Steve Iliffe

Steve Iliffe
University College London | UCL · Department of Primary Care and Population Health (PCPH)

About

723
Publications
106,398
Reads
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29,986
Citations
Citations since 2017
161 Research Items
18787 Citations
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Publications

Publications (723)
Article
Drawing on insights from psychology, psychoanalysis, cultural studies, health economics and medical ethics, this article explores two linked aspects of the management of the Covid-19 pandemic during its first and second waves in the UK. The first aspect is the range of cognitive and emotional responses to the imminent collapse of authority early in...
Article
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Objectives: The experience of providing/receiving intimate continence care between family members can be difficult and emotive. Often, for people living with dementia this seems an area of care overlooked by professionals. This study investigated the experiences of intimate continence care for people living with dementia and their family member (t...
Article
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Background Portugal has a Dementia Strategy that endorses care coordination in the community, but the strategy is not implemented despite there being a network of multidisciplinary primary care clinics that could support it. Recent research into barriers to dementia management in primary care has focused essentially on general practitioners’ (GPs)...
Article
Background Older adults are at increased risk of falls due to ageing, decreased muscle strength and impaired balance. Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy and effectiveness of the Falls Management Exercise (FaME) programme in improving functioning and preventing falls. However, programme completion is often low, impacting the potential be...
Article
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Purpose Fear of falling (FoF) is a common and debilitating problem for older people. Most multicomponent interventions show only moderate effects. Exploring the effective components may help in the optimization of treatments for FoF. Materials and methods In a systematic review of five scientific literature databases, we identified randomized cont...
Article
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Little is known of the experiences of directly employed care workers communicating with healthcare providers about the situations of their employers. We report findings from 30 in-depth semi-structured interviews with directly employed care workers in England undertaken in 2018–19. Findings relate to role content, communication with healthcare prof...
Article
Objectives Falls in older adults cause significant morbidity and mortality and incur cost to health and care services. The Falls Management Exercise (FaME) programme is a 24-week intervention for older adults that, in clinical trials, improves balance and functional strength and leads to fewer falls. Similar but more modest outcomes have been found...
Article
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This paper reports and discusses the weekly Clapping for Carers – described as ‘front‐line heroes’ that took place across the United Kingdom during the first national lockdown of the coronavirus pandemic. Data are drawn from a UK‐wide online survey of health and social care workers, completed in May to July 2020. The survey received 3,425 responses...
Article
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Background Reducing inequalities in physical activity (PA) and PA-associated health outcomes is a priority for public health. Interventions to promote PA may reduce inequalities, but may also unintentionally increase them. Thus, there is a need to analyze equity-specific intervention effects. However, the potential for analyzing equity-specific eff...
Article
Background: Falls incidence increases with age alongside declines in strength and balance. Clinical trials show that the Falls Management Exercise (FaME) programme improves strength and balance, which can reduce falls and improve physical functioning. Objective: To determine if the clinical trial efficacy of FaME translates into effectiveness in...
Article
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Background In Britain's National Health Service (NHS), medical consumerism is disliked by many doctors but managed by NHS leaders. Managed consumers have choices about treatment options, but are expected to help contain costs, improve quality of care, take part in clinical research and advocacy, and increase productivity. There are so many meanings...
Article
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Background Governments are being challenged to integrate at least part of dementia care into primary care. However, little is known about the current role of general practitioners (GPs) regarding dementia care, especially in countries that do not have dementia strategies in place. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of GPs, persons...
Article
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Background: There is limited evidence in the literature regarding associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of frailty. Objective: To examine associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of incident frailty and incident prefrailty/frailty. Design: A prospective panel study. Setting and subjects: 2634 non-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: Primary care visits of persons with dementia involve different types of communication, bringing together the patient, the family carer and the general practitioner (GP). A particular challenge is the necessary involvement of a third person (the carer) in patient-doctor encounters (or the patient in carer-doctor encounters, as dementia...
