Stephen Thomas Russell

Stephen Thomas Russell
University of Texas at Austin | UT · Department of Human Development and Family Sciences

PhD

About

239
Publications
81,394
Reads
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Introduction
Stephen Thomas Russell currently works at the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, University of Texas at Austin. Stephen does research in Educational Policy, Secondary Education and Community Psychology.
Additional affiliations
August 2015 - present
University of Texas at Austin
Position
  • Priscilla Pond Flawn Regents Professor in Child Development
July 2004 - August 2015
The University of Arizona
Position
  • Distinguished Professor, Fitch Nesbitt Endowed Chair
February 1999 - July 2004
University of California, Davis
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (239)
Article
Purpose: This study examined the health profile of a national probability sample of three cohorts of sexual minority people, and the ways that indicators of health vary among sexual minority people across age cohorts and other defining sociodemographic characteristics, including sexual identity, gender identity, and race/ethnicity. Methods: The Gen...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Limited research assesses how sexual orientation and gender identity and expression (SOGIE)-based discrimination affects alcohol use above and beyond non-SOGIE-related discrimination and how this may differ for sexual minority subgroups. We examined if SOGIE-related discrimination is additive in affecting alcohol use above and beyond non...
Article
Parenthood is an aspiration shared by a majority of U.S. adults. However, previous research has found that sexual minority adults (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual [LGB]) are less likely than heterosexual counterparts to be parents or desire to become parents in the future. To date, few studies have examined how minority stress (i.e., everyday discrimi...
Article
Purpose Research has identified persistent disparities in alcohol, e-cigarette, and marijuana use, by sexual orientation, gender identity, and race/ethnicity. Using an intersectionality framework, the present study analyzes three large datasets to identify intersecting social positions bearing the highest burden of substance use. Methods Data from...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the extent to which social stress stemming from a stigmatized social status (i.e., minority stress) was associated with three domains of health in younger as compared with older age cohorts of sexual minority individuals. Data were analyzed from the Generations Study, a longitudinal study using a probability sample ( N = 1518) o...
Article
Three models of recalled childhood gender nonconformity (GNC) and maltreatment are proposed to explain disparities in current psychological distress and lifetime suicidality among sexual minority individuals, using a United States probability sample of cisgender lesbian/gay (n = 701), bisexual (n = 606), and other (e.g., queer, n = 182) adults. Ind...
Article
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Recently, schools have focused on supportive (e.g., behavioral supports) rather than punitive (e.g., suspension) strategies to reduce school pushout among marginalized youth. We examined the association between suspension and discipline practices for students with intersecting identities (e.g., LGBT youth of color). We used teacher and student data...
Article
Purpose The purpose of the study is to establish prospective relationships among school mean levels of substance use, developmental risk and resilience factors, and school discipline. Methods We linked 2003–2014 data from the California Healthy Kids Survey and the Civil Rights Data Collection, from more than 4,800 schools and 4,950,000 students. W...
Article
Importance: Homophobic bullying-which is motivated by actual or perceived sexual orientation-is a common experience among youth and is more strongly associated with adverse outcomes than bullying unrelated to bias. Yet current approaches to reducing homophobic bullying either lack empirical evidence or encounter significant obstacles. Thus, the fi...
Article
Schools are often unsafe for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) students; they frequently experience negative or hostile school climates, including bullying and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity at school. Negative school climates and discriminatory experiences can threaten LGBTQ student...
Article
Encouraging bystander intervention is an effective strategy to prevent episodes of bullying victimization at school. Yet there remains a paucity of evidence on this behavior in situations of homophobic name-calling, a form of peer victimization aimed at mocking individuals based on their actual or perceived sexual orientation. The existing research...
Article
Professional development training for school personnel on issues related to sexual and gender identity (i.e., SOGI training) is a school strategy designed to prevent health and educational disparities for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth at school. Yet we know surprisingly little about how the presence of this practice at school...
