Stephen Patterson

Stephen Patterson
St Mary's University, Twickenham · Faculty of Sport, Health and Applied Science

PhD

About

115
Publications
65,159
Reads
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2,102
Citations
Introduction
My research focuses on the adaptation and response to exercise in both elite and the ageing population. Currently investigating the use of blood flow restriction and ischemic preconditioning before and during exercise.
Education
September 2008 - September 2011
Loughborough University
Field of study
  • Sport and Exercise Science

Publications

Publications (115)
Article
Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effectiveness of intermittent lower limb occlusion in augmenting recovery from exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) in physically active males. Design: Randomized controlled trial, double blind. Methods: Sixteen healthy recreationally active male participants were randomly assig...
Article
Background and objective Low-load exercise training with blood flow restriction (BFR) can increase muscle strength and may offer an effective clinical musculoskeletal (MSK) rehabilitation tool. The aim of this review was to systematically analyse the evidence regarding the effectiveness of this novel training modality in clinical MSK rehabilitation...
Article
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Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), which involves intermittent periods of ischemia followed by reperfusion, is an effective clinical intervention that reduces the risk of myocardial injury and confers ischemic tolerance to skeletal muscle. Repeated bouts of IPC have been shown to stimulate long-term changes vascular function, however, it is unclear wh...
Article
Exercise-induced hypoalgesia is characterised by a reduction in pain sensitivity following exercise. Recently, low intensity exercise performed with blood flow restriction has been shown to induce hypoalgesia. The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the mechanisms of exercise-induced hypoalgesia and provide rationale as to why low intensity ex...
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The current manuscript sets out a position stand for blood flow restriction exercise, focusing on the methodology, application and safety of this mode of training. With the emergence of this technique and the wide variety of applications within the literature, the aim of this position stand is to set out a current research informed guide to blood f...
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Muscle wasting is implicated in the pathogenesis of intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICU-AW), affecting 40% of patients and causing long-term physical disability. A repetitive vascular occlusion stimulus (RVOS) limits muscle atrophy in healthy and orthopaedic subjects, thus, we explored its application to ICU patients. Adult multi-organ failu...
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Purpose: To examine the effect of fast- versus slow-speed eccentric-muscle-action resistance training on lower-body strength, vertical jump height, sprint speed, and change-of-direction performance in elite soccer players during a competitive season. Methods: Twenty-two elite soccer players, from a single team, were randomly assigned to groups t...
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Heat-induced hypo-hydration (hyperosmotic hypovolemia) can reduce prolonged skeletal muscle performance; however, the mechanisms are less well understood and the reported effects on all aspects of neuromuscular function and brief maximal contractions are inconsistent. Historically, a 4-6% reduction of body mass has not been considered to impair mus...
Article
Objective: There is a high incidence of concussion and frequent utilization of rapid weight loss (RWL) methods among combat sport athletes, yet the apparent similarity in symptoms experienced as a result of a concussion or RWL has not been investigated. This study surveyed combat sports athletes to investigate the differences in symptom onset and...
Article
INTRODUCTION: During spaceflight missions, astronauts work in an extreme environment with several hazards to physical health and performance. Exposure to microgravity results in remarkable deconditioning of several physiological systems, leading to impaired physical condition and human performance, posing a major risk to overall mission success and...
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During spaceflight missions, astronauts work in an extreme environment with several hazards to physical health and performance. Exposure to microgravity results in remarkable deconditioning of several physiological systems, leading to impaired physical condition and human performance, posing a major risk to overall mission success and crew safety....
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Achieving adequate sleep is considered important for athletic performance and recovery from exercise, yet the sleep monitoring methods applied amongst practitioners within high-performance sport are not well documented. This study aimed to identify the athlete sleep monitoring practices currently being implemented by practitioners working with full...
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Longitudinal changes in anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of International female rugby union players were evaluated across 5-seasons, according to field position. Sixty-eight international female rugby union players from a top 2 ranked international team, undertook anthropometric and physical performance measurements across f...
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Aim: This study examined the effect of aerobic exercise with and without blood flow restriction on exercise-induced hypoalgesia and endogenous opioid and endocannabinoid systems. Methodology: In a randomised crossover design, pain-free individuals performed 20 min of cycling in four experimental trials: 1) Low intensity aerobic exercise (LI-AE)...
Article
Introduction Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a leading cause of disability in the UK Military. Pain and psychological comorbidities have been reported to influence the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Exercise rehabilitation can be monitored using RPE; however, the accuracy of RPE in inpatient CLBP rehabilitation is unknown. Methods A prospecti...
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Objectives This study aimed to evaluate changes in rugby union physical match characteristics across five seasons of International female competition, according to position and opposition quality. Design & Methods Global positional systems and performance analysis data from 78 female rugby union players (minimum of five international appearances)...
Article