Article
Objectives Women are frailer than men across different populations and age groups. However, the mechanisms are still not fully understood. One possible cause is pregnancy and motherhood. The objective of this study was to examine trajectories of Frailty Index over time according to the number of pregnancies. Design A prospective study with repeate...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives: Fear of falling (FoF) is associated with decreased physical functioning and an increased fall risk. Interventions generally demonstrate moderate effects and optimized interventions are needed. Intervention characteristics, such as setting or delivery method may vary. We investigated which overarching intervention charact...
Article
Full-text available
Background: People living with dementia in care homes frequently exhibit "behaviour that challenges". Anti-psychotics are used to treat such behaviour, but are associated with significant morbidity. This study researched the feasibility of conducting a trial of a full clinical medication review for care home residents with behaviour that challenge...
Article
Engaging with older people who self-identify as lonely may help professionals in mental health and other services understand how they deal with loneliness. The evidence-base for effective interventions to address loneliness is inconclusive. This study aimed to explore how community-dwelling lonely older people in England manage their experiences of...
Article
The Care Act 2014 allows eligible people with care and support needs to access funding directly from local authorities in England. Such funds may be used to employ care workers. Others may employ care workers using their own or family resources. This study explores the working relationships, views and experiences of General Practitioner (GP) about...
Article
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Background: Lack of physical activity (PA) is a recognised global public health problem, which is increasing in prevalence with a detrimental impact on the pattern of disease worldwide. In the UK, older adults comprise the most sedentary group, with only 57% of males and 52% of females aged 65-74 years and 43% of males and 21% of females aged 75-8...
Article
Objectives: Evidence on associations between marital status and frailty is limited. The objectives of this study were to perform a systematic review for associations between marital status and physical frailty and to perform a meta-analysis to combine findings. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting and participants: Community-dw...
Article
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Reducing social inequalities in physical activity (PA) has become a priority for public health. However, evidence concerning the impact of interventions on inequalities in PA is scarce. This study aims to develop and test the application of a strategy for re-analyzing equity-specific effects of existing PA intervention studies in middle-aged and ol...
Article
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Background: Caring for someone with dementia can be physically and emotionally difficult. Acting as a caregiver can make it difficult to access sources of support, particularly in the later stages of dementia. This paper reports the development and presents the targets (subject areas) and components of a prototype website to support family caregiv...
Article
Objectives: Family carers towards the end of life face a range of difficult challenges and have high levels of support needs. The aim of this study was to explore the challenges carers of people with dementia face towards the end of life and the support needs which could be addressed by online support. Methods: Qualitative study using semi-structur...
Chapter
Dementia is a disabling, highly prevalent condition in older age. Complexities related to dementia care challenge the existing models of health and social services. Although for most people in Western Europe the first contact point for health-related concerns is a general practitioner, the role of primary care physicians and primary care teams rega...
Article
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Aim To explore the experiences of older adults participating in strength and balance exercise programmes and understand participants’ rationale for programme uptake and completion. Background Regular physical activity, specifically strength and balance exercises, has been shown to improve health and well-being and reduce the risk of falling in old...
Article
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Background: Data are lacking from physical activity (PA) trials with long-term follow-up of both objectively measured PA levels and robust health outcomes. Two primary care 12-week pedometer-based walking interventions in adults and older adults (PACE-UP and PACE-Lift) found sustained objectively measured PA increases at 3 and 4 years, respectivel...
Article
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Background Substance misuse in older people represents a growing clinical and public health problem within primary care. Aim The aim of article is to explore policy and research evidence for informing best practice in the assessment, treatment effectiveness, treatment implementation and approaches to recovery for older people with substance misuse...
Article
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Background Older people living in deprived areas, from black and minority ethnic groups (BME) or aged over 85 years (oldest old) are recognised as ‘hard to reach’. Engaging these groups in health promotion is of particular importance when seeking to target those who may benefit the most and to reduce health inequalities. This study aimed to explore...
