Stephen Marsh

Stephen Marsh
Ontario Tech University | UOIT · Faculty of Business and Information Technology

PhD, Computing Science, University of Stirling

About

111
Publications
28,258
Reads
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3,045
Citations
Introduction
Steve currently works at the Faculty of Business and Information Technology, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, where he is the Associate Professor of Trust Systems. He asks questions around artificial Trust, Wisdom, Computer Security and Reliability, Artificial Intelligence and Information Systems. His current project is 'Computational Wisdom.' He’s played withe the auto-introduction ResearchGate made him but thinks it probably needs a bit more work...
Additional affiliations
July 2019 - present
Ontario Tech University
Position
  • Associate Preofessor of Trust Systems
July 2012 - July 2019
Ontario Tech University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
April 2009 - July 2012
Communications Research Centre Canada
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (111)
Article
Full-text available
The trustworthiness (or otherwise) of AI has been much in discussion of late, not least because of the recent publication of the EU Guidelines for Trustworthy AI. Discussions range from how we might make people trust AI to AI being not possible to trust, with many points inbetween. In this article, we question whether or not these discussions somew...
Chapter
The ongoing demand for new and faster technologies continues to leave consumers and business users to face the constant challenge of updating systems and software. This unrelenting pace of technological evolution has not always been matched with a commensurate focus on security and privacy matters. In particular, the obligatory move to embrace clou...
Article
bold xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">The observation that the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted workplace relationships and working practices is trite; it is nonetheless true. One significant change has been that the massive increase in call-center employment in the past 20 years has been mir...
Article
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The transition of energy grids toward future smart grids is challenging in every way: politically, economically, legally, and technically. While many aspects progress at a velocity unthinkable a generation ago, one aspect remained mostly dormant: human electricity consumers. The involvement of consumers thus far can be summarized by two questions:...
Article
Full-text available
This brief paper is about trust. It explores the phenomenon from various angles, with the implicit assumptions that trust can be measured in some ways, that trust can be compared and rated, and that trust is of worth when we consider entities from data, through artificial intelligences, to humans, with side trips along the way to animals. It explor...
Article
The articles in this special section examines ethical issues and system design considerations with new and evolving human-computer interaction (HCI). Contemporary and emerging digital technologies are leading us to question the ways in which humans interact with machines and with complex socio-technical systems. The new dynamics of technology and h...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this work in progress paper, we present a description of a new view of privacy in public, examining how it is possible to ascertain the privacy levels of individuals in context and in groups, and different ways of visualising these Public Privacy levels. We examine how awareness of one’s Public Privacy may have an impact on behaviour and privacy...
Chapter
Information has been an essential element in the development of collaborative and cooperative models. From decision making to the attainment of varying goals, people have been relatively adept at making judgments about the trustworthiness of information, based on knowledge and understanding of a normative model of information. However, recent event...
Presentation
Full-text available
An exploration of how we might want society to look like if supported by tolerant, accepting, diversity-respecting technologies (and how, what we are doing in our current and past work, might contribute). Includes the design of a perfect goat. This started out as an exploration of diversity in self adaptive and self organizing systems, then it morp...
Article
In human society, individuals have long voluntarily organized themselves in groups, which embody, provide and/or facilitate a range of different social concepts, such as governance, justice, or mutual aid. These social groups vary in form, size, and permanence, but in different ways provide benefits to their members. In turn, members of these group...
Conference Paper
Self-trust is overlooked in trust research. However, self-trust is crucial to a learner’s success in a digital learning space. In this paper, we review self-trust and the notion of self-efficacy used by the education researchers. We claim self-efficacy is self-trust. We then explore what self-trust and its expression means to one group of learners...
Presentation
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A lecture, examining Device Comfort and its potential applications.
Presentation
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A brief journey into the idea of slow comppuitng, how it contributes to the idea of Computational Wisdom, and how the two can be allied, together with Device Comfort, in different avenues to help people. Includes a jump into Fake News and a very brief overview of where we’re going to address it
Presentation
Full-text available
A brief lecture, containing an overview and exploration of how trust, regret and forgiveness can be used (iwith some semi-formal thoughts) in information systems, CS, information science.
Conference Paper
User-contributed content on the Internet has been growing at an extraordinary pace. Ranking vast amounts of such content, such as digital photographs, is handled well through user-driven ranking. It helps speeding up the ranking process while reflecting the opinions of the community. However, user-driven ranking can be often subjective and difficul...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores how the very human notion of Wisdom can be incorporated in the different behvaiour and ultimately reasonings of our computational systems. In particular, it extends and combines previous work in the areas of Computational Trust, Socially Adept Technologies, Device Comfort and the more recent notion of {\it Slow Computing} that w...
