Stephen Westland

Stephen Westland
University of Leeds · School of Design

Professor of Colour Science and Technology

About

325
Publications
118,283
Reads
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2,853
Citations
Introduction
I am interested in almost all aspects of colour. I trained as a chemist and a physicist and after a brief spell in industry I was a postdoc in psychology before working as an Assistant Professor in Neuroscience, an Associate Professor in Engineering and, since 2003, a full Professor in Design (at the University of Leeds). The idea that holds these seemingly disparate activities together is .... colour. My first degree was colour chemistry, my PhD was colour physics, .... etc.
Additional affiliations
November 2003 - present
University of Leeds
Position
  • Professor
November 2003 - January 2016
University of Leeds
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
September 1983 - September 1986
University of Leeds
Field of study
  • Colour Physics
September 1980 - September 1983
University of Leeds
Field of study
  • Colour Chemistry

Publications

Publications (325)
Article
Optical filter aids are marketed which claim to improve colour discrimination in red-green colour vision defectives. An earlier model has been revised and used to assess 9 currently available aids. Spectral reflectances (400-700 nm) for 80 colours equally spaced in hue angle at four equally spaced saturations were synthesised from chromatically adj...
Article
Full-text available
During space missions, astronauts live in a confined technological environment, completely isolated and deprived of the variety and variation found in the environment on Earth. This circumstance has a strong impact on the psycho-physiological states of the crew. Particularly in light of the plans for long-duration missions, new research needs to be...
Article
The immersive qualities of Virtual Reality (VR) technologies offer an enhanced environment for design research. In this study the potential of colour to influence cognitive performance in VR is explored. A series of psychometric experiments were conducted where selected colours were presented to the participants whist in a dark neutral VR room sett...
Article
Full-text available
This research explores the influence of colour on cognitive performance and intellectual abilities (i.e., logical and lateral thinking abilities and people’s attention to detail) in a conventional laboratory setting and an approximately identical virtual reality (VR) environment. Comparative experiments using psychological methods were carried out...
Conference Paper
Many experiments have proved that vision and hearing effect each other in many ways, and this phenomenon is of great significance to design (Zhang,2019)(Anderson,2014). Among the design of car cockpit, color is one of the most important elements of cockpit visual design, and different color directly affect people's experience in the cockpit (Satake...
Article
Full-text available
Infographics are becoming a common tool in the communication of public-health information. However, research-based resources in how to create effective infographics are rare. The application of design principles in the creation of infographics has been shown to more effectively communicate information. Here, the research explores the adherence of 8...
Article
Full-text available
It is widely believed that people have preferences in relation to the colour of their interior environment. With the development of the global small apartment industry, it is important to understand well people's colour preference for apartments. This study investigated the apartment colour preference (N = 958) and the arousal level measured as hea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The immersive qualities of Virtual Reality (VR) technologies offer an enhanced environment for design research. In this study the potential of colour to influence cognitive performance in VR is explored. A series of psychometric experiments were conducted where selected colours were presented to the participants whist in a dark neutral VR room sett...
Article
Objective: Psychological research has established that the presence of dental anomalies negatively impact social judgements. This study sought to determine the effects of tooth colour on the subjective ratings of social judgements in a group of Caucasian adults. Methods: A cross sectional experimental analogue design comprised fifty Caucasian adult...
Chapter
Full-text available
The lighting system is one of the key subsystems in the spacecraft. A good lighting environment is needed not only for operations, but also for the astronauts’ leisure. In particular, it can reduce visual fatigue, improve work efficiency and safety, and be calibrated to optimise energy consumption.
Chapter
Full-text available
For large-scale manned spacecraft bound for the Moon and Mars, lighting should be explored that can reduce safety risks while increasing visual capability. The use of appropriate lighting in large-scale manned spacecraft can provide astronauts with a comfortable and safe living and working environment while reducing the energy consumption of the li...
