Stephen Moston

Stephen Moston
Forensii Pty Ltd

BSc Psych., MSc DevPsych., PhD Psych.

About

89
Publications
35,235
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Introduction
Director of Forensii Pty, Australian provider of training legal and forensic psychology. Company specialises in investigative interviewing of suspects and witnesses.

Publications

Publications (89)
Article
Doping in sport is banned under a series of international and national rules. The detection of doping has traditionally been conducted through the analysis of urine and blood samples. This strategy is now widely recognised as having failed, with many doping athletes successfully evading detection. In early 2013 the Australian Crime Commission relea...
Preprint
Full-text available
An introduction to the need for an evidence-based approach to investigative interviewing.
Chapter
This chapter conducts a comparative analysis of Victoria, drawing on open source data. Put simply, the Victorian experience is dramatically different to Queensland. There was a very early law enforcement focus rather than community engagement. Second, there has been consistent concerns with racialized policing. Third, in response to a decade of com...
Chapter
Full-text available
This is the first chapter presenting substantive research findings. The focus is on media depictions of Sudanese Australian humanitarian refugees at the national and state level (Victoria and Queensland), limited to key print media. In broad terms the chapter identifies quite different reporting between the two state media outlets, with the nationa...
Chapter
This chapter continues to document Sudanese Australians’ perceptions, perspectives and experiences of Australian criminal justice. The chapter contains details from a large-scale community survey (n = 390), outlining data collection methods, demographic details of respondents at the respondents’ perceptions, attitudes and experiences regarding crim...
Chapter
This chapter examines data gathered from focus groups conducted with Sudanese Australians. The data is divided into three broad areas: individual and structural post-settlement barriers; Government interventions into family life, and perspectives of Australian criminal justice. Most importantly, the chapter is focused on Sudanese voices—Sudanese Au...
Chapter
This chapter reports on data obtained from the Queensland Police via interviews and focus groups. The key finding is that police believed they were quick to identify a new emergent social group and developed community engagement strategies that ensured any emergent problems were limited. Further, QPS personnel did not believe Sudanese Australians r...
Article
The purpose of the current Special Issue is to bring together new research that exposes the dark side of sport, revealing causes, prevalence, consequences, and solutions for such conduct. We have a longstanding interest in such issues, having spent most of the last ten years studying doping in sport (e.g., Engelberg and Moston 2016a, Engelberg, Mos...
Book
This book explores criminal justice responses to Sudanese Australians, crime and victimization. Based on research in four major Queensland communities, the book uses a multi-faceted research design to capture the ‘voices’ of different interest groups. The book challenges the concept that Sudanese Australian refugees are the criminal ‘other’ that th...
Article
Full-text available
The growing body of literature exploring pet loss suggests that many bereaved pet owners experience disenfranchised grief. Disenfranchised grief occurs when a loss is unacknowledged and the bereaved are unable to express their grief. When grief is considered illegitimate, the bereaved may experience a variety of adverse psychological outcomes, incl...
Chapter
In many countries sport is officially recognized as having an important social function and as a powerful cultural force (e.g., Australian Sports Commission 2012). Through participation in sport people learn attitudes, behaviors and social norms, and while it is commonly assumed that such outcomes will be positive, there is an increasing body of ev...
Article
Coaches may have a significant role in an athlete’s decision to use, or not to use, performance enhancing substances. Research suggests that many coaches do not have the confidence or the knowledge to discuss anti-doping issues with their athletes. This study aimed to assess coaches’ awareness of doping practices, coaches’ knowledge of anti-doping...
Article
Now available on Early Online on journal's website--------------------------------------- https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/VqMSnIHxvT5ybWxUN5ET/full _____________ --------------------------------------------------------------------The WADA Strategic Plan 2015-19 includes as part of its Mission Statement, the aim to develop policies and procedure...
Article
Doping research has predominantly been framed through an ethical lens, implicitly restricted to the realms of elite sport. Despite increasing anecdotal evidence of growing prevalence rates amongst recreational athletes, such as bodybuilders, these populations have largely been neglected within psychological research. This study aims to develop a th...
