Stephen Mark Wilkinson

Stephen Mark Wilkinson
Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust · Leeds Centre for Dermatology

MD

About

286
Publications
29,346
Reads
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Introduction
Stephen Mark Wilkinson currently works at the Leeds Centre for Dermatology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust. Stephen does research in Allergology and Dermatology.
Additional affiliations
August 1995 - present
Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust
Position
  • Dermatologist
Education
September 1979 - December 1984
University of Cambridge
Field of study
  • Medicine

Publications

Publications (286)
Article
Background: Continual analyses of patch test results with the European baseline series (EBS) serve both contact allergy surveillance and auditing the value of included allergens. Objectives: To present results of current EBS patch testing, obtained in 53 departments in 13 European countries during 2019 and 2020. Methods: Anonymised or pseudony...
Article
Limonene and linalool are among the most common fragrance terpenes used in products of everyday life. They are pre‐haptens forming hydroperoxides (Lim‐OOHs, Lin‐OOHs) upon oxidation inducing frequent positive patch test reactions in patients with dermatitis. Still, they are not yet routinely tested in Europe. This review evaluates the patch testing...
Article
Background: In 2019, a number of allergens (haptens), henceforth, 'the audit allergens,' were considered as potential additions to the European baseline series (EBS), namely, sodium metabisulfite, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, Compositae mix II (2.5 or 5% pet), linalool hydroperoxides (lin-OOH), limonene...
Article
Background Preservatives are widely used in cosmetic, household and industrial products to prevent microbial growth and spoiling of the products. There has been a recent epidemic of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone (MI). Objectives To establish emerging trends in preservative contact allergy as MI is replaced. Methods We performed a retro...
Article
Background How many patients should we be patch testing? A previous study suggested that the minimum proportion of a population to be patch tested for allergic contact dermatitis was 1:700 annually. Objectives To evaluate if the current minimum rate for patch testing has changed over the 20 years since the previous study in order to maximise the v...
Article
Full-text available
Background To our knowledge, an international consensus is lacking regarding the development of an adequate informed consent form for a patch test (PT) and the information that should be included in such document. Objectives The aim of the study was to reach a consensus on the specific points that need to be addressed in a PT consent form. Method...
Article
Existing criteria for inclusion in the European baseline series are summarised. Additional criteria are developed to aid decision making where the current criteria do not yield an unequivocal result. These include a consideration of whether an allergen (hapten) is better placed in a special series and the frequency with which an allergen cross‐reac...
Chapter
The European baseline series (EBS) of contact allergens is an array of patch test preparations of important contact allergens. The series is of moderate length and is intended to be tested (in Europe) as a baseline, in the sense of a minimum set of allergens required for adequate screening of patients with suspected contact allergy. However, beyond...
Chapter
National baseline series, often based on continental baseline series, usually contain contact allergens to which patients from a particular region are exposed, and that frequently elicit positive and/or relevant patch test reactions. Differences between national baseline series can be explained, among others, by differences in exposure, prescribing...
Chapter
Cosmetics have become ubiquitous and form part of daily life for many. With this rapid proliferation and diversification of cosmetic products, we have seen a corresponding increase in the number of cases of contact dermatitis to these products. In this chapter, we will explore this in more detail, by examining the definition of a cosmetic, the epid...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Clinical surveillance of the prevalence of contact allergy in consecutively patch tested patients is a proven instrument to continually assess the importance of contact allergens (haptens) assembled in a baseline series. Objectives: To present current results from the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), includi...
Article
Background: Studies suggest patch testing with formaldehyde releasers (FRs) give significant additional information to formaldehyde 1% aq. and should be considered for addition to the European baseline series (EBS). It is not known if this is also true for formaldehyde 2% aq. Objectives: To determine the frequency of sensitisation to formaldehyd...
Article
Background There is considerable variability across European patch test centres as to which allergens are included in local and national cosmetics series. Objectives To propose a standardised, evidence‐based cosmetic series for Europe based on up‐to‐date analysis of relevant contact allergens. Methods We collated data from the European Surveillan...
Article
Full-text available
Among the basic protective measures against COVID‐19, the need to wash hands frequently and in a prolonged way using soap, and to regularly use alcohol‐based hand sanitizers is well established for the whole population. Healthcare workers in general, and particularly those involved in the direct care of COVID‐19 patients, have to wear personal prot...
Article
Full-text available
Background Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics is widely reported. To ensure we are accurately diagnosing ACD, patch test series should be continually reviewed to identify relevant and emerging allergens and highlight those which are outdated. The current British Society for Cutaneous Allergy (BSCA) facial series recommends 26 allergens...
Article
Full-text available