Article
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Sexual minority youth (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth; LGB) of color have multiple minoritized identities, and few studies examine the implications of intersectional minority stressors for their prospective mental health. The current study tested three intersectional hypotheses: the additive hypothesis—racial discrimination and LGB victimiz...
Article
Purpose: We describe the timing of suicidality across the life span in three cohorts of sexual minority adults. We hypothesized that suicide attempts coincide with the coming out period and that younger sexual minority people, who grew up in more accepting social environments, will have lower prevalence of suicide attempts than older generations....
Article
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Victimization is a well-established driver of sexual minority youth’s (SMY) mental health and substance use risk. The current study examined and extended this research by exploring how victimization, cybervictimization, and non-parental supportive adults contribute to SMY’s vulnerability to poor mental health and substance use. Using data from the...
Article
Background School assets—such as connectedness, caring relationships with adults, high behavioral expectations from adults, and meaningful participation—are associated with positive outcomes for adolescents. However, little is known about how school assets differ among adolescents with intersecting marginalized identities. Methods We used the 2013...
Article
Disclosing a sexual minority (e.g., lesbian, gay, or bisexual) identity to others is an ongoing process throughout life. Research shows that disclosure is stressful, and this stress is related to poorer mental health for sexual minority youth. However, there are few theoretically grounded studies examining disclosure stress and its prospective asso...
Chapter
Although most lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youths are quite resilient and emerge from adolescence as healthy adults, the effects of stigma and heterosexism can contribute to health disparities. Part 2 of this first-of-its-kind 3-part series can help pediatric primary care providers become stronger allies for TGD patients and...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual minority youth experience a variety of challenges that are further exacerbated by intersectionality and interactions with various educators. Using a directed form of empirical, qualitative research, the authors explored the retrospective school experiences (as part of life stories) of three cohorts of sexual minorities (Stonewall Generation,...
Article
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During the past 50 years, there have been marked improvement in the social and legal environment of sexual minorities in the United States. Minority stress theory predicts that health of sexual minorities is predicated on the social environment. As the social environment improves, exposure to stress would decline and health outcomes would improve....
Chapter
Part 1 of this first-of-its-kind 3-part series can help show how to break down the cycles of ignorance, shame, and toxic stress that harm children who identify as LGBTQ+ and improve their chances of leading happy, healthy adult lives. https://shop.aap.org/pediatric-collections-lgbtq-support-and-care-part-1-combatting-stigma-and-discrimination/
Article
School climate is an important construct in research on adolescents. Yet, no known studies have evaluated whether the measured school climate constructs are equivalent across lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning (LGBTQ), and heterosexual students as well as sex and grade levels. This study assessed measurement equivalence of a second-or...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) in schools has been linked to low rates of bullying for lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning (LGBQ), transgender, and all students. However, little is known about how the heterogeneity in GSA functioning and school climates may affect these rates. This study examines whether a well-functioning GSA would...
Article
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The focus of the phenomenological qualitative study was on the lived experiences of U.S. educators who identified as lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB). Life story data regarding stress, coping, and identity were gathered, triangulated, and analyzed from 24 U.S. educators who identified as LGB teachers, mentors, and coaches. Four themes resulted: (a)...
Article
Purpose Despite well-established substance use disparities between sexual and gender minority adolescents and their heterosexual, cisgender peers, there remain questions about whether there are developmental differences in the onset and progression of these disparities across adolescence. These perspectives are critical for prevention efforts. We t...
Article
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Introduction Sexual minority individuals (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual people) face sexual health inequalities related to their experiences with providers in sexual health care settings, yet few prior studies have focused on these experiences. Methods Thematic content analysis was used to analyze qualitative interviews with a diverse sample of 58...
Article
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Purpose: To synthesize the diverse body of literature on sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) and sexual health education. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of the literature on SGMY and sexual health education, including SGMY perspectives on sexual health education, the acceptability or effectiveness of programs designed for SGMY, an...