Article
UPDATE: Published in the February 2018 Special Issue of Sport in Society--- Doping research has predominantly been framed through an ethical lens, implicitly restricted to the realms of elite sport. Despite increasing anecdotal evidence of growing prevalence rates amongst recreational athletes, such as bodybuilders, such populations have largely be...
Article
ARTICLE NOW OUT: International Journal of Sport Communication (not IJSP) DECEMBER 2017------ CONTACT AUTHOR----- terry.engelbergmoston@jcu.edu.au ----- One of the implicit justifications for anti-doping is that athletes are so committed to winning that they will take performance enhancing substances regardless of the apparent consequences. Athle...
Conference Paper
Please see document. Or visit: https://osf.io/view/asbhm2017/
Article
PLEASE CONTACT FIRST AUTHOR FOR COPY Coaches may have a significant role in an athlete’s decision to use, or not to use, performance enhancing substances. Research suggests that many coaches do not have the confidence or the knowledge to discuss anti-doping issues with their athletes. This study aimed to assess coaches’ awareness of doping practic...
Article
Whilst our understanding of the psychological and situational determinants of doping has increased significantly in the last decade, there has been only limited success in translating this vast body of research into an appropriate educational curriculum. A 2014 survey of the literature conducted by the European Commission identified only 17 studies...
Book
Full-text available
now available in hardback and e-book For more information, please contact the authors FROM THE PREFACE In 2014 we conducted a survey of the academic literature in the social sciences (2000-2014) on doping in sport. In total, we identified 529 publications and identified some very clear patterns to the data. Overall, there were lots of papers about...
Chapter
Full-text available
PLEASE CONTACT STEPHEN OR TERRY FOR FULL COPY_________While there is a large body of literature on the attitudes of athletes towards doping in sport, few studies have attempted to directly address knowledge of anti-doping rules and the practice of doping. In the present study a combined sample of 433 participants (288 elite athletes and 145 support...
Article
Published in World Sports Advocate (see http://www.cecileparkmedia.com/world-sports-advocate/article_template.asp?Contents=Yes&from=wslr&ID=1942) This article provides details on their archival study of 100 consecutive sanctioned ADRVs in Australia, 23 cases of which involved claims that the ADRV was accidental or inadvertent. Stephen and Terry...
Technical Report
Funded by an IOC Grant The current anti-doping system is designed to ensure that athletes identified as doping are sanctioned. Claims of accidental or inadvertent doping (with little to no performance-enhancing benefits) are likely to be sanctioned as heavily as cases involving deliberate attempts at cheating. Michele Verroken, former director of...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: In early May 2016, stories of state-run doping during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games were reported in the US media. The stories were largely based on allegations made by Dr Grigory Rodchenkov, former Director of the Moscow and Sochi doping control laboratories, and Russian athlete Yulia Stepanova. Both had described how large numbers...
Chapter
Sexual harassment can evoke highly polarised attitudes. To some it is a serious problem, requiring draconian actions with implications for all personal relationships in the workplace. Yet to others it is an issue that is both trivial and humorous. In this chapter we examine the issue of sexual harassment in sport. To date, there has been limited re...
Chapter
This chapter presents a historical summary of anti-doping policy. For a more detailed analysis of doping, anti-doping policy, deterrence and detection, please refer to Detecting Doping in Sport (Routledge)
Article
Full-text available
An independent World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) report has uncovered allegations of systematic doping in Russian athletics and corruption and cover-ups within world athletics’ governing body, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). The report recommended Russia be banned from athletics. The scandal is likely to prompt further...
Article
Full-text available
It is widely assumed that coaches have an effect on athletes’ doping behaviours; however, the means by which this influence can be manifested are only superficially understood. The present study seeks to understand how coaches see their role in directly and indirectly influencing the doping attitudes and behaviours of athletes. Fourteen elite-level...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated whether monitoring performance against an objective measure eliminated egodepletion and enhanced the accuracy of one’s temporal perception. Two independent variables, depletion level and monitoring status, were manipulated in 83 undergraduates (71% female, median age ¼ 21.2 years), who were then measured for persistence on a se...