The soaring demand for acrylic nails has resulted in a rapid increase in the frequency of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to (meth)acrylates1,2. However, traditional nail varnish remains widely used. Nail varnish is a mixture of film formers and include nitrocellulose, adipic acid/neopentyl glycol/trimellitic anhydride copolymer (AA), and phthali...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is currently no agreed cosmetic series for use across Europe. Objectives: To establish allergens currently tested in local and national cosmetic series. Methods: Members of ESSCA and COST TD1206 were surveyed to establish their current practice. Results: A wide range of allergens were tested but there was significant variat...
Article
如果皮肤接触过敏原(引起过敏的化学品),则会出现接触性过敏反应,从而敏感化。也就是说,如果皮肤再次与相同过敏原接触,则可能会发展为湿疹类反应,这种反应被称为过敏性接触性皮炎 (ACD),其影响 20% 的人口。 皮肤科医生通过斑贴测试来找出可能引起反应的物质。医生会将一系列已知过敏原涂抹于皮肤斑块上,观察哪种会引起反应。推荐所有进行斑贴测试的人都测试斑贴测试过敏原基线(标准)系列,其目的在于测试引起 ACD 的最常见过敏原。 (甲基)丙烯酸酯化学品是水晶指甲、光疗指甲和指甲油的主要成分。(甲基)丙烯酸酯有多个类型。来自英国 15 个中心的本次研究的作者决定在 2016‐7 斑贴测试基线系列中在凡士林中添加 2% 的 2‐羟乙基甲基丙烯酸酯 (2‐HEMA),旨在检测使用水晶指甲的患者中的 A...
Article
Contact allergy occurs when the skin comes into contact with allergens (chemicals that cause allergy), causing sensitisation. This means that if the skin comes into contact with the same allergen again, it can develop an eczema‐like reaction known as allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), which affects 20% of people. Patch testing is used by dermatolog...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Methylisothiazolinone (MI) has caused an unprecedented epidemic of contact allergy in Europe and elsewhere. Subsequently, regulatory action has been taken, at least in Europe, aiming at reducing risk of MI sensitisation. Objective: To follow-up on the prevalence of contact allergy to MI in consecutively patch tested patients and asse...
Article
Full-text available
Background The members of the Task Force on Contact Dermatitis and the Task Force on Occupational Dermatoses of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV), of the European Dermatology Forum (EDF), and the members of the UEMS Section of Dermatology‐Venereology (UEMS‐EBDV) we want to vindicate the fundamental role that the specialist...
Article
Full-text available
Background (Meth)acrylates are potent sensitisers and a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The frequency of (meth)acrylate ACD has increased with soaring demand for acrylic nails. A preliminary audit has suggested a significant rate of positive patch tests to (meth)acrylates using aimed testing in patients providing a clear history...
Article
Background Alkyl glucosides are a family of mild surfactants that are increasingly used in a wide range of cosmetics and household products. Contact allergy to alkyl glucosides may be more frequent than previously suspected, especially in atopic patients. Objectives To investigate the frequency of contact allergy to alkyl glucosides and to identif...
Article
Background Personal protective equipment (PPE) is defined as equipment that protects the wearer’s body against health/safety risks at work. Gloves are a cause of many dermatoses. Non‐glove PPE constitutes a wide array of garments. Dermatoses resulting from these have hitherto not been documented. Objectives To determine the incidence and types of...
Article
Background Assessment of the clinical relevance of patch test reactions is an essential part of the diagnostic work‐up of patients with (occupational) contact dermatitis. However, final diagnostic information, particularly the clinical relevance of allergic patch test reactions, has hitherto been ill‐represented in clinical documentation systems (p...
Article
Background Irritant exposure may be a contributory cause or the sole cause of (occupational) hand dermatitis. However, the documentation of irritant exposures in clinical practice is not standardized. Objectives To examine the feasibility and usefulness of a form with different items addressing both occupational and non‐occupational irritant expos...
Article
Background: Polysensitization, defined as being allergic to three or more haptens from the European baseline series, is considered to reflect increased susceptibility to developing a contact allergy, and is likely to be associated with an impaired quality of life. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalences of polysensitization across Europe and to...
Article
Background Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by nail acrylates, also including methacrylates and cyanoacrylates here, is being increasingly reported. Methods A retrospective study in 11 European Environmental Contact Dermatitis Research Group (EECDRG) clinics collected information on cases of ACD caused by nail acrylates diagnosed by aimed...
Article
Background: The current European baseline series consists of 30 allergens, and was last updated in 2015. Objectives: To use data from the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) to propose an extension to the European baseline series in response to changes in environmental exposures. Methods: Data from departmental and nation...
Article
Background: Fragrances are well known to cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Occupationally related cases occur, with certain groups being at higher risk. Objective: To investigate the incidence of occupationally related cases of cutaneous fragrance allergy and to evaluate trends. Method: Data on incident cases of occupational ACD caused...
Article
Background: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, dise...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Skin diseases constitute up to 40% of all notified occupational diseases in most European countries, predominantly comprising contact dermatitis, contact urticaria, and skin cancer. While insufficient prevention of work-related skin diseases (WRSD) is a top-priority problem in Europe, common standards for prevention of these conditions...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Contact allergy is a common condition and can severely interfere with daily life or professional activities. Due to changes in exposures, a consequence of introduction of new substances, new products or formulations, and regulatory intervention, the spectrum of contact sensitisation changes. Objective: To evaluate the current spectru...
Article