Conference Paper
For large-scale manned spacecraft bound for the Moon and Mars, lighting should be explored that can reduce safety risks while increasing visual capability. The use of appropriate lighting in large-scale manned spacecraft can provide astronauts with a comfortable and safe living and working environment while reducing the energy consumption of the li...
Article
Objective To identify the hue angles that provide the optimal perception of tooth whitening. Methods Thirty-three male/female adult observers with normal color vision were recruited to assess teeth images on a color calibrated display. Images of teeth were generated which simulated color changes in each of eight hue directions in the CIE a*b* plan...
Article
Full-text available
Many studies have shown that colour can affect emotional and physiological responses in real environments but do the same effects occur in virtual environments? This study investigated human subjective and objective responses to different coloured lighting environments, first in a physical laboratory (PE) and then in an approximately identical virt...
Chapter
Volume 6 A Cultural History of Color in the Modern Age covers the period 1920 to the present, a time of extraordinary developments in colour science, philosophy, art, design and technologies. The expansion of products produced with synthetic dyes was accelerated by mass consumerism as artists, designers, architects, writers, theater and filmmakers...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes a developed conceptual framework for understanding consumer product-colour purchase decision in different time-length conditions. The research and method were developed on the basis of research from authors' previous study. An influence element, decision conditions (especially, decision-time-length), has been introduced. The...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes a conceptual framework for understanding consumer product‐colour purchase decisions. Building on previous work, a new primary factor, colour association, is introduced. The purpose of this study is to test whether consumers' colour‐associations connect with their product‐colour association, and whether colour‐association affe...
Article
Full-text available
Although many design process studies and design theories have been developed and presented, in reality designers have rarely followed standard rules. A design process is often more a form of personal self‐expression. The type of approach that designers use in their design work depends on their preference, experience, and education background. There...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of environmental colour on people's lateral and logical abilities. This was done by evaluating study participants' response time and error rate when completing six types of psychometric tests that were performed in various hue backgrounds on a computer. To maximise the colour stimulation provid...
Chapter
William Albert Hugh Rushton was a British neurophysiologist who made important contributions to our understanding of color vision and perception. He is perhaps best known now for his development of the principle of univariance.
Chapter
John Dalton was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist who is best known for his work in the development of modern atomic theory and his research into color blindness.
Chapter
Johannes Itten was a Swiss expressionist painter, designer, and teacher, and one of the main pedagogical forces behind the Bauhaus in its earliest phase. Itten was born in Südern-Linden (Switzerland) on November 11, 1888. His 1961 book The Art of Color presented color theory in a simplified form that largely excluded scientific developments from th...
Conference Paper
We present a simple primary colour editing method for consumer product images. We show that by using colour correction and colour blending, we can automate the pain-staking colour editing task and save time for consumer colour preference researchers. To improve the colour harmony between the primary colour and its complementary colours, our algorit...
Article
The goal of this research is to generate high quality chromatic Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) over a wide range of spatial frequencies from 0.06 to 3.84 cycles per degree (cpd) surrounding 5 CIE proposed colour centres (white, red, yellow, green and blue) to study colour difference. At each centre, 6 colour directions at each of 7 frequencies...
Article
Various color difference metrics were developed for characterizing the perceived color difference between individual color patches. Color difference between palettes containing multiple color patches, however, is critically important in product design and computer graphics. This study aimed to investigate how the perceived color difference between...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, there has been interest in the development of colour palettes from images. Colour palettes have long been used by designers to communicate colours and their relationships but increasingly palettes are being derived automatically from digital images, concepts, or from a plethora of digital design tools online. Methods to predict difference...
Article
Full-text available
Finding an efficient way to understand individual colour preference is important to researchers and designers. This article compares three research strategies to test individual colour preference including two research experimental environments (online and laboratory) and two research methods (multiple choice for N‐alternative‐forced‐choice and mul...
Conference Paper
Various color difference metrics were developed for characterizing the perceived color difference between individual color patches. Color difference between palettes containing multiple color patches, however, is critically important in product design and computer graphics. This study aimed to investigate how the perceived color difference between...