Article
For copy of article in SMR visit JCU Research Repository For full copy of the funded research, please contact first author ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Although the use of banned drugs in sport is not a new phenomenon, little is known about the...
Chapter
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Since prevention is the best strategy in the battle against doping, it is of vital importance to assess on one hand the knowledge and attitudes of potential users of banned substances and on the other hand the acquisition of such attitudes along their career. OBJECTIVES: To explore and evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of the use of...
Article
PLEASE NOTE CHANGE OF AFFILIATION for Stephen Moston and Terry Engelberg ABSTRACT Policies to prevent performance-enhancing drug use in sport are implicitly based on a form of deterrence theory, whereby the threat of sanctions deters prohibited behaviour. While deterrents generally fail to deter serious criminal actions, criminological research su...
Article
The article by Petróczi et al. (2015) sets out a call for policy guidance on the misuse of psychometric testing in doping control. While well-intentioned, the article flounders on the question of whether the ‘problem’ actually exists.
Research
Full-text available
Brief overview of the forthcoming book on detecting doping
Research
PLEASE CONTACT Terry Engelberg or Stephen Moston for A FULL copy of the report or for the Executive Summary This new international review highlights gaps in the current anti-doping knowledge base, and the potential for social science research to inform anti-doping interventions such as education and deterrence. The review also explores the potentia...
Article
Please see updated affiliation details. Contact either author for a full copy. Note change of affiliation terry.engelbergmoston@jcu.edu.au
Chapter
In the first 3 chapters of this literature review, we introduce the project, the methodology and an overview of the publication trends in the (international) social science literature on anti-doping.
Article
Objectives: Surveys of the perceived incidence of doping in sport suggest that such behaviour is relatively common. Perceptions may potentially be of greater significance than actual incidence: athletes who believe that other athletes are doping may be more likely to engage in such practices, potentially creating a damaging self-fulfilling prophecy...
Book
Call for academics and police officers to join an international collaborative research project "We don't interrogate any more, we interview ". In the last 25 years our understanding of how to question suspects in criminal investigations has grown from a handful of how-to manuals, a few government reports, and a scientific literature that could be...
Technical Report
The Executive Summary and individual chapters are now available on RG or on request. Please contact Terry Engelberg. Please discard previous versions. (Update on 22 November 2018)
Chapter
Full-text available
The need to establish an organisation focused on the anti-doping agenda was brought on by a series of high-profile doping issues in the late 1990s (Houlihan, 2004). Issues included the alleged cover-ups in the 1996 Atlanta Olympics and the high profile doping cases of the 1998 Tour de France (Waddington, 2000), both were seen to be a catalyst for t...
Chapter
One of the most widely studied areas in anti-doping research is the identification of demographic and psychological characteristics that might predict why some athletes dope (Gucciardi, Jalleh, & Donovan, 2011; Wiefferink, Detmar, Coumans, Vogels, & Paulussen, 2008). Research often parallels studies in areas of health research, such as smoking or a...
Article
Full-text available
-A new study shows that Australian athletes as young as 12 years of age are doping- ARTICLE: For those of us who like to read our newspapers from the back pages first, the endless succession of stories of doping by elite athletes has almost lost the power to shock. The motives of elite athletes for doping are generally easy to understand: fame, fo...
Article
Full-text available
CONTACT FIRST AUTHOR FOR COPY--------- Doping control statistics suggest that only 1–2% of athletes are doping. However, studies of the perceived incidence of doping suggest that athletes believe that doping may be far more prevalent. Perceptions may potentially be of greater significance than actual incidence: athletes who believe that other athle...
Technical Report
Contact Terry Engelberg for full copy--------------------------------------- Despite widespread recognition that prevention, rather than detection, remains the best strategy for eliminating drug use in sport, anti-doping research has typically studied only elite adult athletes. The importance of studying young athletes has been highlighted by the f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Since prevention is the best strategy in the battle against doping, it is of vital importance to assess on one hand the knowledge and attitudes of potential users of banned substances and on the other hand the acquisition of such attitudes along their career. This study arises from the request of collaboration made by the Griffith Unive...
