Stephen V. Stehman

Stephen V. Stehman
State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry | SUNY-ESF · Department of Forest and Natural Resources Management

About

220
Publications
109,374
Reads
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27,290
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1989 - present
State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry
Position
  • Professor
August 1989 - present
State University of New York
Position
  • Employee
Education
September 1983 - May 1990
Cornell University
Field of study
  • Biometry
September 1979 - June 1981
Oregon State University
Field of study
  • Statistics
September 1975 - May 1979
Pennsylvania State University
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (220)
Article
Full-text available
Estimating proportion of area from a stratified random sample and reference class labels obtained by ground visit or interpretation of satellite imagery is a common strategy in land cover monitoring. Confidence intervals for the proportion of area are typically estimated using the Wald interval, a procedure that is known to yield less than nominal...
Preprint
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Estimating forest aboveground biomass at fine spatial scales has become increasingly important for greenhouse gas estimation, monitoring, and verification efforts to mitigate climate change. Airborne LiDAR continues to be a valuable source of remote sensing data for estimating aboveground biomass. However airborne LiDAR collections may take place a...
Article
Seasonal changes of temperature and precipitation cause inland open surface water and ice cover extents to vary dramatically through the year from local to global scales. These dynamics of land, water, and ice have a significant impact on climate and often are critical to natural ecosystem functioning. However, global seasonal dynamics of both wate...
Article
Remote sensing is an important technology to map land-surface parameters, with many studies demonstrating land-surface parameter estimation, but fewer testing model transferability and quantifying model parameter uncertainty. In this study, we evaluated the uncertainty across time, space, and spatial scales of shrub willow health characterization b...
Article
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Forest fires contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions and can negatively affect public health, economic activity, and provision of ecosystem services. In boreal forests, fires are a part of the ecosystem dynamics, while in the humid tropics, fires are largely human-induced and lead to forest degradation. Studies have shown changing fire dynami...
Article
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Spatiotemporal quantification of surface water and flooding is essential given that floods are among the largest natural hazards. Effective disaster response management requires near real-time information on flood extent. Satellite remote sensing is the only way of monitoring these dynamics across vast areas and over time. Previous water and flood...
Article
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Sample-based estimates augmented by complete coverage land-cover maps were used to estimate area and describe patterns of annual land-cover change across the conterminous United States (CONUS) between 1985 and 2016. Most of the CONUS land cover remained stable in terms of net class change over this time, but a substantial gross change dynamic was c...
Article
Area estimates of land cover and land cover change are often based on reference class labels determined by analysts interpreting satellite imagery and aerial photography. Different interpreters may assign different reference class labels to the same sample unit. This interpreter variability is typically not accounted for in variance estimators appl...
Article
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In recent years, the growing availability of global satellite-derived burned area (BA) products has led to the development of methods and protocols to rigorously estimate their accuracy metrics. These protocols are based on design-based inference and provide unbiased estimators of various dimensions of accuracy. Current procedures consider the spat...
Article
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Human-induced fires play a crucial role in transforming landscapes and contributing to greenhouse gasemissions. Russia is a country where human-induced fires are widespread and form distinctive spring and summer burning cycles. However, spring fires are not well documented and it is unclear which land-cover types are associated with the spread of s...
Article
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Riparian vegetation delineation includes both the process of delineating the riparian zone and classifying vegetation within that zone. We developed a holistic framework to assess riparian vegetation delineation that includes evaluating channel boundary delineation accuracy using a combination of pixel-and object-based metrics. We also identified h...
Article
The U.S. Geological Survey Land Change Monitoring, Assessment and Projection (USGS LCMAP) has released a suite of annual land cover and land cover change products for the conterminous United States (CONUS). The accuracy of these products was assessed using an independently collected land cover reference sample dataset produced by analysts interpret...
Article
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Recent studies have used high resolution imagery to estimate tree cover and changes in natural forest cover in Haiti. However, there is still no rigorous quantification of tree cover change accounting for planted or managed trees, which are very important in Haiti’s farming systems. We estimated net tree cover change, gross loss, and gross gain in...
Article
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A prominent goal of policies mitigating climate change and biodiversity loss is to achieve zero deforestation in the global supply chain of key commodities, such as palm oil and soybean. However, the extent and dynamics of deforestation driven by commodity expansion are largely unknown. Here we mapped annual soybean expansion in South America betwe...
Article
Assessing a map's accuracy and efficacy requires careful consideration and calculation of a comprehensive set of measures, particularly when characteristics in geospatial datasets may be used for addressing multiple objectives. We describe a map accuracy assessment framework for categorical geospatial data over large areas that utilizes site-specif...
Article
Perennial shrub willow crops can simultaneously address environmental issues and produce biomass for biofuels, bioproducts and bioenergy. Chlorophyll is an essential biochemical property for characterizing plant health and growth and remote sensing techniques have been developed to quantify plant chlorophyll concentration. However, these techniques...
