Stephen W Touyz

Stephen W Touyz
The University of Sydney · School of Psychology

BSc (Cape Town),BSc (hons.)(Wits), PhD( Cape Town)

About

376
Publications
83,210
Reads
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10,998
Citations
Education
February 1974 - October 1976
University of Cape Town
Field of study
  • Sleep
February 1973 - February 1974
University of the Witwatersrand
Field of study
  • Psychology
March 1969 - December 1972
University of Cape Town
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (376)
Article
Full-text available
Compulsive exercise is linked with poorer treatment outcomes in people with eating disorder (EDs). High-performance athletes represent a growing and complex subcomponent of the broader ED population, and emergent evidence indicates that different conceptualisations of compulsive exercise are needed in this population. Existing randomised controlled...
Article
Full-text available
Background Exercise is a prominent feature of most eating disorders, and has been shown to have a number of detrimental effects on treatment outcome. There is some disagreement in the literature regarding the construct of compulsive exercise, and assessment and treatment varies significantly. This study therefore aimed to aggregate expert clinician...
Article
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Background: Eating disorders (EDs) are potentially severe, complex, and life-threatening illnesses. The mortality rate of EDs is significantly elevated compared to other psychiatric conditions, primarily due to medical complications and suicide. The current rapid review aimed to summarise the literature and identify gaps in knowledge relating to a...
Article
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Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) is often diagnosed in adolescence, and most evidence-based treatments for AN in young people involve the family. Family therapies for AN are intensive, outpatient treatments that utilise the parents as the primary resource in the young person’s recovery. Research regarding family treatment for AN is often conducted...
Article
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Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has the highest mortality rate of the mental disorders, with still less than 50% of affected individuals achieving recovery. Recent calls to bring innovative, empirical research strategies to the understanding of illness and its core psychopathological features highlight the need to address significant paucity of efficacious t...
Article
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Objective: The Australian Government's landmark 2019 implementation of dedicated Medicare items for people with eating disorders was the first of its kind for a mental illness. We investigate the first 24 months of uptake of these items across regions, settings and healthcare disciplines, including intermediate changes to the program prompted by t...
Article
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Objective: Cognitive flexibility research in anorexia nervosa (AN) has primarily focused on group differences between clinical and control participants, but research in the general population utilizing the mixed pro- anti-saccade flexibility task has demonstrated individual differences in trait anxiety are a determinant of switching performance, a...
Article
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Background: Characterised by the belief that more weight needs to be lost-despite emaciation, failing organs, medical instability and prospect of death-Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a condition in which irrational, and highly-skewed, beliefs can be of delusional intensity. However, the nexus between delusion and rational awareness and how this is relat...
Article
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Objective People with anorexia nervosa often exhibit inefficiencies in executive functioning (central coherence and set shifting) that may negatively impact on treatment outcomes. It is unclear from previous research whether these inefficiencies can change over treatment. We aimed to (1) investigate whether executive functioning can improve over tr...
Article
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The current study explored interactions between emotion regulation (ER) and cognitive-behavioral flexibility in everyday life in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). Participants were 97 female adults with current (57%) or past (43%) full or partial AN syndrome diagnosis. Participants completed the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, Emo...
Article
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Background Limited screening practices, minimal eating disorder training in the healthcare professions, and barriers related to help-seeking contribute to persistent low rates of eating disorder detection, significant unmet treatment need, and appreciable associated disease burden. The current review sought to broadly summarise the literature and i...
Article
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PurposeThis study examined the relationship between self-reported cognitive-behavioral flexibility scores on the Eating Disorder Flexibility Index (EDFLIX) and objective social and occupational functional milestones in participants with a lifetime diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN). The Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) was included to compar...
Article
A lack of consensus exists among the scientific and medical communities on how to treat compulsive exercise, a core feature of eating disorders (EDs) and muscle dysmorphia (MD). We systematically searched five electronic databases for treatment studies of compulsive exercise that sampled adolescents and/or adults with an ED or MD, assessed longitud...
Article
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Objective Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are eating disorders (EDs) characterized by recurrent binge eating (BE) episodes. Overlap exists between ED diagnostic groups, with BE episodes presenting one clinical feature that occurs transdiagnostically. Neuroimaging of the responses of those with BN and BED to disorder-specific st...
Article
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Background: Adolescence is a time of rapid emotional and physical development when foundational self-concepts (including beliefs about one's weight and shape) are established. Parents are key influencers of adolescent beliefs and behaviours. This study aimed to investigate associations between perceived positive and negative parental comments on w...