Conference Paper
UPDATED ABSTRACT AVAILABLE------Background: Anti-doping research has typically only studied elite adult athletes. However, there is evidence that athletes as young as 12 years of age use performance enhancing drugs (PEDs), and that such use has increased in the past decade. Whilst it is acknowledged that both internal (e.g., psychological) and exte...
Article
Full-text available
Policing organisations across the developed world increasingly need language interpreters to communicate with non-native speaking people. Little research has investigated police perceptions of using interpreter services, despite their growing need, documented concerns and lack of a widely accepted best practice. A survey of 413 police officers docu...
Chapter
Discusses the potential role of investigative interviewing in the detection of doping violations. Highlights problems with the 'harm minimization' solution to doping control.
Article
Full-text available
The need for anti-doping investigations to adopt police investigative protocols was recently advocated by the World Anti-Doping Agency. In their response to the ACC report, Minister for Justice Jason Clare and Minister for Sport Kate Lundy detailed new legislation to strengthen the Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority’s (ASADA) investigative pow...
Article
Full-text available
It is a popular fallacy, known as the “CSI effect”, that most criminal investigations are solved through the use of scientifically verifiable evidence (such as fingerprints or DNA). In reality, the majority of cases are solved through evidence obtained during interviews with witnesses, or from suspects via confessions. Last year, the World Anti-Dop...
Technical Report
Updated report available on request- with corrections- this replaces the report available at the WADA website.
Article
CONTACT STEPHEN OR TERRY FOR COPY AND OTHER INFORMATION ABOUT THE STUDY------------------------------------------------------------------------------ In the last few years, a large number of cases have come to light in which celebrated individuals, and even whole teams, have been found to have used either banned performance enhancing or ‘recreation...
Chapter
This chapter examines the role of the media, in the forms of television and newspapers, in influencing understanding of crime, and the consequential impact on public policy. The ways in which the CSI Effect distorts the criminal justice system is discussed. A extensive research case study surrounding the media treatment of Sudanese Australians from...
Article
PLEASE CONTACT FIRST AUTHOR FOR COPY Aims: An implicit rationale for anti-doping legislation is that doping damages the public image of sport and that this, in turn, has serious consequences for the sporting industry. However, there is scant evidence that doping impacts on public opinion, and even less so that it has dire consequences for sports co...
Article
Research suggests just over half of all suspects interviewed inside a police station will either confess or make damaging admissions. Surprisingly, police interviewing tactics appear to have only a limited effect on the decision making of suspects. Instead, the strongest predictor of a confession is the strength of evidence against the accused. Thi...
Article
Purpose – In the last decade, Australia has seen a series of high‐profile criminal cases come under court and public scrutiny due to improper interviewing practices, prompting a need to review and revise training in interviewing skills. This pattern echoes that seen in the UK in the 1970s and 1980s. What followed in the UK was a plethora of researc...
Conference Paper
People tend to exhibit social discriminating behaviours such as in-group favouritism and out-group derogation when tasked to allocate positive stimuli such as money to either in-group or out-group members. The present study sought to demonstrate that groups exhibited in-group favouritism when negative stimuli such as sanctions were allocated in a s...
Article
Despite the popular perception that criminal investigations are often solved through the collection of objective or scientific evidence, most cases submitted for prosecution rely on confessions by suspects. Surprisingly, very little is known about which techniques are effective at eliciting admissions from guilty suspects, and in turn, which might...
Conference Paper
This paper principally reports the first phase of a three-phase research program investigating policies and procedures intended to eradicate sexual harassment within Australian sporting organisations. This first phase is concerned with how sexual harassment is defined, and thus legislated against, by Australian sporting bodies. The second phase exa...
Book
NEW EDITION COMING OUT SOON: For more information, please contact the authors Despite the highly publicised legal battles of recent years, there is still little public agreement on what kinds of behaviour constitute sexual harassment. Some managers refuse to accept that it could occur in their own organisations, or even that sexual harassment exis...
Article
Published in HR MONTHLY ABSTRACT Our legal definitions of sexual harassment leave something to be desired, making measuring its incidence extremely difficult. Sexual harassment is recognised as a significant problem in many organisations, although until recently it was invisible or had been dismissed as a personal problem for those involved.
