Stephen D Goldinger

Stephen D Goldinger
Arizona State University | ASU · Department of Psychology

Ph.D., Indiana University, 1992

About

113
Publications
26,080
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
7,568
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Louisiana State University
January 2006 - present
Georgia State University
January 1995 - December 2011
Arizona State University

Publications

Publications (113)
Article
Full-text available
Significance Episodic memories represent the “what,” “when,” and “where” of specific episodes. In epilepsy patients, we detected single-unit activity reflecting episodic memory only in the hippocampus. This neural signal is sparsely coded and pattern-separated, consistent with predictions from neurocomputational models. We also detected single-unit...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has the best survival when detected early with 5-year survival near 40% for small, resectable PDAC. We evaluate the undiagnosed PDAC imaging features on routine CT and their impact on resectability. Methods: 76 of the screened 134 CTs from 1/1/2012 to 12/31/2018 using our tumor registry were obtain...
Preprint
Full-text available
Some studies of the neural representation of memory in the human hippocampus have identified memory signals reflecting the categorical status of test items (novel vs. repeated). Others have identified pattern-separated, episodic memory signals reflecting recognition of particular test items. Here, we report that both kinds of memory signals can be...
Article
The label-feedback hypothesis (Lupyan, 2012) proposes that language modulates low- and high-level visual processing, such as priming visual object perception. Lupyan and Swingley (2012) found that repeating target names facilitates visual search, resulting in shorter response times (RTs) and higher accuracy. In the present investigation, we concept...
Article
Full-text available
380 Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. At present, the best 5-year survival is 25% for resectable PDAC. For small (1 cm) stage 1 PDAC, resection has resulted in much better survival. The goal of this study was to evaluate the appearance and location of early undiagnosed PDAC on c...
Article
Full-text available
Encoding activity in the medial temporal lobe, presumably evoked by the presentation of stimuli (postonset activity), is known to predict subsequent memory. However, several independent lines of research suggest that preonset activity also affects subsequent memory. We investigated the role of preonset and postonset single-unit and multiunit activi...
Article
Research by Rajsic, Wilson, and Pratt (2015, 2017) suggests that people are biased to use a target-confirming strategy when performing simple visual search. In 3 experiments, we sought to determine whether another stubborn phenomenon in visual search, the low-prevalence effect (Wolfe, Horowitz, & Kenner, 2005), would modulate this confirmatory bias...
Article
Full-text available
The methods of magicians provide powerful tools for enhancing the ecological validity of laboratory studies of attention. The current research borrows a technique from magic to explore the relationship between microsaccades and covert attention under near-natural viewing conditions. We monitored participants’ eye movements as they viewed a magic tr...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, performance magic has become a source of insight into the processes underlying awareness. Magicians have highlighted a set of variables that can create moments of visual attentional suppression, which they call “off-beats.” One of these variables is akin to the phenomenon psychologists know as attentional entrainment. The current experime...
Article
Neurocomputational models have long posited that episodic memories in the human hippocampus are represented by sparse, stimulus-specific neural codes. A concomitant proposal is that when sparse-distributed neural assemblies become active, they suppress the activity of competing neurons (neural sharpening). We investigated episodic memory coding in...
Article
Recent research has suggested that bilinguals show advantages over monolinguals in visual search tasks, although these findings have been derived from global behavioral measures of accuracy and response times. In the present study we sought to explore the bilingual advantage by using more sensitive eyetracking techniques across three visual search...
Poster
Full-text available
The methods of magicians are gaining widespread popularity in cognitive science as a powerful tool for increasing the ecological validity of experiments on attention and perception. In a series of eyetracking experiments, participants watched videos of a magic trick, wherein a coin placed beneath a napkin disappears, reappearing under a different n...
Article
During visual search, people are distracted by objects that visually resemble search targets; search is impaired when targets and distractors share overlapping features. In this study, we examined whether a nonvisual form of similarity, overlapping object names, can also affect search performance. In three experiments, people searched for images of...
Article
In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in embodied cognition, a multifaceted theoretical proposition that (1) cognitive processes are influenced by the body, (2) cognition exists in the service of action, (3) cognition is situated in the environment, and (4) cognition may occur without internal representations. Many proponents vie...
Poster
Full-text available
Visual search, by definition, entails confirming whether an object of interest is present or not. However, the role of disconfirmation in search is often overlooked. For example, imagine that you are at a party, and your friend asks you to retrieve an apple that he spotted earlier on the fruit platter. Apples are typically red, so you direct your a...
Article
Hout, Goldinger, and Ferguson (2013) critically examined the spatial arrangement method (SpAM), originally proposed by Goldstone (1994), as a fast and efficient way to collect similarity data for multidimensional scaling. We found that SpAM produced high-quality data, making it an intuitive and user-friendly alternative to the classic “pairwise” me...
Article
In spoken word perception, voice specificity effects are well-documented: When people hear repeated words in some task, performance is generally better when repeated items are presented in their originally heard voices, relative to changed voices. A key theoretical question about voice specificity effects concerns their time-course: Some studies su...
Article
Full-text available
