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Stephen A. Langford

Stephen A. Langford
Unaffiliated · Independent

PhD

Publications

Publications (95)
Research
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What can we learn by creating and studying statistically-significant data sets of RIs displayed by mineral and rock samples?
Method
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Discovery of an approximate 19.47° angle in a crop-circle illustration led to colleagueship with Elvira Celina Casiva Riego < https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC3WkKxqAeSP3_TWgUcNBGPQ/ > and to some speculations as to how a result from liquid-immersion, double-variation, refractive-index (RI) microscopy might relate to Cosmology and Sacred Geometry.
Article
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In the previous paper, assumption of a Vacuum Structure led to creation of predicted and residual models for rest mass (m), energy (E), and weight (W). Those models were based only upon prior work by Galileo, Newton, Einstein, Planck, and de Broglie; experimentally estimated refractive-index (RI) probability levels and related temperature data not...
Article
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Refractive-index (RI) data are used to model gravity (g, gals) levels displayed by powdered-rock fragments. The base g level at each of two laboratories, were regressed with case (and other) weighting of 696 cases; representing all but two (2) of the 698, in which a total of 76,798 fragment RIs were compared to those of immersion liquids.
Preprint
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The specific-refractivity (K) model for a whole-rock powder is presented. Successful, innovative completion of this reconnaissance suggests that ignoring creation of statistically-significant specific refractivities (Kp), when describing mineral or rock samples, hampers the development of Science. Automation of all related technologies is suggested...
Method
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Refractive-index (RI) data and an estimate of Vacuum-structure mass are being modeled in order to estimate the densities (specific gravities) of mineral phases in a powdered Hawai'ian gabbro sample from Ukumehame Gulch, West Maui. While working with the best part of the model, I hit upon a very interesting model orientation that has permitted demon...
Article
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ABSTRACT If a Vacuum Structure exists, then one might do well to assume that it has some measurable attributes. This paper adopts some definitions and related algebra to test whether that line of reasoning leads to any useful, new comprehension of Nature. Predicted Models for rest mass (m), energy (E), and weight (W), as well as models of Residuals...
Article
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In 1961, in several closely spaced personal communications, our Geology Professor, Dr. Gerald P. Brophy, taught that Mineralogists were ignoring refractive indices (RIs) to their own disadvantage, Geochemists were ignoring optical data, and (almost in the same breath) some subjects had been completely removed from the literature; as if Becke lines...
Research
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Having mapped Vacuum-Structure mass (m) and energy (E) over the Emmons Surface (RI,λ), the next task has been similarly to map its Weight, employing W=mg. Surprisingly, twenty-three (23) modes were identified by statistics generated during the Surfer®16 gridding process, which suggested the need to map Residuals to that Predicted model. As if by ma...
Research
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VACUUM STRUCTURE ENERGY•JOULES, MAPPED OVER THE EMMONS SURFACE (RI,λ): PURPOSE Given a column of data that contains calculated values of mass (m) at each RI,λ location of the Emmons surface -- defined by about 1.4-1.8 (inclusive) refractive-index (n=RI) values over the visible spectrum -- the situation begs for a similar calculation of E=mc^2 over...
Research
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Rest mass values are calculated for the vacuum structure; by way of definitions, Louis de Broglie's λ-h/mv equation, and refractive-index (RI) data taken over X=[mineral RIs studied in the approximate 1.4-1.8 range (inclusive)] and Y=[the visible spectrum], which together define the (X,Y) space that I have dubbed the "Emmons Surface". Prior work...
Experiment Findings
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PURPOSE The Introduction to [1], contains: “Thus, our prescription for the renormalization procedure is consistent, so the ultraviolet problem for massless Yang-Mills fields has been solved. A much more complicated problem is formed by the infrared divergencies of the system. Weinberg … has pointed out that, contrary to the quantum electrodynamical...
Article
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PURPOSE The lack of consensus I find among proponents of Quantum Mechanics (QM) Theories seems to be due to the proclivity of most people gently or strongly to sell their own views. It is natural for people to want to leave their own positive marks on the progress of Science. But it is difficult to sort out just what we know to be true from what re...
Preprint
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PURPOSE The purpose of this brief note is to share some thoughts and to suggest an experiment for testing them. HYPOTHESIS TO BE TESTED Dark matter is hiding in plain sight.
Research
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It might help Cosmologists, Quantum Mechanicists, and others not to restrict their thinking to the simplest-possible geometries, when trying to explain their perspectives to others, because that traps discussions into simple thinking that might not most generally apply to Universal Theories. Please see https://www.dropbox.com/s/k7dwq3hl5sfngep/202...