Article
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Background: Current evidence-based treatments for adult anorexia nervosa (AN) have limitations, with high attrition, very poor outcomes for 20% of people, and no clearly superior manualised therapy for adults with AN. Specialist Supportive Clinical Management (SSCM) was designed as a control treatment but has evolved as a valid first line treatmen...
Article
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Background Eating disorders (EDs) are highly complex mental illnesses associated with significant medical complications. There are currently knowledge gaps in research relating to the epidemiology, aetiology, treatment, burden, and outcomes of eating disorders. To clearly identify and begin addressing the major deficits in the scientific, medical,...
Article
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Background: Cognitive inflexibility and compulsive behaviours are commonly observed in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and are often considered to be caused by impairments in executive functioning and visuospatial processing. Despite an increasing number of young individuals presenting with AN, there is a lack of meta-analytic evidence on the n...
Article
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PurposeThe current study aimed to investigate associations between grazing and different facets of executive functioning in persons with obesity with and without significant eating disorder psychopathology, compared to a healthy-weight control group.Methods Eighty-nine participants (of which 20 had obesity and marked eating disorder symptomatology,...
Article
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Background Despite the availability of effective treatments for bulimia nervosa (BN), a number of barriers to accessibility exist. Examples include access to trained clinicians, the expense of treatment, geographical limitations, and personal limitations such as stigma regarding help seeking. Self-help interventions, delivered via a digital platfor...
Article
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Most health service utilisation studies are of people with specific diagnoses or demographic characteristics, and rarely of specific chronic symptoms. Does population-level health service utilisation increase in people with chronic breathlessness? Methods Cross-sectional analysis of the South Australian Health Omnibus Survey (HOS) 2017, a multi-st...
Article
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Background There is preliminary evidence to suggest that yoga can be beneficial in reducing anxiety, depression and general eating disorder symptoms in people with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). It is unclear whether the therapeutic benefits of yoga are supported or utilised in the treatment of AN amongst clinical experts. The present study aimed to explor...
Article
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High trait impulsivity is thought to contribute to the sense of loss of control over eating and impulses to binge eat experienced by those with binge eating disorder (BED). Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), a drug approved for treatment of moderate to severe BED, has been shown to decrease impulsive features of BED. However, the relationship betwe...
Article
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Objective Despite an increased interest in understanding characteristics of long-standing anorexia nervosa (AN), there is a lack of knowledge into the processes that occur with the development and maintenance of the disease. This has impeded the development of novel treatment approaches that may prove more effective than traditional medical models...
Article
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Objective Since efforts to stage anorexia nervosa (AN) revealed the existence of various presentations, research into the long-standing subgroup has increased. A change in treatment has been proposed with the intention to use more effective evidence-based methods that target symptoms of the long-standing presentation and improve prognosis. A barrie...
Article
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Purpose To investigate the prevalence of overvaluation across sociodemographic features and weight status over time. Methods The data included sequential cross-sectional surveys with representative samples of the adolescent and adult (15 years or older) population in South Australia. Five surveys that assessed overvaluation were conducted in the y...
Article
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PurposeAnorexia nervosa (AN) affects approximately 2.9% of females and has the highest mortality rate among all psychiatric disorders. Despite several advances, the neurobiology of this disorder is still not well understood. Several studies have reported abnormalities in the white matter, but it is not know if these are disease-related or secondary...
Article
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Characteristics of Severe and Enduring Anorexia Nervosa (SE-AN) are being investigated to differentiate the patients experiencing SE-AN from those at earlier stages of the AN disease. The current systematic review was the first step in exploring neuropsychological functioning as a potentially identifying characteristic for long-term presentations....
Article
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Several studies have conceptualized neuropsychological dysfunction as part of the core pathology and defining behaviors seen in the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the current review was to synthesize the differences in neuropsychological test performance between individuals with AN and healthy controls, quantify and explain their...
Article
Objective Varied perspectives on the later stage of anorexia nervosa (AN) have left the field of eating disorders without a consistent label or definition for this subpopulation. As a result, diverse criteria when recruiting participants have led to incomparable results across research studies and a lack of guidance when assessing and treating pati...
Article
Objective Only a small proportion of individuals with an eating disorder will receive targeted treatment for their illness. The aim of this study was to examine the length of delay to treatment-seeking and determine the barriers preventing earlier access and utilisation of eating disorder treatment for each diagnostic group – anorexia nervosa, buli...
