Steve Horvath

Steve Horvath
University of California, Los Angeles | UCLA · Department of Human Genetics

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807
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Publications

Publications (807)
Article
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Background GrimAge acceleration (GAA), an epigenetic marker that represents physiologic aging, is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the associations between early adulthood lipid levels and GAA in midlife are unknown. Also, it is unknown whether GAA mediates the associations between lipid levels in young adults and su...
Article
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Background CpG methylation levels can help to explain inter-individual differences in phenotypic traits. Few studies have explored whether identifying probe subsets based on their biological and statistical properties can maximise predictions whilst minimising array content. Variance component analyses and penalised regression (epigenetic predictor...
Article
Development is tightly connected to aging, but whether pharmacologically targeting development can extend life remains unknown. Here, we subjected genetically diverse UMHET3 mice to rapamycin for the first 45 days of life. The mice grew slower and remained smaller than controls for their entire lives. Their reproductive age was delayed without affe...
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Background: Epigenetic age acceleration (EAA), a measure of accelerated biological aging, has been associated with increased risk of several age-related chronic conditions. This is the first study to prospectively examine the relationship between EAA and both multimorbidity count and a weighted multimorbidity score among long-lived postmenopausal...
Preprint
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Epigenetic clocks can track both chronological age (cAge) and biological age (bAge). The latter is typically defined by physiological biomarkers and risk of adverse health outcomes, including all-cause mortality. As cohort sample sizes increase, estimates of cAge and bAge become more precise. Here, we aim to refine predictors and improve understand...
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Plasma transfusions are standard treatments to replace missing proteins in people with rare genetic diseases. Prior studies have demonstrated that heterochronic parabiosis has beneficial effects on several tissues of old animals receiving young blood. Human clinical trials are currently underway to investigate whether the infusion of plasma or plas...
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Background Age-related comorbidities such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). We investigated the relationship between COPD and the epigenetic age of the airway epithelium and peripheral blood of PLWH. Methods Airway epithelial brushings from 34 PLWH enrolled in the...
Preprint
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Several previous studies have described epigenetic clocks for whale and dolphin species. Here we present a novel and highly robust epigenetic clock for the humpback whale based on methylation levels measured using the Mammalian Methylation Array platform. Skin samples were obtained from 76 individuals that had been studied since their birth year an...
Preprint
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Geographically isolated populations, specifically island-mainland counterparts, tend to exhibit phenotypic variation in many species. The so-called island syndrome occurs when different environmental pressures lead to insular divergence from mainland populations. This phenomenon can be seen in an island population of Nova Scotia masked shrews (Sore...
Article
Constitutive heterochromatin is responsible for genome repression of DNA enriched in repetitive sequences, telomeres, and centromeres. During physiological and pathological premature aging, heterochromatin homeostasis is profoundly compromised. Here, we showed that LINE-1 ( Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1; L1 ) RNA accumulation was an early eve...
Preprint
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Recent studies suggest the existence of a natural rejuvenation event during early embryonic development of mice, followed by epigenetic aging. Here, by profiling embryonic DNA methylation in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, we found that the epigenetic entropy basepoint maps to the gastrulation stage of embryogenesis and corresponds to a ra...
Article
Importance: Accelerated biological aging is associated with decreased physical capability and cognitive functioning, which are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Objective: We investigated associations between epigenetic age acceleration (EAA), a biomarker associated with aging, and healthy longevity among older women. D...
Preprint
This study sought to examine the association between DNA methylation and body mass index (BMI) and the potential utility of these cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites in predicting metabolic health. We pooled summary statistics from six trans-ethnic EWAS of BMI representing nine cohorts (n=17058), replicated these findings in the Women's Health I...
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In humans and rats, aging is associated with a progressive deterioration of spatial learning and memory. These functional alterations are correlated with morphological and molecular changes in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus. Here, we assessed age-related changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) landscape in the rat hippocampus and the correlat...
