Steve Graham

Steve Graham
Arizona State University | ASU · Maryl Lou Fulton Teachers College

About

387
Publications
353,138
Reads
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28,049
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2012 - May 2016
Arizona State University
Position
  • Warner Professor

Publications

Publications (387)
Article
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The current study examined how Chinese characters were taught by primary grade teachers in Macao during online instruction resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., emergency remote instruction). A random sample of 313 first to third grade teachers in public and private schools were surveyed about their instructional practices. Most teachers surv...
Article
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Textbooks are the primary materials for teaching in the Greater China Region, including the teaching of Chinese as a second language. This qualitative study examined how two teachers of first to fifth grade students in an international school in Macao selected, used, and adapted textbooks to teach Chinese to non-native Chinese speakers. It also exa...
Article
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This article addresses the basis for the development of the screening tool Norwegian Early Writers Signal (NEWS). The aim of the study was to develop a tool for teachers in grades 1–3 to identify student texts in ‘the Warning Zone’, i.e., texts that signal insufficient overall text quality associated with students in need of extra instructional sup...
Article
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Three studies examined if teachers’ beliefs about writing predicted their efficacy to teach writing. We surveyed primary grade teachers from Taiwan (N = 782), Shanghai (N = 429), and the United States (N = 214). At each location, teachers completed surveys assessing attitudes toward writing and the teaching of writing, beliefs about students’ progr...
Article
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An important goal of schooling is teaching students how to write. Teachers need access to effective writing practices to meet this goal. For close to 40 years, metaanalyses of writing intervention studies have been used to identify evidence-based practices in writing. Most of the research included in these reviews involved studies conducted in the...
Article
A central goal of upper elementary schools is improving students’ skills to write persuasively using source materials. This study focused on three important areas of writing at the upper elementary grade levels. First, the web-based intelligent tutoring system for the text structure strategy (ITSS) was used to teach children how to read source mate...
Article
Seventy-six general education and 67 special education teachers working in the same 66 elementary schools were surveyed about their beliefs about writing. Each teacher taught writing to one or more fourth-grade students receiving special education services, including students with learning disabilities. Survey findings indicated that general educat...
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Motives for writing is a new research area in the field of writing motivation. Recent studies have identified important motives for students’ writing. Adding to this nascent foundation, the current study examined relationships between writing motives, writing self-efficacy and time spent on writing using a sample of grade 4 Chinese students in Shan...
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Until children can produce letters quickly and accurately, it is assumed that handwriting disrupts and limits the quality of their text. This investigation is the largest study to date (2596 girls, 2354 boys) assessing the association between handwriting fluency and writing quality. We tested whether handwriting fluency made a statistically unique...
Article
Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) involves teaching cognitive writing strategies and apprenticing novices within collaborative writing communities. It is responsive to deaf students' diverse language experiences through embedded metalinguistic/linguistic components. A randomized controlled trial of SIWI was conducted with 15 teac...
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the sudden cancellation of in-class instruction for many students around the world presented an unprecedented disruption in children’s education. As the COVID-19 pandemic took form, multiple concerns were raised about the potential negative impact on students’ learning. The current study examined...
Article
Within the context of the Direct and Indirect Effects Model of Writing (Kim & Park, 2019), we examined a dynamic relations hypothesis, which contends that the relations of component skills, including reading comprehension, to written composition vary as a function of dimensions of written composition. Specifically, we investigated (a) whether highe...
Article
If children are to receive the writing instruction they need and deserve, it is essential that teachers develop a coherent and well‐constructed vision for teaching writing. This article provides an example of how such a vision can be created. It is based on three assumptions. One, developing a vision for teaching writing should be guided by theory....
Article
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This study examined the impact of content revising goals on the revising behavior and story writing performance of fourth grade students at-risk for writing difficulties. Twenty-two students (11 boys, 11 girls) were randomly assigned to either a content revising or general revising goal condition. In the content revising goal condition, students re...
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This study examined the effectiveness of Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) to improve students’ ability to write expository essays after reading social studies text. Third-grade general education teachers (N = 14) were randomly assigned by clusters to SRSD or a business as usual control condition. One hundred and eighty consented students...
Article
This article is an expanded version of my presentation to Division 15 (Educational Psychology) of the American Psychological Association for the Career Achievement Award for Distinguished Psychological Contributions to Education in 2019. It provides an overview of research conducted by colleagues and I that examined the following four topics: (a) t...