Cover Page
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This is a Guide to lead you through some of the files already posted to Research Gate.
Research
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Yes, graphical images that look like photographs can be created from data sets of extreme detail, derived by IGNORING optical orientations of powder fragments in immersion liquids previously calibrated over working ranges of visible light and stage temperatures ranging up to about 60°C, before comparing their refractive indices (RIs) to those of th...
Research
Full-text available
The original purpose of this work was to discover whether statistically-significant data sets could be obtained by applying the double-variation, liquid-immersion, refractive-index (RI) methods of Optical Mineralogy by NOT painstakingly orienting any powder fragment to a known optical orientation before comparing its RI to that of an immersion liqu...
Data
I reference manuscript 20170417 Science-Advances-Manuscript IN PROGRESS .doc in order to share work presented there, which demonstrated the impossibility of projecting RI probability levels back to the 589.3nm Na Fraunhofer D-line reference wavelength, simply by sliding results parallel to the ordinate Wavelength (λ, nm) axis. Work in recent mont...
Data
Work from April 2017 is used together with recent work of 2020, in an attempt to clarify how conditions of match between fragment and liquid RIs cause resolvable problems encountered during statistical modeling.
Research
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PURPOSE. Work logged on 25 February 2017 and thereafter was focused upon a close study of the densest data region. Although data were typically not taken serially along any given wavelength, when arriving at RIs below about 1.605 along Fraunhofer D-Band (580nm-600nm) wavelengths something seemed to be different enough to warrant a closer look at sl...
Data
Support at this time was minimal and did not include use of the University of Hawai'i computing system. Substrate glass slides holding thermistors were breaking, demanding system recalibrations. Work was haltingly proceeding.
Research
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Data decryption continues, with work from June 1993 included. See much more at https://tinyurl.com/to8tsbt RAW DATA & Explanations .csv.pdf: https://www.dropbox.com/s/tk1zqko1ctsasxo/RAW%20DATA%20%26%20Explanations%20.csv%20.pdf?dl=0
Research
Full-text available
How to create statistically significant data sets from liquid-immersion studies of refractive indices (RIs) displayed by powdered minerals and rocks. Data of current study were collected sporadically, on several microscopical systems, between 23 October 1977 and 10 November 1993. Presented here: Work of December 1977; still getting up and running;...
Research
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Initial work included immediate encryption of my data set, by scrambling visible-wavelength (λ, nm) values for the first 55 cases, which were designed (only upon decryption) to define the data space. No record was kept, so -- years later -- painstaking backwards calculations were required over a two-week period that ended me in the hospital for rel...
Research
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My next post of work logs will include description of many steps related to development of the ability to produce such still and video images as this one represents. Such approaches might interest Seismologists, Geochemists, Geologists, Data Analysts, Computer Programmers, Geophysicists, Quantum-Mechanics Specialists, Cosmologists, Resonance Scient...
Research
Full-text available
Related to my study of refractive indices (RIs) displayed by a powdered gabbroic rock sample from Ukumehame Gulch, West Maui, Hawai'i: * Figure 4A: Wavelength vectors from liquid RIs to particle RIs, controlled by E% Data. * 4B: Temperature vectors from liquid RIs to particle RIs, controlled by E% Data. * [Fragment=Particle] These figures show ho...
Research
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I explore how much information can be drawn from studies of refractive-indices (RIs) displayed by powders of mineral separates and whole-rock samples. Work referencing this video will be posted to Research Gate next, pointing to a possible link between these QM data and some Cosmological data. The video itself focuses upon some interesting details...
Data
Comprehensive modeling of raw (L%+E%) RI data disclosed residuals in the three parts of the Femic-RI region that have data dense enough to map them. The largest of those residual maps was selected for closer study, because the Femic minerals are magnetic to various degrees, and because I was told that the Pyroxenes have long given mineralogist real...
Research
Full-text available
How much is left to learn about what RIs displayed by a rock powder have to tell us? I hope to learn more competently to apply the powers of the XYZC program Voxler®4 (free demo at https://www.goldensoftware.com/products/voxler/trial ), in order to learn still more about Nature. Because some circular patterns seem to indicate that at least the...
Research
Full-text available
After having closely studied various topological patterns displayed by refractive indices (RIs) of a gabbroic rock sample from Ukumehame Gulch, West Maui, Hawai'i; I sought widely for similar patterns in natural landscapes. I became particularly interested in what I saw to be various tubular structures, coming to believe, for instance, that some "s...