Article
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Background: Feelings of fat are common for people with eating disorders, but ways of measuring its intensity are needed. Therefore, our goal was to develop a self-report feelings of fat scale that asked participants to indicate how intensely they currently felt statements such as "I feel fat". With such a scale we can determine how strongly feelin...
Article
To compare neural responses to high and low-energy food images in patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and an age-matched Healthy Control (HC) group. 25 adolescents with AN and 21 HCs completed a diagnostic interview, self-report questionnaires and fMRI, during which they viewed food images evoking responses of disgust, happiness, or fear. Following...
Article
Background The most common eating disorders (EDs) are bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), serious psychiatric illnesses that have devastating effects on the physical and psychological wellbeing of sufferers. EDs range in complexity and severity but can be life-threatening without appropriate treatment. Although it is well-known th...
Article
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Background There is increasing interest in associations between cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa (AN), however, the relationship with everyday function is unclear. The current review synthesizes existing data regarding associations between scores on tests of set-shifting and central coherence and functional outcome me...
Article
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Background The adolescent years see significant physical and emotional development that lay foundations for patterns of behaviour that can continue into adult life, including the shaping of eating behaviours. Given parents are key socio-environmental drivers and influencers of adolescent behaviours around physical health and wellbeing, it is critic...
Article
Background: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with elevated rates of eating disorders (EDs), but the nature and impact of specific ED features are unclear. Aims: This study sought to identify which ED features are common in BD, and whether these relate to quality of life (QoL) impairment and body mass index (BMI). Method: A clinical sample of 73...
Article
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Background Compulsive exercise is a core feature of both eating disorders and muscle dysmorphia. Earlier models of treatment recommended complete abstinence from exercise in eating disorder populations, but recent guidelines advocate for the gradual inclusion of healthier forms of exercise into an overall treatment plan where appropriate. Given the...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The association between binge eating and obesity is increasing. Treatments for disorders of recurrent binge eating comorbid with obesity reduce eating disorder (ED) symptoms, but not weight. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of introducing a weight loss intervention to the treatment of people with disorders of recurrent bing...
Article
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Reports suggest that 12–76% of adolescents have experienced parental comments regarding their weight/shape and/or eating behaviours. Parents may engage in conversations about weight/shape and eating out of concern, even without any ill intent; however, the associations of these comments with subsequent problematic psychosocial and eating behaviours...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Compulsive exercise is a core feature of both eating disorders and muscle dysmorphia. Earlier models of treatment recommended complete abstinence from exercise in eating disorder populations, but recent guidelines advocate for the gradual inclusion of healthier forms of exercise into an overall treatment plan where appropriate. Given th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Compulsive exercise is a core feature of both eating disorders and muscle dysmorphia. Earlier models of treatment recommended complete abstinence from exercise in eating disorder populations, but recent guidelines advocate for the gradual inclusion of healthier forms of exercise into an overall treatment plan where appropriate. Given th...
Article
Full-text available
Background Family-based treatment (FBT) is an efficacious outpatient intervention for young people diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). To date, treatment to protocol has relied on standard face-to-face delivery. Face-to-face therapy is subject to geographic, temporal and human factors, rendering it particularly susceptible to inequities and disru...
Article
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Background: Recent models of obesity and eating behaviour have implicated both automatic responding to food-related cues and executive functioning in driving dietary choice. This study aimed to relate grazing severity to high weight with and without significant eating disorder features via the effects of inhibition and degree of goal-directed behav...
Article
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Background Both obesity and eating disorders (ED) have been associated with reductions in purposeful, flexible goal-directed behaviour, and with an overreliance on more rigid habitual behaviour. It is currently unknown whether grazing, an eating style which is common in both conditions, is related to goal-directed behaviour. The current study there...
Article
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Rates of eating disorders (EDs) are increasing in Australia, as are rates of bariatric and cosmetic surgery including weight-related procedures. It is known that binge eating disorder (BED) is common in bariatric surgery candidates and that people with EDs are likely to undergo weight-related cosmetic procedures, however, most of the literature is...
Article
Approximately 33% of those with bipolar disorder (BD) have a comorbid eating disorder (ED). However, the trajectory of these conditions has received little research attention. Nine participants who met criteria for BD and an ED participated in qualitative interviews exploring experiences of illness onset, the interaction of these conditions, and se...
Article
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Background: There is a dearth of research into mental disorders amongst Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (herein First Australians) and especially into eating disorders. In order to understand the healthcare needs of this population, accurate prevalence data is needed. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of eating disorders am...