Article
Writing is an essential but complex skill that students must master if they are to take full advantage of educational, occupational, and civic responsibilities. Schools, and the teachers who work in them, are tasked with teaching students how to write. Knowledge about how to teach writing can be obtained from many different sources, including one’s...
Chapter
Executive control represents an interaction between social context and the mental and physical actions of writers. This chapter addresses this interactive premise as it applies to executive control in writing by illustrating how this operates theoretically through the lens of the Writer(s)-within-Community model. This model proposes that the commun...
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In language arts programs in the Greater China Region, textbooks are the primary materials used to teach children to read and write. Learning to read and write in Chinese is particularly challenging because elementary grade students are expected to learn, recognize, and write thousands of characters (the basic linguistic unit in Chinese). Recognizi...
Article
Forty-four elementary grade teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students were surveyed about how they taught writing and their beliefs about writing. Beliefs about writing included their self-efficacy to teach writing, attitude toward writing, and epistemological beliefs about writing. These teachers from fifteen different states in the United Sta...
Article
What motivates Chinese students to write? In the present investigation, we examined Chinese students’ writing motives and writing self-efficacy. Grades 4 and 5 Chinese students in Shanghai (n = 332) and Hong Kong (n = 305) completed a survey questionnaire assessing motives for writing using the Writing Motivation Questionnaire and writing self-effi...
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The Acquired Knowledge series provides veteran academics, like myself, a soapbox from which to brandish their accomplishments, failures, and lessons they presumably learned. It can be foolish and maybe a tad dangerous to offer an old dog a platform from which to bark. But here we are. I will try my best not to be dangerous. I make no promises about...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the writing performance and motivational beliefs of students who were identified by their school district as English language learners. The study included 880 students (463 girls; 417 boys) in grades three to eight who wrote an informative/explanatory essay on information technology and completed a motivatio...
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A sample of 1049 Norwegian teachers in grades 1–3 were surveyed about how they taught writing as well as their preparation and efficacy to do so. Although there was moderate variability in their response to survey items, most teachers provided students with a multi-faceted writing program. Teachers indicated students typically spent 20 min a day wr...
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A random sample of 782 grades 1 through 3 Chinese language arts teachers in Taiwan were surveyed about how they taught writing and their beliefs about writing. The underlying dimensions of teachers’ reported writing practices and beliefs were established through factor analyses. Thirty-seven percent of the teachers reported they taught writing ever...
Article
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The purpose of this mainly descriptive study was to investigate teachers’ perceptions about how they teach writing as well as their beliefs about preparation and efficacy to teach this skill. It also examined if preparation and efficacy beliefs along with teaching experience (years teaching the language arts) predicted teachers’ reported writing pr...
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In this meta-analysis, we examined whether children identified with reading difficulties (RD) evidence writing difficulties. We included studies comparing children with RD with (a) typically developing peers matched on age (k = 87 studies) and (b) typically developing younger peers with similar reading capabilities (k = 24 studies). Children identi...
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There is a growing body of research showing that writers are influenced by motivation-related aspects. This study documents the translation process of the Portuguese version of the Writing Motivation Questionnaire and the construction of two scales to measure self-efficacy for handwriting and story writing. The psychometric properties of these inst...
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The purpose of this study was to compare the motivational incentives for writing of middle school emergent bilingual students with their peers whose first language was English. The study included 285 emergent bilingual students (146 girls, 139 boys) who were matched with 285 native English speakers (NE) on race, gender, and grade. The emergent bili...
Article
Science has greatly enhanced what we know about reading and writing. Drawing on this knowledge, researchers have proffered recommendations for how to teach these two literacy skills. Although such recommendations are aimed at closing the gap between research and practice, they often fail to take into account the reciprocal relation that exists betw...
Article
Two hundred fifty-four intermediate-grade teachers (88% female) in urban public schools in Chile indicated how frequently they made writing instructional adaptations for their weakest writers, which included students with learning and other disabilities. A majority of teachers reported making the following adaptations for their weakest writers at l...
Chapter
This commentary reviews the theoretical and empirical support for how reading and writing are connected and can support the development of each other and can be used in conjunction to accomplish learning goals. It then reviews studies on reading and writing presented in three chapters, detailing how they advance our knowledge and theory in this are...