Conference Paper
We are often presented with policy terms that we agree with but are unable to gauge our personal perceptions (e.g., in terms of associated risks) of those terms. In some cases, although partial agreement is acceptable (e.g., allowing a mobile application to access specific resources), one is unable to quantify, even in relative terms, perceptions s...
Conference Paper
The use of information systems in the health care area, specifically in Mobile health care, can result in delivering high quality and efficient patient care. At the same time, using electronic systems for sharing information contributes to some challenges regarding privacy and access control. Despite the importance of this issue, there is a lack of...
Chapter
We claim that the wider trust research area (academics and industry practitioners) strive to develop systems that are both trustworthy and foster trust. Evaluation methods follow this pursuit and measure for the presence of trust. However, if considered from a user’s perspective and if a digital environment is instead designed to empower users abou...
Article
This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 15482 "Social Concepts in Self-organising Systems". The seminar brought together researchers from computer sciences (in particular from the fields of multi-agent systems and self-organisation) and from social sciences to discuss the impact of the use of social concepts in techni...
Conference Paper
Our aim is to know more about the content of a message that is trusted in order to create template messages that users can configure within a system we are designing. To this end, we examine messages that have been forwarded within the social network Twitter in the context of health and fitness. Using content analysis we divide the messages into 3...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Trust is essential to the success of the social networks that are aggregating and applying masses of information about us. In this position paper, we argue that a critical approach to exploring trust and social networks is required; this entails genuinely working in the interests of users and acknowledging the power relations and wider social conte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Opinions from people, evident in surveys and microblogging, for instance, may have bias or low user participation due to legitimate concerns about privacy and anonymity. To provide sender (the participant) anonymity, the identity of the message sender must be hidden from the message recipient (the opinion collector) and the contents of the actual m...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th IFIP WG 11.11 International Conference on Trust Management, IFIPTM 2015, held in Hamburg, Germany, in May 2015. The 10 revised full papers and 5 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 28 submissions. In addition, the book contains one invited paper and 5 papers from...
Article
Full-text available
In competitive electronic marketplaces where some selling agents may be dishonest and quality products offered by good sellers are limited, selecting the most profitable sellers as transaction partners is challenging, especially when buying agents lack personal experience with sellers. Reputation systems help buyers to select sellers by aggregating...
Article
We present an adaptive decentralized trust formalization well suited for electronic commerce. Our model, called zTrust, constitutes two essential elements. The first is the adviser modeling mechanism that enables consumer agents to merge the cognitive and the probabilistic views of trust and adaptively calculate the trustworthiness of advisers acco...
Article
The growth of online social networks has seen the utilisation of these network graphs for the purpose of providing recommendations. Automated recommendations, however, do not take into account inter-personal trust levels that exist in a social network. In this article, we propose a privacy-preserving trusted social feedback (TSF) scheme where users...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As part of the Device Comfort paradigm, we envision a mobile device which, armed with the information made available by its sensors, is able to recognize whether it is being used by its owner or whether its owner is using the mobile device in an “unusual” manner. To this end, we conjecture that the use of a mobile device follows diurnal patterns an...
Conference Paper
We collected social media network data from the site Twitter to explore the 'language of the wire' and how users of digital environments conceptualise trust. Our underlying aim is to gather insights that can inform the design of an interface that assists users to negotiate trust. From our pilot study exploring and developing new methods, we found t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the growth of social networks, recommender systems have taken advantage of the social network graph structures to provide better recommendation. In this paper, we propose a privacy preserving trusted social feedback (TSF) system, in which users obtain feedback on questions or items from their friends. It is different from and independent of a...
Article
Full-text available
Ranking vast amounts of user-contributed content, such as digital photographs, is handled well through user-driven ranking, but user-driven ranking is often subjective and difficult to compare. The analytic hierarchy process helps making sense of subjective opinion, whereas finding a global ranking is a problem of rank aggregation of partially rank...
Chapter
Full-text available
Security is an interesting area, one in which we may well be guilty of misunderstanding the very people we are working for whilst trying to protect them. It is often said that people (users) are a weak link in the security chain. This may be true, but there are nuances. In this chapter, the authors discuss some of the work they have done and are do...
Conference Paper
Informational privacy is regulated by laws that apply differently depending on the country and the specific set of circumstances. These laws require organizations to be responsible for ensuring that the privacy requirements have been communicated and implemented. In this paper, a framework for privacy representation is presented. The framework will...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We propose a suite of user interface widgets to intuitively inform a user of a mobile device's sense of comfort at the user's proposed actions.