Article
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Mild frailty is common among older people, but it is potentially reversible with health promotion interventions. Behaviour change may be a key to preventing progression of frailty; however, we know little about what interventions work best and how a behaviour change approach would be perceived by this group. The aim of this study was to explore how...
Article
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Admiral Nurses (ANs), specialists in dementia, provide care management to families affected by dementia. A survey was designed to explore family carers’ views on the care received. A mixed-method survey questionnaire was distributed to all carers in receipt of AN services, or those recently discharged. This article presents the qualitative findings...
Article
Frailty is a well-established risk factor for adverse health outcomes. However, comparatively little is known about the dynamic nature of frailty and the extent to which it can improve. The purposes of this study were to systematically search for studies examining frailty transitions over time among community-dwelling older people, and to synthesis...
Article
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Older adults are a highly heterogeneous group with variable health and functional life courses. Frailty has received increasing scientific attention as a potential explanation of the health diversity of older adults. The frailty phenotype and the Frailty Index are the most frequently used frailty definitions, but recently new frailty definitions th...
Article
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Background Few trials have compared estimates of change in physical activity (PA) levels using self-reported and objective PA measures when evaluating trial outcomes. The PACE-UP trial offered the opportunity to assess this, using the self-administered International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and waist-worn accelerometry. Methods The P...
Article
Caring for someone with dementia is one of the most challenging caring roles; however, the demands of the role towards the end of life often mean carers are unable to maintain face‐to‐face support. The aim of this study was to: (a) Explore the experiences of older (over 65 years) family carers of people with dementia of support towards the end of l...
Article
There is growing interest in the social geography of dementia, with the development of dementia-friendly communities, localities and cities in the developed world. This paper considers the claims being made for cities to be risky spaces for people with dementia. It debates this through an analysis based on Bacchi’s ‘representation of problems’ fram...
Article
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Background End of life care (EOLC) for people with dementia can present a multitude of challenges and difficult decisions for practitioners. These challenges may include assessment and management of difficulties with eating and swallowing, responding to agitation, treating pain, and managing recurrent infections. Practitioners sometimes lack both c...
Article
Background Data are lacking from physical activity (PA) trials with long-term follow-up of both objectively measured PA levels and robust health outcomes. Two primary care 12-week pedometer-based walking interventions in adults and older adults (PACE-UP and PACE-Lift) found sustained objectively measured PA increases at 3 and 4 years, respectively....
Article
Background: Alcohol consumption is a common modifiable lifestyle factor. Alcohol may be a risk factor for frailty, however, there is limited evidence in the literature. Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine the association of alcohol consumption with the risk of incident frailty. Methods: This is a prospective panel study of...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: "Behaviour that Challenges" is common in people living with dementia, resident in care homes and historically has been treated with anti-psychotics. However, such usage is associated with 1800 potentially avoidable deaths annually in the UK. This study investigated the feasibility of a full clinical trial of a specialist dementia care p...
Article
Objectives: To explore factors associated with maintenance of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years after completing a 24-week exercise programme. Study design: This is a cohort study nested within a randomised controlled trial evaluating group- and home-based exercise programmes for older peop...
Article
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Objectives A short-term and long-term cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of two pedometer-based walking interventions compared with usual care. Design (A) Short-term CEA: parallel three-arm cluster randomised trial randomised by household. (B) Long-term CEA: Markov decision model. Setting Seven primary care practices in South London, UK. Particip...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Frailty is recognised as an important public health concern among older people due to its detrimental consequences on health. Alcohol consumption may be a plausible risk factor for frailty. There is only limited evidence in the literature on association between alcohol and frailty, which is still controversial. Therefore we investigated...
Article
In recent years, General practice has become a major site of conflict over the condition of the National Health Service. This article offers a detailed account of the ‘crisis’ in General Practice, and suggests some ways forward for a reforming Labour government.