Article
We developed a new approach using a cloud‐based remote sensing and geospatial analysis platform, Google Earth Engine, to quantify temporal changes in river channel location and adjacent riparian vegetation extent and fraction. Our new method uses publicly available 1 m aerial images and eliminates manual processing need by incorporating an automati...
Article
Time series of multi-spectral satellite data are a valuable option for crop-area monitoring, in particular by enabling rapid, accurate, and consistent estimation of crop area. In this study, we demonstrate the use of a turn-key wheat area mapping model using growing season Landsat time-series data to improve the precision of area estimates produced...
Article
The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) is an operational land cover monitoring program providing updated land cover and related information for the United States at five-year intervals. NLCD2016 extends temporal coverage to 15 years (2001–2016). We collected land cover reference data for the 2011 and 2016 nominal dates to report land cover accurac...
Article
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Across South America, the expansion of commodity land uses has underpinned substantial economic development at the expense of natural land cover and associated ecosystem services. Here, we show that such human impact on the continent’s land surface, specifically land use conversion and natural land cover modification, expanded by 268 million hectar...
Article
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Estimates of the area or percent area of the land cover classes within a study region are often based on the reference land cover class labels assigned by analysts interpreting satellite imagery and other ancillary spatial data. Different analysts interpreting the same spatial unit will not always agree on the land cover class label that should be...
Article
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For tropical countries that do not have extensive ground sampling programs such as national forest inventories, the gain-loss approach for greenhouse gas inventories is often used. With the gain-loss approach, emissions and removals are estimated as the product of activity data defined as the areas of human-caused emissions and removals and emissio...
Article
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Global surface water extent is changing due to natural processes as well as anthropogenic drivers such as reservoir construction and conversion of wetlands to agriculture. However, the extent and change of global inland surface water are not well quantified. To address this, we classified land and water in all 3.4 million Landsat 5, 7, and 8 scenes...
Article
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ContextLandscape ecologists often use thematic map data in their research. Greater familiarity with thematic map accuracy assessment protocols will enhance appropriate use and interpretation of map quality data.Objectives Provide an overview of thematic map accuracy assessment protocols and simple, non-quantitative guidelines to assess the quality...
Article
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The 2016 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) product suite (available on www.mrlc.gov), includes Landsat-based, 30 m resolution products over the conterminous (CONUS) United States (U.S.) for land cover, urban imperviousness, and tree, shrub, herbaceous and bare ground fractional percentages. The release of NLCD 2016 provides important new informat...
Article
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From 1971 to 2012, in New York State, years with human Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) were more strongly associated with the presence of Aedes canadensis , Coquillettidia perturbans and Culiseta melanura mosquitoes infected with the EEE virus (Fisher's exact test, one-sided P = 0.005, 0.03, 0.03) than with Culiseta morsitans , Aedes vexans , Cul...
Article
Studies integrating mangrove in-situ observations and remote sensing analysis for specific sites often lack precise estimates of carbon stocks over time frames that include disturbance events. This study quantifies change in mangrove area from 1985 to 2018 with Landsat time series analysis, estimates above and belowground stored carbon using field...
Article
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Tropical forest fragmentation results in habitat and biodiversity loss and increased carbon emissions. Here, we link an increased likelihood of tropical forest loss to decreasing fragment size, particularly in primary forests. The relationship holds for protected areas, albeit with half the rate of loss compared with all fragments. The fact that di...
Article
The emergence of high-resolution land cover data has created the opportunity to assess the accuracy of impervious cover (IC) provided by the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). We assessed the accuracy of the 900 m² NLCD2011 %IC for 18 metropolitan areas throughout the conterminous United States using reference data from 1 m² land cover data devel...
Article
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Shifting cultivation has been shown to be the primary cause of land use change in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Traditionally, forested and fallow land are rotated in a slash and burn cycle that has created an agricultural mosaic, including secondary forest, known as the rural complex. This study investigates the land use context of new f...
Article
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The Bago Mountain Range in Myanmar is known as the “home of teak” (Tectona grandis L. f.) because of its bountiful, naturally growing teak-bearing forests. Accelerating forest loss and degradation are threatening the sustainable production of teak in the region. Changes in land cover between 2000 and 2017 in four reserved forests of the Bago Mounta...
Article
Accuracy assessment and land cover mapping have been inexorably linked throughout the first 50 years of publication of Remote Sensing of Environment. The earliest developers of land-cover maps recognized the importance of evaluating the quality of their maps, and the methods and reporting format of these early accuracy assessments included features...
Preprint
Full-text available
Growing demands for temporally specific information on land surface change are fueling a new generation of maps and statistics that can contribute to understanding geographic and temporal patterns of change across large regions, provide input into a wide range of environmental modeling studies, clarify the drivers of change, and provide more timely...
Article
The U.S. Geological Survey Land Change Monitoring, Assessment and Projection (USGS LCMAP) initiative is working toward a comprehensive capability to characterize land cover and land cover change using dense Landsat time series data. A suite of products including annual land cover maps and annual land cover change maps will be produced using the Lan...