Article
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Objective The study aimed to better understand the complexities of parental responses to coming out in the narratives from Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Queer, Pansexual, or Two‐Spirited (LGBQ+) individuals, and to examine whether those from recent cohorts experience a different parental response than those in older cohorts. Background Sexual minorities...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and same-sex attracted) youth and adults report elevated rates of alcohol use and abuse relative to their heterosexual peers; these differences are strongest for sexual minority girls and women. Although preliminary evidence suggests that unsupportive parenting and maladaptive parent-child relationship quali...
Article
Background: Sexual minority populations in the United States have persistently higher rates of cigarette use than heterosexuals, partially driven by exposure to minority stressors (e.g., discrimination and victimization). Little is known about cigarette use across cohorts of sexual minority adults who came of age in distinctly different sociopolit...
Article
Full-text available
Because sexual minorities are an at-risk population, researchers conducted retrospective life story interviews with 191 sexual minority people comprising participants from a marriage equality cohort, an HIV/AIDS epidemic cohort, and a Stonewall rebellion cohort. The participants were located within 80 miles of four major metropolitan areas in the U...
Article
Utilizing a school-based sample of 895,218 students aged 10–18 years old, we examine differences in students’ school functioning, substance use, and mental health in schools with and without Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs). In addition, we examine whether GSA presence is associated with these outcomes for students of color and LGBTQ students. Overall...
Article
Using data from the first national probability sample of Black, White, and Latinx sexual minority people in the United States, we examined whether and how sexual identity development timing and pacing differs across demographic subgroups at the intersections of cohort, sex, sexual identity, and race/ethnicity. Among a sample of 1,491 participants a...
Preprint
The focus of the phenomenological quality study is on the career development of sexual minority educators. Career decision making among sexual minorities, including those who are educators, is related to personhood. This empirical study explored data from 24 sexual minority educators (teachers, mentors, and coaches) to explore career development an...
Preprint
Full-text available
The focus of the phenomenological quality study is on the career development of sexual minority educators. Career decision making among sexual minorities, including those who are educators, is related to personhood. This empirical study explored data from 24 sexual minority educators (teachers, mentors, and coaches) to explore career development an...
Article
Full-text available
Scientific evidence regarding sexual minority populations has generally come from studies based on two types of samples: community-derived samples and probability samples. Probability samples are lauded as the gold standard of population research for their ability to represent the population of interest. However, while studies using community sampl...
Article
As a fundamental aspect of the human experience, sexuality is experienced at every stage in the life span. Sexual values, behaviors, and health are important components of individual and family well‐being. Educating about such a fundamental aspect of life is both obvious and crucial. In this article, we consider the potential of sexuality education...
Article
Sexual minority people face greater risk for compromised sexual health than their heterosexual peers, yet school-based sexuality education often excludes them. Little is known about whether or how sexual minority people’s sexuality education experiences have varied across sociohistorical contexts of rapid social change in both sexuality education a...
Article
Genderqueer identities-those that challenge a strict binary between woman and man-are increasingly visible within mainstream culture and psychological research. However, little is known about generational differences in the lived experience of genderqueer people. Inductive thematic analysis of interviews with 30 genderqueer sexual minorities of 3 d...
Preprint
Sexual minority youth (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer) are at-risk student population, and school counselors are responsible for helping them cope in a heterosexist society. This article reports the qualitative findings of a study that examined the process of coping during the school-age years among 81 sexual minority people. Data were collected...
Chapter
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)-parent families are underrepresented in studies of family and parenthood. With the growing visibility of sexual and gender minority lives, there are an unprecedented number of opportunities to examine LGBTQ-parent families with large-scale datasets. Yet, population-based and representative data...
Article
Purpose: Sampling lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people to recruit a national probability sample is challenging for many reasons, including the low base rate of LGB people in the population. To address this challenge, researchers have relied on diverse approaches to sampling LGB people. We aimed to test an innovative method to assemble a U.S. nat...
Article
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Introduction: The aim of the present study is to examine gender identity disparities in different kinds of weight-related health behaviors, including physical activity, participation in physical education at school, and healthy and unhealthy eating habits, and to investigate the relationship between school safety and such behaviors in a sample of...