Lovegrove, S, Hughes, L, Mansfield, S, Read, P, Price, P, and Patterson, SD. Repetitions in reserve is a reliable tool for prescribing resistance training load. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2021—This study investigated the reliability of repetitions in reserve (RIR) as a method for prescribing resistance training load for the deadlift and be...
Article
Explosive actions are integral to soccer performance and highly influenced by the ability to generate maximal power. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between force-velocity profile, jump performance, acceleration and maximal sprint speed in elite female soccer players. Thirty-nine international female soccer players (24...
Article
Objectives The aim of this investigation was to determine if acute or repeated applications of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) could enhance the recovery process, following exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD). Design Randomized control trial. Methods Twenty-three healthy males were familiarised with the muscle damaging protocol (five sets of 20...
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Context: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) has been shown to improve muscular strength and size better than NMES alone. However, previous studies used varied methodologies not recommended by previous NMES or BFR research. Objective: The present study investigated the acute effects of NMES comb...
Article
Aim: This study aimed to investigate and compare the magnitude of exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) with low intensity blood flow restriction (BFR) resistance exercise (RE) at varying pressures to other intensities of resistance exercise and examine endogenous mechanisms of pain reduction. Methodology: Twelve individuals performed four experime...
Chapter
In the early phases following surgery of the lower limb, patients experience a loss of skeletal muscle and strength which if untreated can have a negative impact on return to normal function. To date, the techniques used in the rehabilitation process may not fully maximise the potential adaptations a patient may achieve due to the levels of loading...
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Background We implemented a blood flow restriction resistance training (BFR-RT) intervention during an 8-week rehabilitation programme in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) patients within a National Health Service setting. Objective To compare the effectiveness of BFR-RT and standard-care traditional heavy-load resistance training (...
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This study investigated the effects of acute oral taurine ingestion on: (1) the power–time relationship using the 3-min all-out test (3MAOT); (2) time to exhaustion (TTE) 5% > critical power (CP) and (3) the estimated time to complete (Tlim) a range of fixed target intensities. Twelve males completed a baseline 3MAOT test on a cycle ergometer. Foll...
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This study systematically reviewed the available scientific evidence pertaining to the acute and chronic changes promoted by aerobic exercise (AE) combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) on neuromuscular, metabolic and hemodynamic variables. PubMed, Web of ScienceTM and Scopus databases were searched for the period from January 2000 to June 2019...
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The current study assessed the effect of anthropometry and physical performance measures on selection in under-20 (U20) Gaelic football players. Fifty-four (n = 54) U20 players (40 elite and 14 sub-elite) were assessed for measures of stature, body mass, sum of 7 skinfolds (SUM), estimated bodyfat percentage (BF%; Withers equation), countermovement...
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Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been suggested as a potential ergogenic aid to improve exercise performance, although controversial findings exist. The controversies may be explained by several factors, including the mode of exercise, the ratio between the magnitude of improvement, or the error of measurement and physiological meaning. However,...
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Purpose This study investigated the effects of a 10-day heat acclimation (HA) programme on the time course of changes in thermoneutral maximal oxygen uptake (\(\dot{V}\)O2max) during and up to 10 days post-HA. Methods Twenty-two male cyclists were assigned to a HA or control (Con) training group following baseline ramp tests of thermoneutral \(\do...
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Full-text available
The current manuscript sets out a series of guidelines for blood flow restriction exercise, focusing on the methodology, application and safety of this mode of training. With the emergence of this technique and the wide variety of applications within the literature, the aim of this review is to set out a current research informed guide to blood flo...
Article
Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) has emerged as a potential non-invasive ergogenic aid to enhance exercise performance. Repeated application of IPC has demonstrated clinical efficacy, therefore our aims were to investigate its effect on endurance cycling performance and muscle efficiency. Twenty participants undertook 7-d repeated bilateral lower li...
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Blood flow restriction (BFR) has been shown to produce beneficial adaptations to skeletal muscle. These adaptations have been documented in the civilian and military populations. BFR therapy may provide patients a safe method to begin strength training at earlier stages of rehabilitation to allow for earlier and more effective return to activity an...
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Background: Forty per cent of critically ill patients are affected by intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW), to which skeletal muscle wasting makes a substantial contribution. This can impair outcomes in hospital, and can cause long-term physical disability after hospital discharge. No effective mitigating strategies have yet been identif...
Article
Objective Examine the comfort and pain experienced with blow flow restriction resistance training (BFR-RT) compared to standard care heavy load resistance training (HL-RT) during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) patient rehabilitation. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting United Kingdom National Health Service. Participant...
Article
Jeffries, O, Simmons, R, Patterson, SD, and Waldron, M. Functional threshold power is not equivalent to lactate parameters in trained cyclists. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Functional threshold power (FTP) is derived from a maximal self-paced 20-minute cycling time trial whereby the average power output is scaled by 95%. However, the ph...