Presentation
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I am simply pointing to a helpful youtube presentation on Gravity, Black Holes, & Quantum Mechanics: Astrophysicist Explains Gravity in 5 Levels of Difficulty WIRED; Dec 20, 2019 Astrophysicist Janna Levin, PhD, is asked to explain the concept of gravity to 5 different people; a child, a teen, a college student, a grad student, and an expert. ht...
Presentation
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While experimenting with Voxler®4 Demo, I created an abstract view of a slice through the data, which rotates and looks something like a chandelier. So I used my hand-held Android-phone camera to capture this bit of art to share with you. I hope you enjoy it. :-) -Steve- gambist@gmail.com
Research
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Circular RI patterns in recent work seem to map magnetic lines of force within the ferromagnetic fraction of minerals in the gabbro sample from Ukumehame Gulch, West Maui, Hawai'i. And whereas previous work has failed to disclose how Temperature affects RIs, a fascinating map of Heat-Flow vectors was produced today, with the aid of the free Voxler®...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
These Work Logs are introduced by a brief synopsis of work done each day. A great many images are presented, together with rationales for approaches and numerous examples of applied methods. This period has been highly productive of results that should interest Geologists, Geophysicists, Materials Scientists, Geochemists, Quantum Mechanicists (coin...
Data
Interest in Tridymite is peripheral to the main thrust of my work, which is intended to show why paying more attention to mapping mineral and rock RIs might not be such a bad idea.
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Recent work has focused (in part) upon trying to pin down the complete range of RIs displayed by Tridymite in the studied gabbro powder. This view shows why it has not been easy to pin down the extent of the lowest RI (α’) signal, which I now carefully read (via thin lines on the monitor and aid of a Gerber scale) to be 1.46294. This extends the lo...
Data
This 156MB image permits radical zooming in to make teensy digits clearly legible. However, it needs to be in the same subdirectory/folder as its accompanying file, 20200710 1808 PLAN VIEW & 589.3nm X-SECTION, β’=f(β); for Kriged Particle E% RI FUD27 Model .srf .tif.gsr2 , which will be uploaded next. Please contact me directly if you have any tr...
Data
Due to the 156MB size of the image posted under the title "Tridymite has even lower RIs than Tröger lists for synthetics and higher RIs than found in previous literature.", this 352-byte file was created automatically, and must be found by the system in the same subdirectory/folder as its much-larger progenitor.
Data
This is a log of work done to establish that certain features in the density-function map of RIs displayed by a powdered gabbro sample from Ukumehame Gulch, West Maui, Hawai'i, are identifiable as Tridymite, as found by Gordon A. Macdonald in a sample from the same outcrop. Not only is it Tridymite, this work establishes a wider RI range, from both...
Research
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For Plagioclase Feldspars, Olivines, and Augitic Clinopyroxenes, β’ = f(β) equations are created to show how, on average, RIs displayed by suites of optically unoriented particles relate to those displayed by optically oriented particles. Results are graphically compared to a verbal petrographic description by Gordon A. Macdonald, for a sample from...
Research
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This is a plan view. A cross section drawn at 589.3nm is also posted: For Plagioclase Feldspars, Olivines, and Augitic Clinopyroxenes, β’ = f(β) equations are created to show how, on average, RIs displayed by suites of optically unoriented particles relate to those displayed by optically oriented particles. Results are graphically compared to a ve...
Research
Full-text available
This is a cross section drawn at 589.3nm. A plan view is also posted: For Plagioclase Feldspars, Olivines, and Augitic Clinopyroxenes, β’ = f(β) equations are created to show how, on average, RIs displayed by suites of optically unoriented particles relate to those displayed by optically oriented particles. Results are graphically compared to a ve...
Research
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This image shows a strong concentration of data collected (yellow dots) along the 589.3nm average of the Fraunhofer Sodium-Doublet lines. Optical Mineralogists doing liquid-immersion refractometry have typically used sodium-vapor lamps for monochromatic work, projecting results at other wavelengths to that standard wavelength. Not having previously...
Research
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This view makes it easier to look at the graphical relationships, by not having to look at the background provided by the surface of the model.
Method
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Surfer® provides several Lighting controls, including Specular, Diffuse, and Ambient settings. It defaults to a Smooth model, but one can also choose Flat or None. Starkly different looks can be created by playing with light positioning, by changing horizontal and vertical settings so that the light can be placed wherever you want it. I show how pl...