Article
In this paper, skin tone heterogeneity in five facial areas (forehead, right cheekbone, left cheekbone, nose tip and chin) was investigated under six light sources with correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2850 K, 3500 K, 5000 K, 5500 K, 6500 K and 9000 K. Firstly, a facial image capturing protocol was developed and applied to five female particip...
Article
Full-text available
It is known that colours evoke memories and emotions and that these associations are valuable in design. However, it is difficult to ascertain universal associations because often the word-colour associations are culture-and context-specific. Nevertheless, some important universal colour associations have been shown to exist, at least if the variab...
Conference Paper
The aim of this study was to assess gloss of tooth by digital photography. A gonio-imaging system (gonio-being Greek for angle) was developed to measure the gloss of human teeth in a laboratorial stage. Polarised and non-polarised images were acquired around the specular angle. The gloss component was extracted and normalised to a theoretical stand...
Article
The Color of the Year was first introduced by Pantone in 2000, and recently (the last decade) we saw the trend of introducing a Color of the Year being picked up by more and more companies. Paints and coatings companies typically select their colors of the year by extensive research by designers and trend experts, resulting in a plurality of colors...
Article
Objective The subject of this case report is the application of a newly developed workflow for objective shade communication sans visual shade assessment or the use of shade guides. Clinical Considerations Clinical complications stemming from issues relating to esthetic integration can present a burden on the restorative team, often resulting in s...
Article
Objective: The subject of this case report is the application of a newly developed workflow for objective shade communication sans visual shade assessment or the use of shade guides. Clinical Considerations: Clinical complications stemming from issues relating to aesthetic integration can present a burden on the restorative team, often resulting in...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: The harm of misusing over-the-counter (OTC) codeine-containing medicines among university students in England is being increasingly recognized. Based on English university students, this paper aims to study the importance of information design on information communication, explore methods for effective warning design, and investigat...
Article
Full-text available
An important aspect of colour forecasting is the process of generating colour palettes to represent collections at fashion shows. Humans have traditionally done this manually, and can do it well, but there are often too many images and it becomes an unmanageable task. In this paper, automatic machine-learning methods are developed to generate colou...
Chapter
Full-text available
Various stressors such as microgravity, vibration, radiation, restriction, and isolation in manned spaceflight environments can cause a variety of negative psycho-physiological effects. At the emotional level, for example, they may provoke anxiety and depression, which affects the astronauts’ operational efficiency and overall mission performance....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Various stressors such as microgravity, vibration, radiation, restriction, and isolation in manned spaceflight environments can cause a variety of negative psycho-physiological effects. At the emotional level, for example, they may provoke anxiety and depression, which affects the astronauts’ operational efficiency and overall mission performance....
Article
Full-text available
Background: Shade matching is a significant treatment step and a challenge for the clinical team with potentially high costs for color correction. Currently, in the United States, the majority of private dental practitioners use visual color matching, but a recent study has reported a high rate of mistakes of subjective color determination among g...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a simple primary colour editing method for consumer product images. We show that by using colour correction and colour blending, we can automate the pain-staking colour editing task and save time for consumer colour preference researchers. To improve the colour harmony between the primary colour and its complementary colours, our algorit...
Chapter
Full-text available
Designers create information provision formats in the real world. They are commonly regarded as problem solvers. However, literature reveals that designers do not design information/products in an inclusive way and suggests various reasons for this. Designers continue to provide inaccessible information and seem not to consider various information...
Conference Paper
Designers create information provision formats in the real world. They are commonly regarded as problem solvers. However, literature reveals that designers do not design information/products in an inclusive way and suggests various reasons for this. Designers continue to provide inaccessible information and seem not to consider various information...
Article
Full-text available
It is widely believed that children will choose furniture that has the same color as their preferred color. Furthermore, for different categories of furniture, the color they preferred for furniture is consistent. A study of 508 adolescent Chinese children between the ages of 12 and 16 has been carried out to explore whether color preference influe...