Article
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Background: Research has identified factors specific to exercise in eating disorder patients such as affect regulation and compulsivity. Existing measures of exercise behaviour which were not originally designed for eating disorder patients may not adequately assess these factors. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and assess the psy...
Article
Background Mental health problems frequently occur during adolescence, however, few adolescents seek treatment for these problems, especially for eating disorders. The current study aimed to quantify how adolescents in a clinical sample (ie, those receiving treatment for an eating disorder), differ in terms of psychological factors (eating disorder...
Article
Objective The purpose of the study was to identify latent classes of trajectory of change in body mass index (BMI) between the initial and thirteenth session of outpatient treatment for adult anorexia nervosa and identify the association with outcome. Method Participants (n = 120) were randomised to one of three outpatient therapies. Results Four...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Only one in four people with Eating Disorders (ED) seeks treatment, and of those who do seek treatment, 20% go on to experience a chronic course. Early intervention has been associated with better prognosis, with those seeking specialised intervention in the early stages of their illness more than twice as likely to achieve remission. C...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Only one in four people with eating disorders seeks treatment, and of those who do seek treatment, 20% go on to experience a chronic course. Early intervention has been associated with better prognosis, with those seeking specialised intervention in the early stages of their illness more than twice as likely to achieve remission. Curren...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Only one in four people with eating disorders seeks treatment, and of those who do seek treatment, 20% go on to experience a chronic course. Early intervention has been associated with better prognosis, with those seeking specialised intervention in the early stages of their illness more than twice as likely to achieve remission. Curren...
Article
Chew and Spit (CHSP) is a prevalent disordered eating symptom and has been thought to be associated with a number of adverse effects. In the current study, 18 participants (>90% female, aged between 18 and 51) took part in answering questions about their experiences, struggles, concerns, methods of coping, and personal meaning of CHSP and how it ha...
Article
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This Mini-Review presents recent research into evidence for psychological treatments for people with severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SEAN). Two psychological therapies, specialist supportive clinical management (SSCM), and cognitive behavior therapy for anorexia nervosa (CBT-AN) have limited (one randomized controlled study) evidence of effic...
Article
Objective: This study aimed to provide updated lifetime prevalence estimates of eating disorders, specifically bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) and investigate changes over time in lifetime prevalence by age. Method: Two thousand nine hundred seventy-seven participants from South Australia were interviewed in the Health Omnib...
Article
Objectives: There are limited data on the epidemiology of eating disorders (ED) in migrants. Recent Scandinavian research suggests that migrants are at lower risk of eating disorders, however, to our knowledge there have not been comparable studies exploring eating disorders in Australian adult populations. We sought to explore the prevalence of E...
Article
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Background: Understanding the knowledge and beliefs of key stakeholders is crucial in developing effective public health interventions. Knowledge and beliefs about obesity and eating disorders (EDs) have rarely been considered, despite increasing awareness of the need for integrated health promotion programs. We investigated key aspects of knowled...
Article
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A recent general population study of Chew and Spit (CHSP) behavior in adults found a 0.4% prevalence, predominantly in females. The current study explores this further by examining the same phenomenon in secondary-school aged adolescents. This study also explores the relationship between CHSP and other demographic and eating disorder (ED) features...
Article
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Background: Eating disorders (ED) and disordered eating behaviours (DEB) have been found to be common in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, findings have been inconsistent. Objective: This study investigated the association between self-reported diabetes (Type 1 or 2) with ED/DEB (binge eating, subjective binge eating or loss of contro...
Article
Background There are no published estimates of the health state utility values (HSUVs) for a broad range of eating disorders (EDs). HSUVs are used in economic evaluations to determine quality-adjusted life years or as a measure of disorder burden. The main objective of the current study is to present HSUVs for a broad range of EDs based on DSM-5 di...
Article
Sense of self (SOS) is a cornerstone of psychological inquiry and therapy and is a defining feature of a range of psychological conditions including borderline personality disorder, yet it is poorly understood. SOS is that continuous experience of being a complete and authentic person who feels in control of their own activities. It is a part of no...
Article
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Objective: Lengthy delays in receiving treatment have been reported for people with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED). This study aimed to investigate healthcare use and predictors of mental health specialist healthcare use in a community sample of individuals with diagnostic threshold symptoms of BN, BED-Broad, or another eatin...
Article
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Purpose: The present study compared the use (and effectiveness) of cognitive self-regulation strategies in eating disordered (ED) and non-eating disordered women (non-ED), and whether ED subgroups differ in their use of avoidant/suppressive strategies and cognitive reappraisal. Methods: The participants consisted of 90 adult patients recruited f...