Article
High school students with high-incidence disabilities and struggling writers face considerable challenges when taking writing assessments designed for college entrance. This study examined the effectiveness of a writing intervention for improving students’ performance on a college entrance exam, the writing assessment for the ACT. Students were tau...
Article
In this meta-analysis, we examined whether children classified with specific language impairment (SLI) experience difficulties with writing. We included studies comparing children with SLI to (a) typically developing peers matched on age ( k = 39 studies) and (b) typically developing younger peers with similar language capabilities ( k = six studie...
Article
This meta-analysis examined if students writing about content material in science, social studies, and mathematics facilitated learning ( k = 56 experiments). Studies in this review were true or quasi-experiments (with pretests), written in English, and conducted with students in Grades 1 to 12 in which the writing-to-learn activity was part of ins...
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Teaching students strategies for carrying out writing processes has been an effective method for improving children’s writing, especially when the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model is used to teach writing strategies. While this is an effective approach, particularly with students who experience difficulty learning to write, it is a...
Article
Transcription can be defined as the externalization of language into written text, which involves spelling and handwriting. There is now a small, but growing body of research demonstrating the importance of transcription in beginning writing. This study aimed to test the effects of transcription training on third graders’ writing skills and motivat...
Cover Page
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Handbook of Strategies and Strategic Processing provides a state-of-the-art synthesis of conceptual, measurement, and analytical issues regarding learning strategies and strategic processing. Contributions by educational psychology experts present the clearest-yet definition of this essential and quickly evolving component of numerous theoretical f...
Article
Orthographic and linguistic knowledge are known predictors of reading and writing, yet little research with adolescent readers explores how such knowledge predicts reading and writing in a single model. We worked with 583 adolescent readers in remedial reading classes in grades 6–8 to collect indicators of orthographic and linguistic knowledge as w...
Chapter
This chapter makes the case that strategic processing is an integral part of the writing process. Since writing is complex and multifaceted, these strategies are necessary to guide the writer within the context of writing communities. The role of strategies is overviewed in light of other important factors (e.g., declarative knowledge), and interve...
Article
High-quality writing instruction is vital to supporting developing writers as they learn to plan, compose, and revise text. It is equally important that such instruction enhances students’ self-efficacy for writing as well as their motivation to write. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the incremental effect of peer-assisted writ...
Article
Based on the Writer(s)-within-Community Model, this article focuses on the role of handwriting in writers’ composing process. With the goal of highlighting the importance of researching and promoting handwriting, we provide an extensive summary of current evidence on the topic. It is well established that an important condition for skilled writing...
Chapter
Graham (A writer(s) within community model of writing. In Bazerman C, Berninger V, Brandt D, Graham S, Langer J, Murphy S, Matsuda P, Rowe D, Schleppegrell M (eds) The lifespan development of writing. National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, pp 271–335, 2018) developed a writer(s) in context model to explain writing and its development. The...
Article
Strategies instruction has improved the writing of high school struggling writers in previous studies, including students with disabilities. This study examined the effectiveness of argumentative writing instruction for the ACT writing exam using the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model with high school students with disabilities or at-...
Article
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A core tenet of the model of domain learning is that learning is shaped by cognitive and motivational forces. In writing, these catalysts include learners’ knowledge, motivation, strategic behaviors, and skills. This study tested this proposition at two time points (Fall and Spring) with 179 fifth-grade students (52% were girls), examining if writi...
Article
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Strategies instruction has improved the writing of high school struggling writers in previous studies, including students with disabilities. This study examined the effectiveness of argumentative writing instruction for the ACT writing exam using the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model with high school students with disabilities or at-...
Article
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Abstract We designed and investigated the first set of instructional procedures we are aware of to teach 4th and 5th grade students how to write a persuasive essay following close reading of a source text. Eight boys and girls attending a diverse, low income school who were having difficulty learning to write participated in an experimental multipl...
Article
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Despite consensus regarding critical design elements for professional development (PD), numerous PD studies have not shown anticipated effects for teachers or students. Mixed methods studies investigating when and why PD is successful are needed. The qualitative study reported here was part of a larger, mixed methods study of PD for self-regulated...
