Steve L. Morton

Steve L. Morton
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA · National Ocean Service

About

102
Publications
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Publications

Publications (102)
Article
Full-text available
Distribution and carbon biomass of planktonic foraminifera were investigated from the euphotic zone of the Eastern Indian Ocean during a two-month cruise, ‘Shiyan I’ (10 April–13 May 2014). Foraminifera species were collected through plankton net sampling at 44 locations (80.00°–96.10° E, 10.08° N–6.00° S). The temperature (°C) ranged between 12.82...
Preprint
Full-text available
Siliceous planktonic species of the phyla Retaria and Cercozoa were investigated from the surface to a 200 m depth around the eastern Indian Ocean (80.00°–96.10° E, 10.08° N–6.00° S) during a 2-month cruise (10 April–13 May 2014). These species are commonly referred to as Radiolarians and are found in all of the world’s oceans; however, this is a d...
Article
Objective: The lungs are uniquely exposed to the external environment. Sand and dust exposures in desert regions are common among deployed soldiers. A significant number of Veterans deployed to the Middle East report development of respiratory disorders and diseases. Materials and methods: Sand collected from Fallujah, Iraq and Kandahar, Afghanista...
Chapter
This fact sheet presents information on distribution, toxicity and morphology for the following harmful algal species: Dinophysis.
Chapter
Routine harmful algae monitoring for marine biotoxins in bivalve shellfish and other seafood is a necessary and proven approach for protecting public health. Sampling stations should be established at representative locations to protect the recreational/subsistence and commercial shellfish resources identified in the initial survey. Phytoplankton m...
Chapter
Isolating and perpetuating cultures of harmful algal species is not fundamentally different than doing so for nonharmful taxa. This chapter provides guidance on early steps in the sequence of sampling, locating, perpetuating, and isolating an organism in a natural body of water. The two most common reasons for sampling a body of water for harmful m...
Chapter
Full-text available
Fact sheets present information on distribution, toxicity and morphology for the following harmful algal species: Alexandrium, Amphidomataceae, Aureococcus anophagefferens & Aureoumbra lagunensis, Ceratium furca, Chattonella marina, Cochlodinium, Cyanobacteria, Dinophysis acuminata, Fibrocapsa japonica, Gambierdiscus and Gymnodinium catenatum. The...
Chapter
This chapter outlines existing educational and outreach materials, and highlights projects that might be used as case studies to educate the public regarding harmful algal blooms (HAB). The “Scope and Sequence” provides educators with guidance as to what students need to comprehend in grades K‐2, grades 3‐5, grades 6‐8, and grades 9‐12 in order to...
Chapter
This fact sheet presents information on distribution, toxicity and morphology for the following harmful algal species: Ceratium furca.
Article
Full-text available
Marine biotoxin-contaminated seafood has caused thousands of poisonings worldwide this century. Given these threats, there is an increasing need for improved technologies that can be easily integrated into coastal monitoring programs. This study evaluates approaches for monitoring toxins associated with recurrent toxin-producing Alexandrium and Din...
Article
Clinical cases of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) are common in Alaska, and result from human consumption of shellfish contaminated with saxitoxin (STX) and its analogues. Diagnosis of PSP is presumptive and based on recent ingestion of shellfish and presence of manifestations consistent with symptoms of PSP; diagnosis is confirmed by detection...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To assess the community structure, seasonal dynamics of dinoflagellates population with environmental conditions in the nutrient-rich and polluted coastal waters off, Karachi. Methods: Sampling sites were located from Karachi harbour (Station A) and Mouth of Manora Channel (Station B). Total 180 replicate samples were collected at 1-m de...
Article
Full-text available
In this Focus article, the authors ask a seemingly simple question: Are harmful algal blooms (HABs) becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems? When HAB events require restrictions on fisheries, recreation, and drinking water uses of inland water bodies significant economic consequences result. Unfortu...
