
Article
This study examined developmental changes in children's own-race and cross-race sociometric ratings, using a longitudinal design. Subjects were 38 black and 116 white children. They were tested in third grade in 1973 and again in sixth grade in 1976. These children had experienced racially integrated education from kindergarten onward. In addition,...
Article
The purposes of this study were to learn about: (1) ways of identifying children not accepted by their peers, (2) the behavioral correlates of peer acceptance, and (3) strategies of teaching social skills to isolated children. Sociometric assessment, behavioral observations, and teacher and peer interviews were obtained in eight 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th...
Article
Studied 2 possible explanations of why many young children communicate poorly on tasks that require them to discriminate referents from nonreferents: (a) poor communicators do not compare the associative strength of potential messages to the referent and nonreferent or (b) poor communicators engage in an egocentric form of comparison activity such...
Article
Previous research has found that younger children are less accurate communicators to a listener. In the present research, children's ability to appraise or evaluate the quality of communication performance was investigated. In Exp I, 90 2nd-, 4th-, and 6th-grade children communicated messages for 15 referents. Half of the Ss then appraised their ow...
Article
Children's communication performance improves with age, which could result from increases in children's vocabularies, changes in their strategies of selecting messages from their vocabularies, or both. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate these explanations. Two types of communication tasks were employed. One task required that speakers hav...
Article
Investigated whether sex differences in reading comprehension are affected by variations in the interest level of the material. 49 male and 38 female 5th graders' interests were assessed using a picture-rating technique. Each child then read material that corresponded to his or her high- and low-interest areas. The cloze procedure was used to measu...
Article
Conducted 2 experiments to assess the effects of 5th-grade teacher sex on male and female student reading performance. Exp. I served as a pretest measure; the Iowa Test of Basic Skills Reading Comprehension subtest was administered to 534 5th graders having 10 male and 10 female teachers. Exp. II served as a posttest measure by analyzing achievemen...
Article
Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1972. Vita. Includes bibliographical references.

Network

Cited By