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In humans and rats, aging is associated with a progressive deterioration of spatial learning and memory. These functional alterations are correlated with morphological and molecular changes in the hippocampus. Here, we assessed age-related changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) landscape in the rat hippocampus and the correlation of spatial memory with...
Preprint
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DNAmPhenoAge, DNAmGrimAge, and the newly developed DNAmFitAge are DNA methylation (DNAm) based biomarkers that reflect the individual aging process. Furthermore, physical fitness is known to relate to the aging process, but its relationship to the gut microbiome has not yet been studied. Here, we examine the relationship among physical fitness, DNA...
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DNA methylation (DNAm) has been considered a promising indicator of biological age in mammals and could be useful to increase the accuracy of phenotypic prediction in livestock. The objectives of this study were to estimate the heritability and age effects of site-specific DNAm (DNAm level) and cumulative DNAm across all sites (DNAm load) in beef c...
Article
Background Stress contributes to premature aging and susceptibility to alcohol use disorder (AUD) and AUD itself is a factor in premature aging; however, the interrelationships of stress, AUD and premature aging are poorly understood. Methods We constructed a composite score of stress (CSS) from thirteen stress-related outcomes in a discovery coho...
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Chronic heavy alcohol consumption is associated with increased mortality and morbidity and often leads to premature aging; however, the mechanisms of alcohol-associated cellular aging are not well understood. In this study, we used DNA methylation derived telomere length (DNAmTL) as a novel approach to investigate the role of alcohol use on the agi...
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Epigenetic clocks are mathematically derived age estimators that are based on combinations of methylation values that change with age at specific CpGs in the genome. These clocks are widely used to measure the age of tissues and cells 1,2 . The discrepancy between epigenetic age (EpiAge), as estimated by these clocks, and chronological age is refer...
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Living with HIV infection is associated with early onset of aging-related chronic conditions, sometimes described as accelerated aging. Epigenetic DNA methylation patterns can evaluate acceleration of biological age relative to chronological age. The impact of initial HIV infection on five epigenetic measures of aging was examined before and approx...
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Significance Epigenetic estimators of age (known as clocks) allow one to identify interventions that slow or reverse aging. Previous epigenetic clocks only applied to one species at a time. Here, we describe epigenetic clocks that apply to both dogs and humans. These clocks, which measure methylation levels in highly conserved stretches of the DNA,...
Preprint
Aging is classically conceptualized as an ever-increasing trajectory of damage accumulation and loss of function, leading to increases in morbidity and mortality. However, recent in vitro studies have raised the possibility of age reversal. Here, we report that biological age is fluid and exhibits rapid changes in both directions. By applying advan...
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The opossum ( Monodelphis domestica ), with its sequenced genome, ease of laboratory care and experimental manipulation, and unique biology, is the most used laboratory marsupial. Using the mammalian methylation array, we generated DNA methylation data from n = 100 opossum samples from the ear, liver, and tail. We contrasted postnatal development a...
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Epigenetic clocks based on patterns of DNA methylation have great importance in understanding aging and disease; however, there are basic questions to be resolved in their application. It remains unknown whether epigenetic age acceleration (EAA) within an individual shows strong correlation between different primary tissue sites, the extent to whic...
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Changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) are linked to aging. Here, we profile highly conserved CpGs in 339 predominantly female mice belonging to the BXD family for which we have deep longevity and genomic data. We use a 'pan-mammalian' microarray that provides a common platform for assaying the methylome across mammalian clades. We computed epigenetic c...
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Species that hibernate generally live longer than would be expected based solely on their body size. Hibernation is characterized by long periods of metabolic suppression (torpor) interspersed by short periods of increased metabolism (arousal). The torpor–arousal cycles occur multiple times during hibernation, and it has been suggested that process...
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Estrogen promotes breast tissue proliferation and telomerase activation. We investigated the effects of reproductive history on cell cycling and telomere length using a DNA methylation-based estimate of telomere length (DNAmTL) in breast and blood from healthy women donors. We demonstrate that DNAmTL is shorter in breast than in blood, and that nul...