Chapter
Although sexual harassment is being recognized as a problem with serious negative consequences for organizations, there is still no agreed consensus as to how to define it. Organizations and regulatory agencies currently employ a variety of definitions which hinder the systematic assessment of the incidence of the problem across both organizations...
Chapter
(from the chapter) [describe] the persuasive strategies used by police interviewers when questioning suspects who have made an initial denial / the term "feedback" is used to describe the subsequent strategies adopted by the police officers (chapter) false confessions / why do suspects confess / feedback in the absence of evidence / the use of evid...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a study of more than 1000 interrogations by Metropolitan Police Officers. Obtaining a confession is found to be the paramount reason for interviewing a suspect. However, few suspects who did not initially confess changed their minds during the interview. 42% of suspects admitted their guilt—about the same number as obtained before tape...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes some of the basic questioning techniques employed in contemporary tape recorded interviews of suspects in criminal investigations. First it shows how detectives attempt to question for information and/or confessions. Two basic questioning strategies are identified, in which the aim is either to gather information or a confessio...
Article
This paper discusses some of the apparent changes in interrogations following the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 and the introduction of tape recorders into police stations. These reforms are believed to have had several marked effects on interrogations. For example, the use of persuasive questioning is believed to have declined, as has the...
Article
Investigates the use of the right to silence (RTS) by suspects in the context of police interrogation and its effect on the decision to prosecute and on trial outcome. Data were gathered from 1,067 police interviews from 9 London police stations. Suspects exercised their RTS in 174 cases. Of these 174 cases, 111 were charged. A matched comparison o...
Article
Reviews research involving the examination of tape-recorded Criminal Investigation Department officer crime interviews held in 10 Metropolitan Police stations to determine police officers' views and judgments of guilt of Ss and the purpose of interviewing, as well as assessing factors affecting the outcome of interviews and the behavior of officers...
Chapter
(from the chapter) report an investigation of the use of silence in the context of police interrogation / examine how frequently and by whom the right to silence is exercised / examine the interaction between police officers and suspects when silence is employed / examine how the use of silence affects the decision by police to charge a suspect / a...
Article
Full-text available
Presents a model to illustrate how characteristics of a suspect and case have a bearing on interviewing styles and on suspect behavior. A sample of 1,067 cases from 9 police stations was used to determine a link between case characteristics and the behavior of suspects and which characteristics are associated with admissions and denials. Three case...
Article
Child witnesses often give only short accounts of witnessed events. Part of the reason for this failing centres on the stress present during an interview. The most obvious means of reducing stress in children, through the provision of social support, has typically been neglected in eyewitness research, presumably because of fears over children's ex...
Chapter
(from the introduction) analyze police interviews with suspects / findings show that police interview behavior can be predicted partly by case characteristics / in serious cases and those with weak evidence, detectives favor information-gathering strategies; while, in less serious cases and those with strong evidence, more confrontational strategie...
Article
Full-text available
Eyewitness researchers have long argued that children's testimony is unreliable because of their excessive suggestibility. The present study is an examination of two factors thought to explain some of the apparent suggestibility of children: (1) the emphasis placed on giving a classifiable answer to every question asked; (2) the effects of repeated...
Article
Full-text available
describes a series of three studies / each investigates the effects of social support, as provided by peers, on children's free-recall descriptions of witnessed events / study 1 assesses the effects of peer presence on children's recall of a witnessed event / support in study 2 is provided by peers who have discussed the event with a witness / stud...

Projects

Projects (6)
Project
Forensic Update is a weekly newsletter produced by Forensii (www.forensii.com) featuring links to key news stories and research reports. Some of the stories/reports are also discussed in the Forensii Science of Investigative Interviewing Blog (https://www.forensii.com/blog).
Project
Dr Stephen Moston started the Science of Investigative Interviewing Blog in January 2021 to promote the scientific evidence-base on investigative interviewing, and to counter the proliferation of pseudoscientific training and operational practices. The ongoing mission is to give investigators actionable information that they can apply to interviews with witnesses and suspects to ensure statements are accurate and complete.