Article
Full-text available
The in situ growth rates of dinoflagellates along the Karachi coast off Pakistan was studied by the size fractionated method during winter (February 2006) and summer (May 2007). The growth rate per day ranged from -2.87 to 2.3 d-1 (20 species) in winter and from 1.20 to 1.95 d-1 (13 species) in summer. Growth rates (μmax d-1) of the dominant specie...
Article
Full-text available
Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) is a globally significant human health syndrome most commonly caused by dinoflagellates within the genus Dinophysis. While blooms of harmful algae have frequently been linked to excessive nutrient loading, Dinophysis is a mixotrophic alga whose growth is typically associated with prey availability. Consequently,...
Article
Full-text available
Present study reports new information on the biovolume and carbon biomass estimates for dinoflagellates from Manora Channel, Karachi coast, Pakistan. Biovolume per cell was calculated using the geometric shape of dinoflagellates at species level. Both thecate and athecate species were examined under light and scanning electron microscope. A total o...
Article
Full-text available
Harmful algal blooms cause serious problems to public health and the economic viability of shellfish industries in Alaska. The most common phycotoxins in this region are saxitoxin and its congeners, collectively referred to as paralytic shellfish toxins, the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans. The illness of 26 and de...
Article
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is known to be caused by the ciguatoxins from the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus, however, there is the potential for other toxins such as okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins from the genus Prorocentrum, and palytoxin from the genus Ostreopsis, to contaminate seafood. These genera may also be indicators of ecosystem...
Article
Karenia brevis, the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, has been studied extensively, but very little attention has been paid to its sexual life cycle. We found that the life cycle of K. brevis is heterothallic, most probably not resting cyst-producing, but with life stages of different morphology. The isogamous gametes were slightly smaller than vege...
Article
Full-text available
The seasonal variation of Noctiluca scintillanswas investigated from coastal areas of Karachi (Manora Channel), Pakistan. Total cell abundance ranged between < 100 cells l-1 to 1340 cells l-1 during the sampling period May 2002-July 2003. High cells densities were recorded during May 2003. No green or red water discolouration was observed. Cell siz...
Article
The dynamics of Dinophysis acuminata and its associated diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) as well as pectenotoxins (PTXs), were investigated within plankton and shellfish in Northport Bay, NY, USA, over a four year period (2008–2011). Over the course of the study, Dinophysis bloom densities...
Article
Full-text available
Morphotaxonomy and seasonal abundance of dinoflagellates of the genera Prorocentrum and Mesoporos (Prorocentrales) were studied from nutrient-rich waters, Karachi Harbor and the mouth of the Manora Channel, Pakistan during May 2002–July 2003. Using both light and scanning electron microscopy, 13 species of Prorocentrales were identified according t...
Article
Biofouling ascidians are ubiquitous in coastal ecosystems and are among the main colonizers of aquaculture gear. Our study tested the hypothesis that the transport, removal, and transfer of fouling ascidian species by aquaculturists provide a mechanism for concentration and distribution of harmful-algal cells to new areas. Wild-caught specimens of...
Article
Full-text available
TWO MAJOR HURDLES NEED TO BE SURMOUNTED FOR CELL THERAPY FOR DIABETES: (i) allo-immune rejection of grafted pancreatic islets, or stem/precursor cell-derived insulin-secreting cells; and (ii) continuing auto-immunity against the diabetogenic endogenous target antigen. Nanotherapeutics offer a novel approach to overcome these problems and here we as...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A bimonthly interval (May 2002-July 2003) plankton survey was initiated at two separate sites along the Manora Channel, Karachi Pakistan. Using both light and electron microscopy a large number of dinoflagellates was identified, most of them first records for the Northern Indian Ocean. Potentially harmful, bloomforming non-toxic dinoflagellate gene...
Article
Data collected by NOAA Phytoplankton Monitoring Network volunteers, from the beginning of the program (2001) through 2010, was used to assess the spatial and temporal trends of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. from North Carolina through northern Florida along the southeastern US coastline. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. was present from North Carolina to Florida, and...