Article
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2019): Contrasting tree-cover loss and subsequent land cover in two neotropical forest regions: sample-based assessment of the Mexican Yucatán and Argentine Chaco, Journal of Land Use Science To link to this article: https://doi. ABSTRACT The neotropical-forest's northern and southern extremes, covering the Mexican Yucatán and the Argentine Chaco,...
Article
Guyana is a high forest cover, low deforestation country. Since 2011–2014 the Guyana Forestry Commission (GFC) has used visual interpretation of 5 m resolution RapidEye imagery to map forest loss and nearby degradation for the entire country. According to the GFC produced national map, 58% of all forest loss events cover less than 1 ha, so forest l...
Article
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Brazil has become a global leader in the production of commodity row crops such as soybean, sugarcane, cotton, and corn. Here, we report an increase in Brazilian cropland extent from 26.0 Mha in 2000 to 46.1 Mha in 2014. The states of Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, Bahia (collectively MATOPIBA), Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Pará all more than...
Article
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The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) contains three eras (2001, 2006, 2011) of percentage urban impervious cover (%IC) at the native pixel size (30 m-×-30 m) of the Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite. These data are potentially valuable to environmental managers and stakeholders because of the utility of %IC as an indicator of watershed and aquat...
Article
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In this Letter, errors in Supplementary Table 1 have been corrected.
Article
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A regional assessment of forest disturbance dynamics from 2000 to 2014 was performed for the Congo Basin countries using time-series satellite data. Area of forest loss was estimated and disaggregated by predisturbance forest type and direct disturbance driver. An estimated 84% of forest disturbance area in the region is due to small-scale, nonmech...
Article
The gain-loss approach for greenhouse gas inventories requires estimates of areas of human activity and estimates of emissions per unit area for each activity. Stratified sampling and estimation have emerged as a popular and useful statistical approach for estimation of activity areas. With this approach, a map depicting classes of activity is used...
Article
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Land change is a cause and consequence of global environmental change1,2. Changes in land use and land cover considerably alter the Earth's energy balance and biogeochemical cycles, which contributes to climate change and-in turn-affects land surface properties and the provision of ecosystem services1-4. However, quantification of global land chang...
Article
Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) offers a potentially inexpensive source of reference data for estimating area and assessing map accuracy in the context of remote-sensing based land-cover monitoring. The quality of observations from VGI and the typical lack of an underlying probability sampling design raise concerns regarding use of VGI in...
Article
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While publicly available, cost-free coarse and medium spatial resolution satellite data such as MODIS and Landsat perform well in characterizing industrial cropping systems, commercial high spatial resolution satellite data are often preferred alternative for fine scale land tenure agricultural systems such as found in Pakistan. In this article, we...
Article
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Research on spatial non-stationarity of land-cover classification accuracy has been ongoing for over two decades with most of the work focusing on single date maps. We extend the understanding of thematic map accuracy spatial patterns by: (1) quantifying spatial patterns of map-reference agreement for class-specific land-cover change rather than cl...
Article
Quantifying change in urban land provides important information to create empirical models examining the effects of human land use. Maps of developed land from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of the conterminous United States include rural roads in the developed land class and therefore overestimate the amount of urban land. To better map t...
Article
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The rural complex is the inhabited agricultural land cover mosaic found along the network of rivers and roads in the forest of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is a product of traditional small-holder shifting cultivation. To date, thanks to its distinction from primary forest, this area has been mapped as relatively homogenous, leaving the pro...
Article
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Forest disturbance and human encroachment have the potential to influence intestinal parasite communities in animal hosts by modifying nutritional health, physiological stress, host densities, contact rates, and ranging patterns. Anthropogenic disturbances also have the ability to affect the ecological landscape of parasitic disease, potentially im...
Article
The ever-increasing volume and accessibility of remote sensing data has spawned many alternative approaches for mapping important environmental features and processes. For example, there are several viable but highly varied strategies for using time series of Landsat imagery to detect changes in forest cover. Performance among algorithms varies acr...
Article
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Statistical estimation protocols are one of the key means to ensure that independent and objective information on product accuracy is communicated to end-users. Methods for validating burned area products have been developed based on a probability sample of a space by time partitioning of the population. We extend this basic methodology to improve...
Article
Fig. 1. Overall flowchart of a multi-resolution approach for national-scale soybean area estimation in US and Argentina.
Article
Bare ground gain, or vegetative cover loss, is an important component of global land cover change resulting from economic drivers such as urbanization and resource extraction. In this study, we characterized global bare ground gain from Landsat time series. The maps were then used to stratify the globe in creating a sample-based estimate of global...
Article
Full-text available
Deforestation rates in primary humid tropical forests of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) have declined significantly since the early 2000s. Brazil’s national forest monitoring system provides extensive information for the BLA but lacks independent validation and systematic coverage outside of primary forests. We use a sample-based approach to cons...
Article
Full-text available
Disturbance is a critical ecological process in forested systems, and disturbance maps are important for understanding forest dynamics. Landsat data are a key remote sensing dataset for monitoring forest disturbance and there recently has been major growth in the development of disturbance mapping algorithms. Many of these algorithms take advantage...