Background: There is a significant rate of sensitisation worldwide to the oxidised fragrance terpenes limonene and linalool. Patch testing to oxidised terpenes is not routinely carried out; the ideal patch test concentration is unknown. Objectives: To determine the best test concentrations for limonene and linalool hydroperoxides, added to the B...
Article
Background: The use of methylisothiazolinone (MI) in cosmetic products has caused an unprecedented epidemic of MI contact allergy. Current data concerning exposures at a European level are required. Objectives: To describe demographics and MI exposures for European patients with MI contact allergy. Methods: Eleven European dermatology departme...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Rubber additives constitute an important group of contact allergens, particularly in certain occupations. Objectives: To collect information regarding the current practice of using a 'rubber series' in Europe, and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning the prevalence of allergy in order to derive a recommendation...
Article
We respond to the letter [1] from Prof Elsner and colleagues to this journal in which comments are made regarding our recent review, “The Three Moments of Skin Cream Application: An evidence-based proposal for use of skin creams in the prevention of irritant contact dermatitis in the workplace”[2]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights...
Article
Background: Allergic contact dermatitis caused by biocides is common and causes significant patient morbidity. Objective: To describe the current frequency and pattern of patch test reactivity to biocide allergens included in the baseline series of most European countries. Methods: Data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact...
Presentation
Full-text available
Development of minimum standards on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of work-related and occupational skin diseases in Europe: COSTAction TD1206 (StanDerm)
Article
Linked Article: Heede et al. Br J Dermatol 2016; 175:287–295.
Article
Full-text available
Contact dermatitis is one of the most common occupational diseases, with serious impact on quality of life, lost days at work and a condition that may be chronically relapsing. Regular prophylactic skin cream application is widely acknowledged to be an effective prevention strategy against occupational contact dermatitis; however, compliance rates...
Article
Full-text available
Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative used in many household and industrial products. There has been an unprecedented global rise in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from its presence in personal care products (PCPs). In 2005 changes to EU legislation allowed MI, used in combination with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), to be used at conc...
Article
Purpose: The aim of this study was to give an overview of the prevalence of contact allergy to active ingredients and excipients of topical medications across Europe. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (www.essca-dc.org) with substances applied to consecutively patch tested...
Article
Background: Contact allergy to rubber additives is common, particularly in patients with occupational dermatitis. Objectives: To descriptively analyse and compare patch test reactions in patients patch tested both with the baseline series and with an additional 'rubber series' as used in the department. Methods: Patch test data from those memb...
Article
Background: Disease registries rely on consistent electronic data capturing (EDC) pertinent to their objectives; either by using existing electronic data as far as available, or by implementing specific software solu- tions. Objectives: To describe the current practice of an international disease registry (European Surveillance System on Contact...
Article
Linked Article: Hauksson, et al. Br J Dermatol 2016; 174: 371–379.
Article
The reporting of scientific results (in the field of contact dermatitis/allergy) should include a description of the methods used, including, but not limited to, standardized patch testing. Several aspects always need to be reported, such as duration of exposure, reading times, vehicle, and concentration of allergens. However, concerning other aspe...
Chapter
Cosmetic products are used by everyone the world over. There are a vast number of chemicals available for incorporation into such products. Allergic reactions to cosmetics are not uncommon. This chapter explores the typical clinical features seen in a patient with a cosmetic allergy. The types of products which tend to cause an allergic response ar...
Article
Background: Contact allergy in children is becoming increasingly recognized as a cause of eczema. The causal agents may change with time, but there are few comparative data for this age group. Objectives: To compare data from the past 10 years with a similar study from the previous decade. Methods: Between 2005 and 2014, 500 consecutive childr...
Article
The aim of this review was to examine the current outbreak of cases of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone in Europe, a phenomenon that has also been observed worldwide, despite initial legislative control of the introduction of methylisothiazolinone into the market. Reported allergic contact reactions are primarily eczematous, most commonly i...
Article
Full-text available
Allergic contact dermatitis caused by rubber allergens is common, and causes significant patient morbidity. Contemporary data are important to allow appropriate preventive measures and identification of contact allergy trends. To describe the pattern of patch test reactivity to rubber allergens, including those in the European baseline series. Data...
Article
Full-text available
The present guideline summarizes all aspects of patch testing for the diagnosis of contact allergy in patients suspected of suffering, or having been suffering, from allergic contact dermatitis or other delayed-type hypersensitivity skin and mucosal conditions. Sections with brief descriptions and discussions of different pertinent topics are follo...
Article
Background: Occupational contact dermatitis is one of the most common occupational diseases in Europe. In order to develop efficient preventive measures, detailed and up-to-date data on the incidence, main causes and professions at risk of occupational contact dermatitis are needed. Objectives: To describe the pattern of patch test reactivity to al...