Article
Full-text available
The camera characterization procedure has been recognized as a convenient methodology to correct color recordings in cultural heritage documentation and preservation tasks. Instead of using a whole color checker as a training sample set, in this paper, we introduce a novel framework named the Patch Adaptive Selection with K-Means (P-ASK) to extract...
Article
Full-text available
An imaging workflow to categorise images into business graphics and pictorial images based on spatiochromatic information is demonstrated. Studies on three computational characteristics (lightness frequency distribution, average chroma distribution, and Fourier spectrum) show that differences between business graphics and pictorial images can be di...
Article
This work is concerned with the prediction of visual colour difference between pairs of palettes. In this study, the palettes contained five colours arranged in a horizontal row. A total of 95 pairs of palettes were rated for visual difference by 20 participants. The colour difference between the palettes was predicted using two algorithms, each ba...
Article
Full-text available
This study extends previous findings on the effect of different levels of short-wavelength light on human alertness. This study explores the alerting ability of long-wavelength light at two levels (40 lx and 160 lx). Eight subjects took part in the 60-minute experiment for each of two nights, during which their objective alertness and subjective al...
Article
Full-text available
Although the physical effects of air pollution on humans are well documented, there may be even greater impacts on the emotional state and health. Surveys have traditionally been used to explore the impact of air pollution on people’s subjective well-being (SWB). However, the survey techniques usually take long periods to properly match the air pol...
Article
Colour management is ubiquitous in the digital world. However, despite the many advances in colour management over the last couple of decades, it remains an imperfect process. In the art and design community there is often a level of dissatisfaction and deep cynicism about colour management that can lead to lac of engagement with the process. This...
Article
Objectives: To develop an equation that predicts the perceptual yellowness of teeth. Methods: A large set of new psychophysical yellowness data were generated from an experiment where 500 participants each ranked a set of 58 shade guide samples. Two existing equations (WIO and b*) and one new equation (YIO) were evaluated by comparing their valu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work explores the potential of Virtual Reality (VR) as a medium to support emotional positivity and well-being. In this study, we investigate and compare the effects of colour first in a physical test room and then in an identical VR environment. We measured ten participants' physiological responses to different colours of light in both physic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Short-wavelength light is known to have an alerting effect on human alertness. This study evaluates the acute alerting ability of short-wavelength light of three different intensities (40 lx, 80 lx and 160 lx). Eight subjects participated in a 60-minute exposure protocol for four evenings, during which electroencephalogram (EEG) as well as subjecti...
Article
Full-text available
Strong associations exist between colours and concepts or words. Understanding these associations, sometimes referred to as colour emotions, is important for effective use of colour in art and design. Traditionally the relationships have been systematically explored in experiments where participants scale colours according to bipolar adjectives suc...
Article
Full-text available
Short-wavelength light is known to have an effect on human alertness in the night-time. However, there are very few studies that focus on the effect of intensity of light on alertness. This study evaluates the acute alerting ability of short-wavelength light of three different intensities (40 lux, 80 lux and 160 lux). Eight subjects participated in...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate Color Reproduction is very important for Cultural Heritage purposes, mainly for documentation. Normally the digital images are more saturated and contrasted than the human eye can see it and became necessary to recover the right color information. This research will present the color difference, in terms of CIELAB ΔEab *, by four different...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the relationship between colour and image of packaging on consumer perceptions and purchase intentions of convenience food and consisted of two parts. The first part was a questionnaire and interview to explore consumer opinions and the second part was a questionnaire completed by 200 participants in UK and China. The results of...
Data
Colour Difference modelling concerns a relationship between a many dimensional set of causal vectors that are arbitrarily nonlinear and their three dimensional additive effect. In the current case all dimensions are assumed to contribute to a smoothly varying and nominally Euclidean three dimensional phenomenon. The tasks are:- To identify the app...