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Background: Epigenetic clocks have been associated with cancer risk in several observational studies. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether they play a causal role in cancer risk or if they act as a non-causal biomarker. Methods: We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study to examine the genetically predicted effects of epigenetic ag...
Preprint
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Physical fitness is a well-known correlate of health and the aging process. DNA methylation (DNAm) data lend themselves for estimating chronological and biological age through epigenetic clocks. However, current epigenetic clocks did not yet use measures of mobility, strength, lung, or endurance physical fitness parameters in their construction. He...
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Partial reprogramming by expression of reprogramming factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) for short periods of time restores a youthful epigenetic signature to aging cells and extends the life span of a premature aging mouse model. However, the effects of longer-term partial reprogramming in physiologically aging wild-type mice are unknown. Here, w...
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Objective Subjective social status (SSS), an individual’s assessment of their own social status in relation to others, is associated with health and mortality independently of objective SES; however, no studies have tested whether SSS influences epigenetic aging. The current study examines if SSS is associated with epigenetic age acceleration in bo...
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Background: Epigenetic aging is accelerated in tissues of persons living with HIV (PLWH) and may underlie the early onset of age-related illnesses. This study examines the rate-of-change in epigenetic age in PLWH following HIV infection but before HAART, using archived longitudinal samples from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Methods: DNA was is...
Preprint
Stress triggers energy-dependent, anticipatory responses that promote survival, a phenomenon termed allostasis. However, the chronic activation of allostatic responses results in allostatic load (AL) and in the maladaptive state known as allostatic overload. Epidemiological studies show that allostatic load predicts physical and cognitive decline,...
Article
Introduction: Breast tissue age, measured with DNA methylation-based estimates, is accelerated in healthy women compared with matched peripheral blood samples. While we have shown that the degree of acceleration in breast epigenetic age is related to hormonal factors including elevated body mass index and earlier age at menarche, no prior work has...
Preprint
Background CpG methylation levels can help to explain inter-individual differences in phenotypic traits. Few studies have explored whether identifying CpG subsets based on biological and statistical properties can maximise predictions while minimising array content. Methods Variance component analyses and penalised regression (epigenetic predictor...
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Full-text available
DNA methylation-based biomarkers of aging (epigenetic clocks) promise to lead to new insights into evolutionary biology of ageing. Relatively little is known about how the natural environment affects epigenetic aging effects in wild species. In this study, we took advantage of a unique long-term (>40 years) longitudinal monitoring of individual roe...
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In Huntington’s disease (HD), the uninterrupted CAG repeat length, but not the polyglutamine length, predicts disease onset. However, the underlying pathobiology remains unclear. Here, we developed bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice expressing human mutant huntingtin (mHTT) with uninterrupted, and somatically unstable, CAG repeat...
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The naked mole-rat (NMR) is an exceptionally long-lived rodent that shows no increase of mortality with age, defining it as a demographically non-aging mammal. Here, we perform bisulfite sequencing of the blood of > 100 NMRs, assessing > 3 million common CpG sites. Unsupervised clustering based on sites whose methylation correlates with age reveals...
Preprint
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Age-related changes to cytosine methylation have been extensively characterized across the mammalian family. Some cytosines that are conserved across mammals exhibit age-related methylation changes that are so consistent that they were used to successfully develop cross-species age predictors. In a similar vein, methylation levels of some conserved...
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Cytosine methylation patterns have not yet been thoroughly studied in horses. Here, we profile n = 333 samples from 42 horse tissue types at loci that are highly conserved between mammalian species using a custom array (HorvathMammalMethylChip40). Using the blood and liver tissues from horses, we develop five epigenetic aging clocks: a multi-tissue...
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Naked mole rats (NMRs) live an exceptionally long life, appear not to exhibit age-related decline in physiological capacity and are resistant to age-related diseases. However, it has been unknown whether NMRs also evade aging according to a primary hallmark of aging: epigenetic changes. To address this question, we profiled n = 385 samples from 11...