Article
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Background: Care homes provide personal care and support for older people who can no longer be supported in the community. As part of a larger study of integrated working between the NHS and care homes we asked older people how they accessed health care services. Our aim was to understand how older people resident in care homes access health servi...
Article
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The article ‘Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Frailty: A Systematic Review’, written by G. Kojima, C. Avgerinou, S. Iliffe, S. Jivraj, K. Sekiguchi, K. Walters, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 26 June 2018 without open access. With the author(s)’ decision to opt for Open Choi...
Data
Appendix - Supplemental material for Moving upstream in health promoting policies for older people with early frailty in England? A policy analysis
Article
Full-text available
Objective To identify currently available evidence on fruit and vegetable consumption in association with frailty by conducting a systematic review of the literature and to summarise and critically evaluate it. Design Systematic review. Setting Four electronic databases (Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO) were systematically searched in August...
Article
Full-text available
Background Guidelines recommend walking to increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for health benefits. Objectives To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of a pedometer-based walking intervention in inactive adults, delivered postally or through dedicated practice nurse physical activity (PA) consultations...
Article
Objectives To (i) systematically identify and review strategies employed by community dwelling lonely older people to manage their loneliness and (ii) develop a model for managing loneliness. Methods A narrative synthesis review of English-language qualitative evidence, following Economic and Social Research Council guidance. Seven electronic data...
Article
Background Failure to include socio-economically deprived or ethnic minority groups in physical activity (PA) trials may limit representativeness and could lead to implementation of interventions that then increase health inequalities. Randomised intervention trials often have low recruitment rates and rarely assess recruitment bias. A previous tri...
Article
Full-text available
Risk has become a ubiquitous presence in modern society. For individuals diagnosed with dementia this preoccupation with risk can affect their day-to-day life in many ways. Maintaining autonomy while balancing risks is a continual struggle not only for those living with the disease, but also their carers, family and health professionals. To underst...
Article
Background: Whilst there was no upturn in detection rate of persons with dementia (PwD) in German general practitioner (GP) practices before 2012, dementia diagnoses markedly increased in 2013 and 2014. Objective: (1) Verify the increase of dementia diagnoses in GP practices and neurologist/psychiatrist (NP) practices; (2) examine the subsequent...
Article
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A growing number of older people are accessing emergency medical services (EMS), and many calls to EMS are made by, or on behalf of, people with dementia. Their needs are frequently complex; however, EMS staff are often given minimal guidance on ensuring patient safety, accurate diagnosis, and timely transfer to the most appropriate care. This stud...
Article
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Background People living with dementia often develop distressing behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) that can affect their quality of life and the capacity of family carers and staff providing support at home. This systematic review of qualitative studies considers the views and experiences of people living with dementia and care provider...
Article
Full-text available
Background Two-thirds of people living with dementia live at home in the UK and many experience distressing behavioural and psychological symptoms. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for behavioural and psychological symptoms among community-dwelling people living with dementia. Methods This two...
Article
Full-text available
Background Physical inactivity is an important cause of noncommunicable diseases. Interventions can increase short-term physical activity (PA), but health benefits require maintenance. Few interventions have evaluated PA objectively beyond 12 months. We followed up two pedometer interventions with positive 12-month effects to examine objective PA l...
Book
SEE http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/usefulresources/publications/collegereports/cr/cr211.aspx The publication of Our Invisible Addicts in 2011 represented an important landmark in recognising the extent of substance-related health problems amongst older people and that the special service needs to deal with the complexity of such problems, which often in...
Article
Full-text available
Background: recognising that a patient is nearing the end of life is essential, to enable professional carers to discuss prognosis and preferences for end of life care. Objective: investigate whether an electronic frailty index (eFI) generated from routinely collected data, can be used to predict mortality at an individual level. Design: histo...