Research
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Explorations into how to apply JMP Pro v.15.1.0 to creation of dendrograms and constellation plots via Hierarchical Clustering led to plotting plan views of clusters in Graph Builder. A surprise in those plots led to models rotated about the Z (%) axis; 3 modeling types were explored: Local Polynomial, Radial-Basis Thin-Plate Splining with ellipsoi...
Research
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I have already reported some efforts and frustrations re application of JMP Pro v.15.1.0 to my refractive-index data derived from study of a gabbroic rock powder. Clusters on either side of the 589.3nm wavelength (to which Optical Mineralogists have traditionally referenced their work) usually do not mirror across that important line. That probably...
Data
Optical Mineralogists have been trained to do liquid-immersion studies of refractive indices (RIs) displayed by mineral powders, using white light or monochromatic light from such as [sodium (Na)]-vapor lamps that produce the D1 and D2 Fraunhofer lines at 589.0nm and 589.6nm; plotting results at the 589.3nm average and projecting work done at other...
Research
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Daily Work Logs, 11-20 June 2020, during exploration of Hierarchical Clustering methods, while exploring the use of JMP Pro v.15 to create Dendrograms and Constellations. Play with numbers of clusters; viewing results in Graph Builder, while attempting to make sense of clusters almost always different from each other across the 589.3nm average of t...
Research
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A useful side trip to explore a new statistical tool, how better to get around the JMP platform and its documentation, and how better to communicate with other JMP users. However, SEM assumes covariances that do not exist in those parts of my data that are of current interest, so I have abandoned this approach for my own work. I hope that sharing t...
Research
Full-text available
This work is intended to discover just how much more we might be able to learn by studying refractive indices -- even though most geologists have given up on using Optical Mineralogy for anything like production-line work and (I was taught in 1961) Geochemists have given up on trying to make good sense out of data from Optical Mineralogy. But now c...
Method
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This "Method" presents a philosophy related to how I view Research Gate and its role in helping Scientists to share their Science, whether or not their work is ever published in a peer-reviewed journal or an edited book.
Method
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I believe that such systems are indeed difficult to study by those who would apply statistical methods that assume model residuals to be comprised only of random noise. To the contrary, even the modelling of residuals to models of (Predicted + Residuals) models -- and so on -- can lead to ever-more-accurate and -precise fits to some exceedingly com...
Research Proposal
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This new paper Minin, Igor V., Oleg V. Minin, Igor A. Glinskiy, Rustam A. Khabibullin, Radu Malureanu, Andrei V. Lavrinenko, Dmitry I. Yakubovsky, Aleksey V. Arsenin, Valentyn S. Volkov, Dmitry S. Ponomarev, Plasmonic nanojet: an experimental demonstration. J. Optical Society of America, Optics Letters, 0146-9592/20/123244-04 , V. 45, No. 12,...
Data
An effort is being made to discover how many mineral phase regions can be most fruitfully inferred from RI data alone, when no effort at all has been made optically to orient any particle before comparing its RI to that of a previously calibrated liquid; 100 such liquids in play at 698 observation setups, yielding 76,798 particle RI assignments. Th...
Data
Between 23 October 1977 and 10 November 1993, refractive indices (RIs) displayed by a Gabbro sample from a stock in Ukumehame Valley, West Maui, Hawai'i, were studied, via several student-petrographic-microscope systems wired for temperature control and illuminated by monochromatic wavelengths across the visible spectrum. For 698 observations, this...
Data
The task is to take a closer look at just where the "glasses" peak of the final figure (Figure 9) in Preprint #4 lies with respect to original data-collection locations with respect to Wavelengths and Liquid RIs set during those counts. Extents of the final maps in the paper were reduced to reflect shifts in wavelengths more pertinent to backwards...
Method
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Mineral particles under study during liquid-immersion microscopy vary in size, density, optical properties and physical properties that include cleavages, fractures, and partings that bias how they lie on the microscope stage. Some may be clamped to the mount substrate by surface tension between the mount substrate and its cover slip; others may no...
Preprint
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TITLE Given Einstein's E=mc 2 : Estimation of mass concentrations [m]; technique applied to RIs displayed by a powdered Hawai'ian gabbro sample ABSTRACT Most geologists I have known avoided Optical Mineralogy. But refractive indices (RIs) are perhaps the most-important physical property that any microscopist can use to help identity mineral species...