Visual search is one of the most widely studied topics in vision science, both as an independent topic of interest, and as a tool for studying attention and visual cognition. A wide literature exists that seeks to understand how people find things under varying conditions of difficulty and complexity, and in situations ranging from the mundane (e.g...
Poster
Full-text available
During visual search, it is well known that items sharing visual similarity with the target create interference (e.g., searching for a baseball among softballs vs. a baseball among bats). Although such a task is inherently visual, might linguistic similarity between target and background items’ names also create interference? We conducted several e...
Article
For centuries, researchers have examined the dynamics of pupil dilation and constriction, as it is well known that pupil size is affected by many physical stimuli, including ambient lighting and temperature (e.g., Fontana, Dei moti dell’iride, 1765). Less well known is that the pupils also dilate in response to nonphysical stimuli, such as emotions...
Article
Full-text available
In printed-word perception, the orthographic neighborhood effect (i.e., faster recognition of words with more neighbors) has considerable theoretical importance, because it implicates great interactivity in lexical access. Mulatti, Reynolds, and Besner Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32, 799-810 (2006) question...
Article
When engaged in a visual search for two targets, participants are slower and less accurate in their responses, relative to their performance when searching for singular targets. Previous work on this "dual-target cost" has primarily focused on the breakdown of attentional guidance when looking for two items. Here, we investigated how object identif...
Article
In visual search, rare targets are missed disproportionately often. This low-prevalence effect (LPE) is a robust problem with demonstrable societal consequences. What is the source of the LPE? Is it a perceptual bias against rare targets or a later process, such as premature search termination or motor response errors? In 4 experiments, we examined...
Article
Full-text available
It remains unclear how single neurons in the human brain represent whole-object visual stimuli. While recordings in both human and nonhuman primates have shown distributed representations of objects (many neurons encoding multiple objects), recordings of single neurons in the human medial temporal lobe, taken as subjects' discriminated objects duri...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies (e.g., Kuhn and Tatler, 2005) have suggested that magic tricks can provide a powerful and compelling domain for the study of attention and perception. In particular, many stage illusions involve attentional misdirection, guiding the observer's gaze to a salient object or event, while another critical action, such as sleight of hand,...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive theories in visual attention and perception, categorization, and memory often critically rely on concepts of similarity among objects, and empirically require measures of "sameness" among their stimuli. For instance, a researcher may require similarity estimates among multiple exemplars of a target category in visual search, or targets an...
Poster
Research has shown that bilingualism may be associated with advantages on tasks that require executive processing, such as task switching. This study investigated differences in bilingual and monolingual attentional guidance and task switching during a visual search task. Participants searched for Landolt Cs amongst similar distractors and, after l...
Article
Full-text available
When people look for things in the environment, they use target templates-mental representations of the objects they are attempting to locate-to guide attention and to assess incoming visual input as potential targets. However, unlike laboratory participants, searchers in the real world rarely have perfect knowledge regarding the potential appearan...
Poster
When looking for things in our daily environments, we often rely critically on the contextual associations between objects, learned through prior experience. For example, when searching for a parked bicycle on a busy street, we typically scour locations where bicycles tend to occur, such as near bike racks and light poles, and we avoid searching un...
Article
Full-text available
Neurocomputational models hold that sparse distributed coding is the most efficient way for hippocampal neurons to encode episodic memories rapidly. We investigated the representation of episodic memory in hippocampal neurons of nine epilepsy patients undergoing intracranial monitoring as they discriminated between recently studied words (targets)...
Article
The ability to quickly and accurately match faces to photographs bears critically on many domains, from controlling purchase of age-restricted goods to law enforcement and airport security. Despite its pervasiveness and importance, research has shown that face matching is surprisingly error prone. The majority of face-matching research is conducted...
Article
In this chapter, we discuss several distinct conceptualizations of recognition memory, and their treatment of the (putative) processes underlying recollection and familiarity. We focus most closely on the concept of recollection, which many dual-process memory models assume to be a relatively slow, controlled process, during which contextual detail...
Poster
Recent research has suggested that lifelong bilingualism may be associated with executive function advantages and possibly even more general cognitive benefits. This study investigated differences in how bilinguals and monolinguals deploy attention during a visual search task under varying levels of difficulty and executive functioning. Participant...
Article
When people look for things in their environment, they seldom have perfect knowledge regarding the appearance of the to-be-located item. Rather, target "templates" – the mental representations used to guide attention toward targets – vary in their precision, as when looking for your favorite pen, versus any pen at all. We compared visual search per...
Poster
When people perform visual search, a target "template" is used to guide attention to the location of the target. Such templates typically contain visual information, but what role might linguistic information play in creating representations of to-be-located items? For instance, maintaining visual information about a single target is easy, but when...
Article
Spotting what we are looking for seems simple. It isn't
Article
It is well-established that, when people are asked to identify and quickly repeat spoken words, they show a strong tendency to spontaneously imitate the vocal and/or phonetic characteristics of the stimulus tokens. There is mixed evidence, however, regarding the underlying basis of such imitation: Does it only reflect gestural attunement (as in Dir...