Conference Paper
The Device Comfort methodology uses an enhanced notion of trust to enable a personal device to better reason about the state of interactions and actions between it, its owner, and the environment. This includes allowing a better understanding of how to manage information in fine-grained context as well as addressing the personal security of the use...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We claim that the digital trust research area has tended to privilege the act of trusting while considering distrust a negative outcome. However, from the users perspective distrust might be as valid an option as trust (it may not be a good idea to trade, collaborate or exchange in a particular context). How do we evaluate digital environments that...
Conference Paper
Security as an enabling paradigm has not succeeded half as well as we might have hoped. Systems are broken or breakable, and users (people) have something of a lack of faith, understanding, or patience with security measures that exist. Whilst secure systems and solutions are the backbone of a working interconnected system of systems, they are not...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In a reputation system for multiagent based electronic marketplaces where the number of high quality products provided by good selling agents is unlimited, buying agents often share seller information without the need to consider possible utility loss. However, when those good sellers have limited inventory, buyers may have to be concerned about th...
Conference Paper
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are formed by a set of mobile nodes without relying on a preexisting infrastructure. In MANETs, ad hoc nodes should count on intermediate nodes to relay messages between two distant nodes. However, due to the inherent dynamicity of such networks, secure and reliable packet forwarding is difficult to achieve. Besides,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this position paper we examine some of the aspects of trust models, deployment, use and 'misuse,' and present a manifesto for the application of computational trust in sociotechnical systems. Computational Trust formalizes the trust processes in humans in order to allow artificial systems to better make decisions or give better advice. This is b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Trust transitivity is a common phenomenon embedded in human reasoning about trust. Given a specific context or purpose, trust transitivity is often manifested through the humans' intuition to rely on the recommendations of a trustworthy advisor about another entity that the advisor recommends. Although this simple principle has been formalised in v...
Article
In the presence of a variety of service providers that offer web services with overlapping or identical functionality, service consumers need a mechanism to distinguish one service from another based on their own subjective quality of service (QoS) preferences. Typical approaches in this field rely on trusted third parties to monitor the behaviour...
Article
Full-text available
Device Comfort is a concept that uses an enhanced notion of trust to allow a personal (likely mobile) device to better reason about the state of interactions and actions between it, its owner, and the environment. This includes allowing a better understanding of how to manage information in fine-grained context as well as addressing the personal se...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Trust and reputation systems are central for resisting against threats from malicious agents in decentralized systems. In previous work we have introduced the Prob-Cog model of multi-layer filtering for consumer agents in e-marketplaces which provide mechanisms for identifying participants who disseminate unfair ratings by cognitively eliciting the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we introduce and discuss Foreground Trust. Foreground Trust, itself based on recent work in the area of Trust Enablement, is a paradigm for allowing devices in a human-device ecosystem the means to reason with and about trust in themselves, other devices, and humans, whilst allowing humans to make trusting decisions using their own i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the absence of legal enforcement procedures for the participants of an open e-marketplace, trust and reputation systems are central for resisting against threats from malicious agents. Such systems provide mechanisms for identifying the participants who disseminate unfair ratings. However, it is possible that some of the honest participants are...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines and defines the concept of Device Com- fort. Comfort is a phenomenon that uses an enhanced concept of trust to allow a personal (likely mobile) device better reasoning about the state of interactions and actions between it, its owner, and the environment, including allowing a better understanding of how to manage information in...
Chapter
Full-text available
The study of trust has advanced tremendously in recent years, to the extent that the goal of a more unified formalisation of the concept is becoming feasible. To that end, we have begun to examine the closely related concepts of regret and forgiveness and their relationship to trust and its siblings. The resultant formalisation allows computational...
Article
Full-text available
the people who work with it, hence the expanded need for trust- reasoning. Over the years, we have developed and refined a generic model2,3 that focuses on two broad questions: how much do I trust you? and how much do I need to trust you? Both are ap- plied in a specific context. The questions, and their answers, are largely automatically calculate...
Chapter
Building any online system or service that people will trust is a significant challenge. For example, consumers sometimes avoid e-commerce services over fears about their security and privacy. As a result, much research has been done to determine factors that affect users’ trust of e-commerce services (e.g., Egger, 2001; Friedman, Khan, & Howe, 200...
Chapter
Ambient intelligence (AmI) and ubiquitous computing allow us to consider a future where computation is embedded into our daily social lives. This vision raises its own important questions and augments the need to understand how people will trust such systems and at the same time achieve and maintain privacy. As a result, we have recently conducted...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years we have witnessed a great increase in the interest in Trust Management (TM) techniques both from the industrial and the academic sectors. The booming re-search has also determined a duality in the very definition of TM system which can lead to confusion. In one of the two categories of TM systems a great deal of work has yet to be d...