Preprint
Full-text available
While trying to figure out how to identify constituent mineral species, mineral families, and solid-solution phase regions in Sample FUD27, I created this preliminary dendrogram. I am now trying to determine if this is the best approach to take, for modeling refined data from a much-more-recent RI model.
Data
I've been fishing for ways to separate out mineral species, mineral families, and solid-solution mineral phase regions from the RI data for this gabbro sample. This image results from a preliminary investigation as to what such a statistical approach might produce.
Data
Abstract: Optical mineralogy is a beautiful art. It is made difficult, however, because obtaining enough optical data to create statistically significant data sets is nearly impossible in routine work. Optically derived petrographic descriptions typically reflect subjective percentage estimates that do not correlate with geochemical data. Thin-sect...
Data
A detailed study, by optical microscopy, of Refractive Indices (RIs) displayed by a rock sample, discloses surprising resolutions related to crystal-lattice morphologies at scales in the range of visible-light Wavelengths through those of gamma-and X-rays, and the sizes of Hydrogen atoms; and of crystallographic lattice points, occupied or not <htt...
Data
Too widely ignored, Refractive Index (RI=c/v) "Matches" are important, though complex. Heavy emphasis upon backwards-calculation of model estimates.
Data
Steve, Well done on this paper. It is a beautiful deep dive into molecular transduction through mineral sciences ...
Data
The goal was to try to find a good way to separate refractive-index (RI) fields particular to various mineral species, mineral families, and solid-solution phase regions.
Research
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Being no expert in Cosmology, Quantum Mechanics, or the details of maths related to Special or General Relativities, I nonetheless question what seems to be a fundamental Einsteinian assumption re the gravity at the center of a black hole.
Preprint
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This update is required because I have just found and added this important reference: Brout, Dillon, and Daniel Scolnic, 2011 Preprint. It’s Dust: Solving the mysteries of the intrinsic scatter and host-galaxy dependence of standardized Type IA supernova brightness. Submitted 12/16/11 to Astrophysical J. 15 pp. https://arxiv.org/pdf/2004.10206.pdf
Research Proposal
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What happens when a rock thin section is illuminated by light directly from the Sun but bounced off a mirror diffraction grating to produce monochromatic light?
Preprint
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The work tests the notion that the rapid assignment of refractive indices (RIs) displayed by particles encountered during double-variation, liquid-immersion microscopy; to categories L (Less than), E (Equal to) or G (Greater than); might produce statistically-significant data sets unavailable to Optical Mineralogists who so painstakingly orient eac...
Cover Page
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TITLE Given Einstein's E=mc 2 : Estimation of mass concentrations [m]; technique applied to RIs displayed by a powdered Hawai'ian gabbro sample ABSTRACT Most geologists I have known avoided Optical Mineralogy. But refractive indices (RIs) are perhaps the most-important physical property that any microscopist can use to help identity mineral speci...
Preprint
Full-text available
Stephen A. “Steve” Langford, Ph.D. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3406-7479 Independent Researcher Refractive Indices of Rock and Mineral Powders Amherst College 1963 B.A., Geology Langford, S. A., 1963. A study of the heavy minerals from the Cheshire Quartzite; Cheshire, Massachusetts. Undergraduate Thesis, Dept. Geology, Amherst College, Amherst, M...
Data
Pure Research, Optical Mineralogy, Petrography: Mapping of refractive indices (RIs) displayed by whole-rock and mineral-separate powders, via the liquid-Immersion, double-variation method presented in Ch. 5 of R.C. Emmons's 1943 GSA Memoir 8; but no use of a universal stage. Unique aspect: NOT to bring any particle to a known optical orientation...
Data
Pure Research, Optical Mineralogy, Petrography: Mapping of refractive indices (RIs) displayed by whole-rock and mineral-separate powders, via the liquid-Immersion, double-variation method presented in Ch. 5 of R.C. Emmons's 1943 GSA Memoir 8; but no use of a universal stage: http://tinyurl.com/oz98vpu Unique aspect: statistical significance. Don'...
Data
Pure Research, Optical Mineralogy: Mapping of refractive indices (RIs) displayed by whole-rock and mineral-separate powders, via the liquid-Immersion, double-variation method presented in Ch. 5 of R.C. Emmons's 1943 GSA Memoir 8; but no use of a universal stage. Unique aspect: NOT to bring any particle to a known optical orientation before compar...
Data
Freeware OBS software is also demonstrated during this first-ever try to use it, just after downloading it and without reference to any tutorials or help files. It seems to be an extremely powerful platform. Recommended.