Article
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LGBTQ youth are at greater risk for compromised health, yet large-scale health promotion programs for LGBTQ young people have been slow to develop. LGBTQ community-based organizations—which provide LGBTQ-focused support and services—have existed for decades, but have not been a focus of the LGBTQ youth health literature. The current study used a co...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine parental responses to transgender and gender nonconforming [TGNC] youths’ gender identities and explore associations of parent support with parental abuse, depressive symptoms, and LGBT-identity disclosure stress. TGNC youth (N = 129), ages 15–21 (M = 18.00, SD = 1.74), completed surveys (2011–2012); experie...
Article
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Although queer identity has been used among sexual minorities for decades, little is known about the population of queer-identified people in the U.S. We compared people who identify as queer (unweighted n = 88; weighted % = 5.8%) with those who identify as lesbian/gay (n = 833; 46.9%), bisexual (n = 493; 40.6%) or other sexual minority identities...
Article
Interviewing is considered a key form of qualitative inquiry in psychology that yields rich data on lived experience and meaning making of life events. Interviews that contain multiple components informed by specific epistemologies have the potential to provide particularly nuanced perspectives on psychological experience. We offer a methodological...
Article
In the United States, sexual minority (SM) status is associated with a number of health disparities. Based on mounting evidence, stigma and discrimination have been cited as key barriers to health equity for this population. We estimated the prevalence of three types of discrimination as a function of age among SM adults from the National Epidemiol...
Article
Full-text available
Heteronormativity, as defined in queer theory, is the presumption and privileging of heterosexuality. Research on how young people make sense of and narrate heteronormativity in their own lives is needed to inform theories of heteronormativity. Using queer and intersectional frameworks, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 sexual and gen...
Article
Chosen name use among transgender youth (youth whose gender identities are different from their sex assigned at birth) can be part of the complex process of aligning gender presentation with gender identity and can promote mental health. However, little is known about the factors that predict whether or not transgender youth have a chosen name and...
Article
Inclusive policies that attend to sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) are associated with more supportive school environments for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. We use the 2013-2015 California Healthy Kids Survey (n = 113,148) matched with principal reports of school policies from the 2014 California School Health P...
Article
Background: Bias-based bullying is associated with negative outcomes for youth, but its contextual predictors are largely unknown. Voter referenda that target lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender groups may be 1 contextual factor contributing to homophobic bullying. Methods: Data come from 14 consecutive waves (2001-2014) of cross-sectional s...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual minority adolescent sexual risk behavior studies often overlook young women, do not consider behavior- and identity-based sexual orientation indicators in combination, and focus mainly on condomless sex. We examined multiple risk behaviors in a large sample of adolescent young men and women using combined behavior- and identity-based indices...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students often experience negative school climates, where they are subjected to bias-based bullying and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. These negative school climates can threaten the health and well-being of LGBTQ students. At the same time, a large and consiste...
Article
Given the pace of social changes, meanings of “family” and what makes a family healthy are changing. How can these changing meanings and understandings contribute to social justice for all families? First, I acknowledge how my personal history has intersected with research I do on youth and families. I define social justice with respect to healthy...
Article
Gay‐Straight Alliances (GSA) and school policies focused on support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning youth may reduce bias‐based bullying and enhance social supports in schools. Using multivariate regression, we tested the relationship between youth reports of the presence of GSAs and LGBTQ‐focused policies, independen...
Article
Background: Using a population-based sample of youth, we examined rates of cigarette use and trends in cigarette use disparities between heterosexual youth and 3 subgroups of sexual minority youth (SMY) (ie, lesbian or gay, bisexual, and unsure) from 2005 to 2015. Methods: Data are from 6 cohorts of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national, bi...
Article
Objective: The aim of the study is to examine the association between victimization and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCB), accounting for other key correlates of UWCB while considering the moderating role of sexual identity and gender. Method: This study used data from the 2017 Texas Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a representative sampl...