Article
Of the known benthic, toxigenic microalgae, species from the genera, Gambierdiscus and Ostreopsis, present the biggest threats to human and environmental health. Gambierdiscus spp. produce toxins (ciguatoxins) that cause ciguatera, the most prevalent, phycotoxin-related form of seafood poisoning across the globe, affecting 25,000 to 500,000 people...
Article
Full-text available
Five benthic species of the genus Gambierdiscus(Dinophyceae) were observed for the first time in the coastal waters of Pakistan, Northern Indian Ocean. The morphology of the epiphytic, ciguatera-related toxic species G. toxicus,G. belizea-nus,G. polynesiensis,G. australes and G. cf. yasumotoi are presented here, described by the Kofoid system of th...
Article
The bloom forming dinoflagellate, Ceratium furca, has been linked with coastal eutrophication worldwide in tropical and subtropical locations. During the summer of 2007, an unusual 6-month long bloom of C. furca was observed in Pago Pago Harbor, Tutuila Island, American Samoa. Incidents of dinoflagellate blooms in this area have not been previously...
Data
Full-text available
Concentration of brevetoxin (ng/mL or ng/g) in various animal samples. (PDF)
Data
Full-text available
Concentration of domoic acid (ng/mL or ng/g) in various animal samples. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Sentinel species such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can be impacted by large-scale mortality events due to exposure to marine algal toxins. In the Sarasota Bay region (Gulf of Mexico, Florida, USA), the bottlenose dolphin population is frequently exposed to harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis and the neurotoxic brevetoxins (...
Article
During February–April 2008, an unusual mortality event occurred in Texas coastal waters that resulted in over 100 bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) deaths. This mortality event overlapped spatially and temporally with a harmful algal bloom (HAB) composed of the toxin-producing genera Dinophysis spp. and Prorocentrum spp., and was associated w...
Article
Full-text available
Unusually high concentrations of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) were detected in a minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) carcass recovered during a severe harmful algal bloom (HAB), which occurred in southern California in April 2007. Cell fragments of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis were observed in whale gastric fluid and fece...
Article
Octocoral diversity is well documented in the tropical western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific, but it has been several decadessince a thorough species account of the shallow South Atlantic Bight region was produced (northwestern Atlantic between Cape Hatteras, NC and Cape Canaveral, FL, USA). Through the use of material from the NMNH and SERTC Octocoral...
Article
Full-text available
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) caused by the marine ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef are responsible for mass mortalities of wild and farmed fish worldwide, with catastrophic impacts to aquaculture and local economies. Here we report on the Cochlodinium species responsible for a severe and widespread HAB in the Arabian G...
Article
The neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) was detected in urine and fecal samples recovered from pygmy sperm whales (Kogia breviceps) and dwarf sperm whales (Kogia sima) stranding along the U.S. Atlantic coast from 1997 to 2008. Of the 41 animals analyzed from Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Florida, 24 (59%) tested positive for DA at concentrat...
Article
Full-text available
Plankton surveys, between 2001 and 2005 along the Russian Caucasian Black Sea Coast, revealed Dinophysis rotundata, D. caudata and Prorocentrum lima as the most ubiquitous of the known dinoflagellates associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Dinophysis spp. were first observed during the spring phytoplankton succession and persist thro...
Article
Full-text available
Toxic phytoplankton blooms threaten coastlines worldwide by diminishing beach quality and adversely affecting marine ecosystems and human health. The common diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia consists of several species known to produce the neurotoxin domoic acid. Recent studies suggest that algal blooms dominated by Pseudo-nitzschia are increasing in f...
Article
Full-text available
Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi et Fukuyo 1979 is a toxin-producing marine dinoflagellate responsible for the syndrome known as ciguatera, which sickens thousands of people every year. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the global genetic structure of this species; therefore, it is unclear whether documented variation in toxin productio...
Article
O. labens sp. nov., is described from three marine habitats: lagoonal water and lagoonal sand from the barrier reef of Belize, and associated with macroalgae from coral reef habitats of Oshigaki and Iriomote Islands, Japan. O. labens was most numerous in sand and less in lagoonal waters, and only a few cells were associated with macroalgae. Ingesti...