Data
This video demonstrates both freeware "OBS Studio" and commercial software "Surfer® 17" (Golden Software, Golden, CO), with some narration (wait for it) re mineral phases. It shows my most-recent modeling of percentages of Maui-gabbro-particle refractive indices (RIs) both *less than* (L%) the RIs of immersion liquids -- previously calibrated for t...
Data
Mapping (X,Y,Z) as (Wavelength (λ, nm),Liquid-RI-Estimate (unitless),%) Minimum: 1.00169641573e-06 (Essentially a 0% base level) Maximum: 29.556037 Mean: 2.05950408881 Median: 0.219835880771 Geometric Mean: 0.0656275972025 Harmonic Mean: 0.000256550956771 Root Mean Square: 4.91468120559 Trim Mean (10%): 1.28233822938 Interquartile Mean: 0.49339513...
Data
Surfer® incorrectly counted only 31 of 32 replicate pairs, so deleted 31 cases before performing the related regression. Additionally, I left out mapping one outlier at RI = 1.80. The accidental result was to base the map upon the devilish number of 666 cases out of the 698 cases available.Oh, well. :-) Such insignificant "problems" are statistical...
Data
Thirty-two (32) replicate pairs are incorrectly counted by Surfer® as only thirty-one (31), so 31 of the 698 cases are deleted as being "duplicates''. Additionally, I have chosen not to map an outlier at RI=1.80 (unitless). This accidentally happens to result in the Devilish number of 666 cases being analyzed. Oh well. ;-)
Data
GLM and similar regression routines assume Gaussian distributions. But whole-rock and even mineral-separate powders display a wild assortment of refractive indices (RIs) and are statistically "heteroscedastic", with many density-function "humps" across the experimental RI range. In addition to modeling a wild "trend surface" (nothing like gentle...
Research
Full-text available
I have spent the greatest part of my life working upon the question as to how much more can be learned, beyond thin-section petrography, from applying a rigorous counting method of Becke-Line results while employing R. C. Emmons's double-variation, liquid-immersion techniques (Chapter 5, GSA Memoir 8, 1943; no Universal Stage needed in my work, whe...
Article
Full-text available
Light beams are read directly (not as virtual images) against a scale erected about 74 cm in front of the prism, with a modified Jelley refractometer. Liquid temperatures are controlled by thermistors placed at each end of the prism trough, which is enclosed in an aluminium block. The scale is calibrated against the refractive index (RI) of distill...
Article
Full-text available
Refractive-index studies of twenty-four Hawaiian and two continenal volcanic-glass samples show that a sample's mean refractive index is a very good indicator for many bulk-chemistry oxide percentage as well as for several trace-elemen proportions. The sample's mean refractive index is pragmatically estimated from statistically significant counts i...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: A highly precise bathymetric record shows the U.S. Navy Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) chart upon which Moore's landslide hypothesis was based to be inaccurate. We find no evidence for landsliding. Three possible in situ origins for the seamounts in question are offered as alternatives.
Article
Full-text available
Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1972. Bibliography: leaves 131-138. 185 l illus., tables

About

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Introduction
Pure Research, Optical Mineralogy, Petrography: Mapping of refractive indices (RIs) displayed by whole-rock and mineral-separate powders, via the liquid-Immersion, double-variation method presented in Ch. 5 of R.C. Emmons's 1943 GSA Memoir 8; but no use of a universal stage: http://tinyurl.com/oz98vpu Unique aspect: statistical significance. Don't bring any particle to a known optical orientation before comparing its RI to that of immersion liquid previously calibrated for RI=f[λ(nm),T(°C)].

Questions

Questions (31)

Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Teknet Earth Global Symposia (TEGS) is an ongoing series of presentations, lectures and discussions led by physicists from wide range of backgrounds and disciplines including; electromagnetic, quantum, torsion physics, optical mineralogy, cosmology and more. The project was the brainchild of Rajan Iyer and is copresented by him and Christopher C. O'Neill.
Project
To share my work, Pure Research, Optical Mineralogy: Mapping of refractive indices (RIs) displayed by whole-rock and mineral-separate powders, via the liquid-Immersion, double-variation method presented in Ch. 5 of R.C. Emmons's 1943 GSA Memoir 8; but no use of a universal stage. Unique aspect: NOT to bring any particle to a known optical orientation before comparing its RI to that of the immersion liquid previously calibrated for RI=f[λ(nm),T(°C)]; this permits creation of statistically significant data sets.