Article
In recent years we have witnessed a great increase in the interest in Trust Management (TM) techniques both from the industrial and the academic sectors. The booming research has also determined a duality in the very definition of TM system which can lead to confusion. In one of the two categories of TM systems a great deal of work has yet to be do...
Article
Full-text available
Through a review of virtual team literature and meta-analytical studies, we compileindicators that contribute towards the effectiveness of virtual teams. Drawing from therelevant literature and study findings, the indicators have been brought into a unifyingframework. The framework utilizes two dimensions; the first is based upon the inputsprocess-...
Article
Full-text available
Ambient intelligence (AmI) and ubiquitous computing allow us to consider a future where computation is embedded into our daily social lives. This vision raises its own important questions and augments the need to understand how people will trust such systems and at the same time achieve and maintain privacy. As a result, we have recently conducted...
Chapter
Ambient intelligence (AmI) and ubiquitous computing allow us to consider a future where computation is embedded into our daily social lives. This vision raises its own important questions and augments the need to understand how people will trust such systems and at the same time achieve and maintain privacy. As a result, we have recently conducted...
Chapter
Ambient intelligence (AmI) and ubiquitous computing allow us to consider a future where computation is embedded into our daily social lives. This vision raises its own important questions and augments the need to understand how people will trust such systems and at the same time achieve and maintain privacy. As a result, we have recently conducted...
Book
International Federation for Information Processing The IFIP series publishes state-of-the-art results in the sciences and technologies of information and communication. The scope of the series includes: foundations of computer science; software theory and practice; education; computer applications in technology; communication systems; systems mode...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We introduce the comprehensive information filtering system (CIFS), an architecture for information filtering for mobile users that takes into account not only information relevance but also adaptive context, trust, privacy, and mobility. The uniqueness of the approach lies in the application of several implicit and explicit user profiling methods...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Trust propagation is the principle by which new trust relati onships can be derived from pre-existing trust relationship. Trust transitivity is the most explicit form of trust propagation, meaning for example that if Alice trusts Bob, and Bob trusts Claire, then by transitivity, Alice will also trust Claire. This as- sumes that Bob recommends Clair...
Conference Paper
We describe a multilayer information filtering approach, implemented as part of the Comprehensive Information Filtering System (CIFS) - a personal filtering system for mobile users. CIFS combines the message content, context, and contact information into a scenario that maintains an amalgamated relevance, privacy and trust rating.
Chapter
Building any online system or service that people will trust is a significant challenge. For example, consumers sometimes avoid e-commerce services over fears about their security and privacy. As a result, much research has been done to determine factors that affect users’ trust of e-commerce services (e.g., Egger, 2001; Friedman, Khan, & Howe, 200...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There has been a lot of research and development in the field of computational trust in the past decade. Much of it has acknowledged or claimed that trust is a good thing. We think it’s time to look at the other side of the coin and ask the questions why is it good, what alternatives are there, where do they fit, and is our assumption always correc...
Article
Full-text available
There has been a lot of research and development in the field of computational trust in the past decade. Much of it has acknowledged or claimed that trust is a good thing. We think it's time to look at the other side of the coin and ask the questions why is it good, what alternatives are there, where do they fit, and is our assumption always correc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A layered architecture for advanced collaborative environments has been developed to map the definition of a collaboration task from the requirements needed, to accomplish the task to the collaboration services that can be used to satisfy those needs, and to the technologies on which the services can be delivered. The architecture takes into accoun...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Collaboration is an essential mechanism for productivity. Projection tables such as the SociaDesk enable collaboration through the sharing of audio, video and data. To enhance this form of interaction, it is beneficial to enable local, multi-user interaction with this media. This paper introduces a computer vision-based gesture recognition system t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper introduces theinfoDNA architecture, which seeks to address some of the intricacies involved in ascer- taining the trustworthiness of information in a multi-person social networked setting. Using trust measures and digital signatures, a history of individual pieces of information can be built up to enable agents to better perform informat...
Conference Paper
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This demonstration reports results from the EU-funded project Ambient Agoras, investigating future applications of ubiquitous and ambient computing in workspaces. Instead of presenting underlying system technologies or evaluation findings, this demonstration ...
Article
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Two similar multi–agent systems have been designed to address the issue of information sharing within a multi–agent system. This paper examines the architectural components that have been added to our information–sharing societies, ACORN and MP3. Through this exploration, we conclude that these components and their underlying concepts can be added...
Article
Full-text available
This paper has briefly discussed how social factors may be applied to personalize systems for e-commerce. We believe that the ability of e-commerce systems to establish relationships with customers, to target small and specific niche markets, to facilitate trust and to leverage a range of other social effects will become increasingly important. The...