Article
Seventeen clones of the toxic, epiphytic-benthic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge isolated from three separate sites on the reef flats of Heron Island, Australia, were acclimated under the same set of environmental conditions. Morphological features examined for each clone included cell surface configuration, size, and dry weight....
Article
Full-text available
Freshwater cyanobacteria periodically accumulate, or bloom, in water bodies across the United States (US). These blooms, also known as cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHAB), can lead to a reduction in the number of individuals who engage in recreational activities in lakes and reservoirs, degrade aquatic habitats and potentially impact human h...
Article
The seasonal variation in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP)-type toxins was followed in the epibiotic community and in shellfish between 41° and 44°N in coastal waters of the northwest Atlantic during a 2-year period. Low levels of okadaic-acid equivalents were detected at all stations in the <90 μm fraction of the collected epibiota as measured...
Article
The toxin load of shellfish hepatopancreas harvested from the Caucasian Black Sea Coast of the Russian Federation was investigated. The majority of the toxin load was shown to be yessotoxin (YTX), 45-hydroxy-yessotoxin (45-OH-YTX), and homoyessotoxin (homoYTX). Concurrent with the mussel intoxication, the dinoflagellates Lingulodinium polyedrum and...
Article
Dinophysis acuminata and D. norvegica were observed in plankton net samples during the summer of 2002 from the Kandalaksha Gulf in the White Sea (North European Russia). Prorocentrum lima was found as an epiphyte on subtidal macroalgae in August, but not observed in plankton net samples. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition measured 127.8 ng OA...
Article
Alexandrium cf. tamarense was recorded for the first time along the north-eastern coast of the Black Sea in July 2001. Since then, it has been observed annually between May and October. A maximum density of Alexandrium spp. of 9 000 cells l(-1) was recorded during August 2004. Examination of the Black Sea Alexandrium spp. by scanning electron micro...
Article
The chain-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium monilatum has been reported to be associated with widespread discolored water and increased fish mortality in the Mississippi Sound and off the eastern and western coasts of Florida. Previous studies over the last 60–70 years have determined that A. monilatum produces a harmful substance(s) that is predo...
Article
A new dinoflagellate of the genus Protoperidinium is described from coastal waters of the northeastern Black Sea using SEM. Protoperidinium ponticum has a plate formula of Po, 4', 3a, 7 '', 4C, 6S, 5 ''', 2 ''''. The new species is recognized based on a unique set of morphological characteristics: globoid shape, large sulcal list, lack of antapical...
Article
Full-text available
Toxicity and its detection in the dinoflagellate fish predators Pfiesteria piscicida and Pfiesteria shumwayae depend on the strain and the use of reliable assays. Two assays, standardized fish bioassays (SFBs) with juvenile fish and fish microassays (FMAs) with larval fish, were compared for their utility to detect toxic Pfiesteria. The comparison...
Article
Full-text available
During the period from June 2000 to April 2002, phytoplankton monitoring was carried out at three stations located on the Black Sea shore of the Caucasus. In the coastal phytoplankton of the Northeast Black Sea, 93 species belonging to 7 classes were found. Thirteen species from this list are known as toxic according to data obtained in other seas....
Article
The brevetoxin producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, is the target of several monitoring and research programs in the Gulf of Mexico, where it forms extensive and frequently long-lived annual blooms that can cause human intoxication and fish kills, as well as severe economic losses to coastal communities. Rapid, reliable methods for the detecti...
Article
Full-text available
For the first time since 1978, the seasonal changes in the coastal phytoplankton in the northeastern part of the Black Sea were traced from the end of April 2001 to the end of March 2002. The phytoplankton was regularly sampled at the mussel-oyster plantation off Cape Bolshoi and incidentally from the piers of the Orlenok VDTs and the Institute of...
Article
A new species of planktonic dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum arabianum isolated from the Gulf of Oman, is described using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy. This clonal isolate has the following morphological characteristics: (1) cell shape is asymmetric; (2) thecal surface is rugose, covered with small poroids; (3) periflage...