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Effective conservation and management of threatened wildlife populations require an accurate assessment of age structure to estimate demographic trends and population viability. Epigenetic aging models are promising developments because they estimate individual age with high accuracy, accurately predict age in related species, and do not require in...
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Aging is often perceived as a degenerative process caused by random accrual of cellular damage over time. In spite of this, age can be accurately estimated by epigenetic clocks based on DNA methylation profiles from almost any tissue of the body. Since such pan-tissue epigenetic clocks have been successfully developed for several different species,...
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The comparative cross-species analysis is a powerful tool to resolve the mysteries of evolution and phenotypic disparities among animals. This is the first network analysis of 10,000 DNA methylome data from 176 mammalian species to identify co-methylation modules that relate to individual (age, sex, tissue type) and species characteristics (e.g. ph...
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Chronic kidney disease is a major public health burden. Elevated urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio is a measure of kidney damage, and used to diagnose and stage chronic kidney disease. To extend the knowledge on regulatory mechanisms related to kidney function and disease, we conducted a blood-based epigenome-wide association study for estimated...
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Elevated serum urate levels, a complex trait and major risk factor for incident gout, are correlated with cardiometabolic traits via incompletely understood mechanisms. DNA methylation in whole blood captures genetic and environmental influences and is assessed in transethnic meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of serum urate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background : Epigenetic clocks have been associated with cancer risk in several observational studies. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether they play a causal role in cancer risk or if they act as a non-causal biomarker. Methods : We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study to examine the genetically predicted effects of epigenetic...
Article
Full-text available
Lead, a known neurotoxicant, has previously received attention in Parkinson’s disease (PD) research, but epidemiologic studies have been limited in sample size and findings are equivocal. We generated two methylation-based biomarkers for cumulative tibia and patella bone-measured lead exposure in 1528 PD patients and 1169 controls. PD status was as...
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Background The difference between an individual's chronological and DNA methylation predicted age (DNAmAge), termed DNAmAge acceleration (DNAmAA), can capture life-long environmental exposures and age-related physiological changes reflected in methylation status. Several studies have linked DNAmAA to morbidity and mortality, yet its relationship wi...
Article
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Background: Body mass index (BMI), a well-known risk factor for poor cardiovascular outcomes, is associated with differential DNA methylation (DNAm). Similarly, metabolic health has also been associated with changes in DNAm. It is unclear how overall metabolic health outside of BMI may modify the relationship between BMI and methylation profiles,...
Article
DNA methylation‐based epigenetic age acceleration (AgeAccel), an aging biomarker indicating faster biological aging relative to chronological age, is associated with many age‐related phenotypes. Blood‐based AgeAccel has been associated with lower cognitive function in several studies. However, there are limited data on associations of AgeAccel with...
Preprint
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Patients with primary mitochondrial diseases present with fatigue and multi-system disease, are often lean, and die prematurely, but the mechanistic basis for this clinical picture remains unclear. Integrating data from 17 cohorts of patients with mitochondrial diseases (n=690), we find that clinical mitochondrial disorders increase resting energy...
Article
Background: Stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEM) reflect a deviation from normal site-specific methylation patterns. Epigenetic mutation load (EML) captures the accumulation of SEMs across an individual's genome and may reflect dysfunction of the epigenetic maintenance system in response to epigenetic challenges. Objective: We investigate wheth...
Preprint
Aging is a process of progressive change. In order to develop biological models of aging, longitudinal datasets with high temporal resolution are needed. Here we report a multi-omic longitudinal dataset for cultured primary human fibroblasts measured across their replicative lifespans. Based on the accelerated nature of epigenetic aging in vitro, t...
Article
Background The epigenome may reflect Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, which serves as a point of convergence of genetic and environmental risk factors. Here, we investigate whether blood DNA methylation (DNAm) markers are associated with PD risk. Methods We selected 12 plasma proteins known as predictors of cardiovascular conditions and mortality to...