Article
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Despite the early emergence of oral argumentation, written argumentation is slow to develop, insensitive to alternative perspectives, and generally of poor quality. These findings are unsettling because high quality argumentative writing is expected throughout the curriculum and needed in an increasingly competitive workplace that requires advanced...
Article
If students are to be successful in school, at work, and in their personal lives, they must learn to write. This requires that they receive adequate practice and instruction in writing, as this complex skill does not develop naturally. A basic goal of schooling then is to teach students to use this versatile tool effectively and flexibly. Many scho...
Article
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This study tested whether writing skills, knowledge, motivation, and strategic behaviors (within the context of robust writing instruction) each made a statistically unique contribution to predicting fifth-grade students’ (123 girls, 104 boys) composition quality and length on a persuasive writing task involving source material, after variance due...
Article
The purpose of this research was to study the etiology of teacher knowledge about and factors that influence implementation of evidence-based reading and writing interventions at the upper elementary grade levels. Five data sources are used in this study: first, we used teacher surveys about their pre-service preparation on reading comprehension an...
Book
This edited volume presents evidence-based practices for teaching writing to students in elementary and secondary schools. The first chapter reviews research on evidence-based practices. Subsequent chapters provide descriptions and practical guidance for teachers about writing for varied purposes, instructional practices and strategies for planning...
Article
Engagement is critical to students' growth as readers and writers as well as to their voluntary and continued use of literacy skills to meet future demands in a wide array of contexts both in and outside of school. This special issue focuses on the role of engagement in literacy as well as enabling factors, conditions and processes that promote suc...
Article
Studies that specifically test the effectiveness of instructional procedures for improving the writing of young African American males who experience difficulty learning to write are almost nonexistent. Although writing intervention studies include these children, researchers rarely disaggregate their data to determine whether the writing treatment...
Article
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This article presents a revised version of the writer(s)-within-community model of writing. Writing is conceptualized as a social activity situated within specific writing communities. Writing in these communities is accomplished by its members. The model proposes that writing is simultaneously shaped and bound by the characteristics, capacity, and...
Article
Writing has been the subject of scientific research since the start of the 20th century. The resulting body of research is rich and diverse, owing much of its heterogeneity and multiplicity to the different ways in which it has been conceptualized. This special issue continues this tradition by presenting new views on conceptualizing writing, rangi...
Article
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The impact of supplemental handwriting and spelling instruction on learning to write was examined in an experimental study with first grade students who were not acquiring these skills as rapidly as their classmates. Thirty students (16 boys, 14 girls) were randomly assigned to a handwriting and spelling instructional condition or a phonological aw...
Article
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Handwriting is still a prominent mode for composing for both children and adults As a result, it is important that developing writers acquire fluent and legible handwriting. This article examines the five investigations that were presented in this special issue on handwriting instruction, providing a summary of their collective contributions as wel...
Article
The authors investigated the impact of explicit instruction and peer-assisted writing on students' writing motivation and self-efficacy for writing. Eleven teachers and their 206 fifth- and sixth-grade students participated in a 2 (explicit instruction vs. writing opportunities without explicit instruction) × 2 (peer-assisted writing vs. writing in...
Article
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A quasi-experimental study was conducted to examine the impact of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction on 3rd-5th grade deaf and hard of hearing students’ writing and written language compared to a business-as-usual condition (treatment group N = 41, comparison group N = 22). A total of 18 hours of instruction was provided for each of two...
Chapter
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A critical purpose of this book is to present analyses of effective instructional approaches with sufficient detail to allow readers (researchers, teachers, curriculum developers, and others) to construct their own interventions, adapted to regional and local needs, which meet the main principles of the previously validated intervention programs. A...
Chapter
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This e-chapter provides a free download of all professional development, teacher, and student materials for SRSD instruction in close reading of source text to write persuasively. This instruction has been successful in controlled experiments with students in grades 4-6.
Article
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A random sample of 1,313 grades 7–9 Chinese language arts teachers in Shanghai, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taipei were surveyed about their instructional writing practices. When asked about their college, inservice, and personal preparation, three out of four teachers indicated that they were poorly prepared to teach writing. They were slightly positive...
Article
This meta-analysis examined if students’ writing performance is improved by reading interventions in studies (k = 54 experiments; 5,018 students) where students were taught how to read and studies (k = 36 investigations; 3,060 students) where students’ interaction with words or text was increased through reading or observing others read. Studies in...