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Previous injury is associated with increased risk of future injury. Residual inter‐limb deficits are a potential contributing factor leading to compensatory movement patterns on return to sport. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of previous severe injury on bilateral ground reaction force asymmetries measured during a countermove...
Article
Waddingham, DP, Millyard, A, Patterson, SD, and Hill, J. Effect of ballistic potentiation protocols on elite sprint swimming: optimizing performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Warming-up before an athletic event is important for performance; however, in some competition scenarios, there is a long wait between completing the warm-up a...
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the primary cues regulating perceived effort and exercise performance using a fixed-RPE protocol in severe and moderate hypoxia. Methods Eight male participants (26 ± 6 years, 76.3 ± 8.6 kg, 178.5 ± 3.6 cm, 51.4 ± 8.0 mL kg− 1 min− 1 𝑉˙ V ˙ O2max) completed three exercise trials in environmental...
Article
Purpose Regulation of power output during cycling encompasses the integration of internal and external demands to maximise performance. However, relatively little is known about variation in power output in response to the external demands of outdoor cycling. We compared mean power output and the magnitude of power output variability and structure...
Article
The validity of the TritonWear ® device to measure swimming performance was investigated, with a pre-determined analytical goal of 6%. Twenty youth swimmers completed a 100 m swim in a 25 m pool, swimming breaststroke or freestyle wearing the TritonWear ® device, whilst being filmed above and below water with three cameras. 95% limits of agreement...
Presentation
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Conference free communications presenting the results of a pilot randomised controlled trial investigating the effects of low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction, versus conventional resistance traiining, on the clinical outcomes of military personnel undergoing in-patient lower-limb rehabilitation.
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Madison, G, Patterson, SD, Read, P, Howe, L, and Waldron, M. Effects of small-sided game variation on changes in hamstring strength. J Strength Cond Res 33(3): 839-845, 2019-Small-sided games (SSGs) are commonly used by soccer practitioners to condition players. This form of exercise can result in fatigue, potentially exposing the muscle to injury...
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Return to play (RTP) criteria and analysis of neuromuscular asymmetries should be evaluated and monitored to prevent high re‐rupture rates in individuals that have undergone ACL reconstruction (ACL‐R). This study investigated asymmetries between two groups of male rugby players (ACL‐R and non‐injured) in bilateral and unilateral countermovement jum...
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Background: There is growing evidence to support the use of low-load blood flow restriction (LL-BFR) exercise in musculoskeletal rehabilitation. Purpose: The purpose of Q11 this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of low-load blood flow restricted (LL-BFR) training versus conventional high mechanical load resistance training (RT) on...
Article
Objectives: To determine the effect of performing depth jumps (DJ) pre-exercise on running economy (RE) and time to exhaustion (TTE) at the speed associated with maximal oxygen uptake (sV˙O2max) in a group of high-performing junior middle-distance runners. Design: Randomized crossover study. Methods: Seventeen national- and international-stand...
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Uddin, N, Jeffries, O, Read, P, Howe, L, Patterson, S, and Waldron, M. Physiological responses to linear and nonlinear soccer-specific match simulations and their effects on lower-limb muscle fatigue. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The aims of this study were to: (a) investigate the effects of linear and nonlinear soccer simulations on lo...
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Purpose of review: The aims of this meta-analysis were to investigate the effects of orally administered isolated taurine on resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in humans. Recent findings: There is growing evidence that taurine deficiency is associated with hypertension and that oral supplementation can have...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week concurrent strength and endurance training programme in comparison to endurance training only on several key determinants of hand cycling performance. Five H4 and five H3 classified hand cyclists with at least one year's hand cycling training history consented to participate i...
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This study investigated the effects of leucine or leucine + glutamine supplementation on recovery from eccentric exercise. In a double-blind independent groups design, 23 men were randomly assigned to a leucine (0.087 g/kg; n = 8), leucine + glutamine (0.087 g/kg + glutamine 0.3 g/kg; n = 8) or placebo (0.3 g/kg maltodextrin; n = 7) group. Particip...
Article
Objectives: To compare the acute perceptual and blood pressure responses to: 1) light load blood flow restriction resistance exercise (BFR-RE) in non-injured individuals and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) patients; and 2) light load BFR-RE and heavy load RE (HL-RE) in ACLR patients. Design: Between-subjects, partially-randomise...
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Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of taurine on repeated sprint exercise, performed after fixed incremental ramp exercise to exhaustion at isokinetic high (90 r/min) or low (50 r/min) cadences. In a double-blind, repeated measures design, nine females completed an incremental ramp test to volitional exhaustion, followed by 2 min active recovery a...
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Background Total arterial occlusive pressure (AOP) is used to prescribe pressures for surgery, blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE) and ischemic preconditioning (IPC). AOP is often measured in a supine position; however, the influence of body position on AOP measurement is unknown and may influence level of occlusion in different positions during...
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Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of local and remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on repeated sprint exercise. Methods: Twelve males (age 22 ± 2 years; stature 1.79±0.07 m; body mass 77.8±8.4 kg; mean ± SD) completed four trials consisting of remote (arm) and local (leg) IPC and SHAM interventions prior to repeated s...
Data
Raw data set for AOP. Raw data for LOP measurement in different body positions.