Article
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth are suggested to be overrepresented in unstable housing and foster care. In the current study, we assess whether LGBTQ youth are overrepresented in unstable housing and foster care and examine disparities in school functioning, substance use, and mental he...
Article
Background: Preliminary evidence suggests that sexual minority (e.g. lesbian, gay, bisexual, and same-sex attracted) youth are overrepresented in child welfare services. Yet, no study to date has been able to test this hypothesis with national data. Objective: Using a two-study design, we test whether sexual minority youth are overrepresented in...
Article
Few societal attitudes and opinions have changed as quickly as those regarding sexual minority people and rights. In the context of dramatic social change, there have been multiple policy changes toward social inclusion and rights for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people, and perceptions that the sociocultural context for LGB people—perhaps part...
Article
Purpose: To examine standard binge drinking (≥4 drinks for females, ≥5 drinks for males) and high-intensity binge drinking (≥8 drinks for females, ≥10 drinks for males) among heterosexual and sexual minority youth in the US and whether reports of school-based victimization mediate this association. Methods: Survey data are from the 2015 Youth Ri...
Article
Introduction and Aims Sexual identity disparities in smoking behaviours are well established; however, there is limited research on whether these disparities have diminished as the social and political landscape has changed for lesbian, gay and bisexual people. Thus, we examined changes in prevalence and sexual identity disparities in three smoking...
Article
Studies of adults who experienced sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) have documented a range of health risks. To date, there is little research on SOCE among adolescents and no known studies of parents’ role related to SOCE with adolescents. In a cross-sectional study of 245 LGBT White and Latino young adults (ages 21–25), we measured parent-...
Article
Sexual minority (SM) mental health disparities constitute a serious public health concern, and emerging research highlights the role discrimination may have in these health disparities. Among a nationally-representative sample of US adults from the NESARC-III, we conducted time-varying effects models (TVEM) to estimate the age-varying prevalences o...
Article
Full-text available
Research shows that Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are associated with school climate and student well-being, but it is unclear what school characteristics may account for some of these findings. The current study describes characteristics of schools with and without GSAs. Using a population-based sample of 1,360 California public high schools, infe...
Article
Drawing from a person‐environment fit framework, we identified profiles of youth in gay–straight alliances (GSAs) based on the extent to which they received information/resources, socializing/support, and advocacy opportunities in their GSAs and the extent to which this matched what they desired from their GSA along these three functions. Further,...
Article
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The magnitude of gender identity-related disparities in school-based outcomes is unknown because of a lack of representative studies that include measures of gender identity. By utilizing a representative sample generalizable to a broader population, this study elucidates the size of gender identity-related disparities, independent of sexual orient...
Article
We investigated the concurrent and prospective associations between financial stress and drinking during the transition to adulthood in the United States, drawing from two distinct stress and coping perspectives as competing explanations for the direction of associations: the Transactional Model of Stress and the Conservation of Resources (CoR) mod...
Article
Full-text available
The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) has been instrumental in identifying sexual minority youth health disparities. Recent commentary suggested that some Wave 1 youth responders, especially males, intentionally mismarked same-sex attraction and, as a result, published reports of health disparities from these da...
Article
Although studies have shown links between minority stress and mental health (e.g., Meyer, 2003), there is little research explaining this association. Research has suggested that adequate coping skills might protect youth from the negative impact of stress (Compas et al., 2017). Thus, we aimed to examine: 1) whether associations between minority st...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the relation between chosen name use, as a proxy for youths' gender affirmation in various contexts, and mental health among transgender youth. Methods: Data come from a community cohort sample of 129 transgender and gender nonconforming youth from three U.S. cities. We assessed chosen name use across multiple...
Article
The developmental timing of suicide-related disparities between heterosexuals and sexual minorities (i.e., lesbian/gay and bisexual (LGB) people) is an understudied area that has critical prevention implications. In addition to developmentally situated experiences that shape risk for suicidality in the general population, sexual minorities also exp...