Article
Full-text available
A dramatic perceptual asymmetry occurs when handwritten words are rotated 90 ° in either direction. Those rotated in a direction consistent with their natural tilt (typically clockwise) become much more difficult to recognize, relative to those rotated in the opposite direction. In Experiment 1, we compared computer-printed and handwritten words, a...
Article
The concept of similarity, or a sense of ‘sameness’ among things, is pivotal to theories in the cognitive sciences and beyond. Similarity, however, is a difficult thing to measure. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a tool by which researchers can obtain quantitative estimates of similarity among groups of items. More formally, MDS refers to a set o...
Poster
Full-text available
Recently, Memmert (2010) argued for an empirical dissociation between inattentional blindness (IB) and attentional misdirection (AM) paradigms, citing four important differences between protocols within each field of study. Following the lead of Kuhn and Tatler (2005), we have developed a magic trick for use in eye-tracking experimentation that has...
Article
Full-text available
Although traditional methods to collect similarity data (for multidimensional scaling [MDS]) are robust, they share a key shortcoming. Specifically, the possible pairwise comparisons in any set of objects grow rapidly as a function of set size. This leads to lengthy experimental protocols, or procedures that involve scaling stimulus subsets. We rev...
Article
Full-text available
Recognition memory is typically examined as a discrete end-state, describable by static variables, such as accuracy, response time, and confidence. In the present study, we combined real-time mouse-tracking with subsequent, overt confidence estimates to examine the dynamic nature of memory decisions. By examining participants' streaming x-, y- mous...
Article
Full-text available
Perceptual identification of spoken words in noise is less accurate when the target words are preceded by spoken phonetically related primes (Goldinger, Luce, & Pisoni, 1989). The present investigation replicated and extended this finding. Subjects shadowed target words presented in the clear that were preceded by phonetically related or unrelated...
Article
Full-text available
It has long been known that pupils-the apertures that allow light into the eyes-dilate and constrict not only in response to changes in ambient light but also in response to emotional changes and arousing stimuli (e. g., Fontana, 1765). Charles Darwin (1872) related changes in pupil diameter to fear and other "emotions" in animals. For decades, pup...
Article
Voice-specificity effects in recognition memory were investigated using both behavioral data and pupillometry. Volunteers initially heard spoken words and nonwords in two voices; they later provided confidence-based old/new classifications to items presented in their original voices, changed (but familiar) voices, or entirely new voices. Recognitio...
Article
Full-text available
In reading research, a longstanding question is whether any stages of lexical processing require central attention, and whether such potential demands are frequency-sensitive. In the present study, we examined the allocation of cognitive effort in lexical processing by examining pupil dilations and naming latencies in a modified delayed naming proc...
Article
Full-text available
When observers search for a target object, they incidentally learn the identities and locations of "background" objects in the same display. This learning can facilitate search performance, eliciting faster reaction times for repeated displays. Despite these findings, visual search has been successfully modeled using architectures that maintain no...
Chapter
Full-text available
It is an honour to contribute to a collection of essays celebrating Bruce Whittlesea’s career. The research and ideas from Whittlesea and his colleagues have heavily influenced much of the research in our laboratory, particularly our studies of face perception and memory. Although face processing is often considered ‘modular’ (i.e., highly speciali...
Article
We examined predictions derived from Valentine's (1991) Multidimensional Space (MDS) framework for own- and other-race face processing. A set of 20 computerized faces was generated from a single prototype. Each face was saved as Black and White, changing only skin tone, such that structurally identical faces were represented in both race categories...
Article
Full-text available
Handwritten word recognition is a field of study that has largely been neglected in the psychological literature, despite its prevalence in society. Whereas studies of spoken word recognition almost exclusively employ natural, human voices as stimuli, studies of visual word recognition use synthetic typefaces, thus simplifying the process of word r...
Article
Full-text available
Visual search (e.g., finding a specific object in an array of other objects) is performed most effectively when people are able to ignore distracting nontargets. In repeated search, however, incidental learning of object identities may facilitate performance. In three experiments, with over 1,100 participants, we examined the extent to which search...
Article
Full-text available
The other-race effect (ORE) in face recognition is typically observed in tasks which require long-term memory. Several studies, however, have found the effect early in face encoding (Lindsay, Jack, & Christian, 1991; Walker & Hewstone, 2006). In 6 experiments, with over 300 participants, we found no evidence that the recognition deficit associated...
Article
Full-text available
The own-race bias (ORB) is a well-known finding wherein people are better able to recognize and discriminate own-race faces, relative to cross-race faces. In 2 experiments, participants viewed Asian and Caucasian faces, in preparation for recognition memory tests, while their eye movements and pupil diameters were continuously monitored. In Experim...
Article
Full-text available
Individual differences in working memory (WM) predict principled variation in tasks of reasoning, response time, memory, and other abilities. Theoretically, a central function of WM is keeping task-relevant information easily accessible while suppressing irrelevant information. The present experiment was a novel study of mental control, using perfo...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments tested the influences of vivid imagery and person schemata on eyewitness accuracy. Participants watched an event sequence including actors performing stereotype-consistent and inconsistent actions. Additionally, participants either read descriptions of actions (Experiment 1) or vividly imagined actions (Experiment 2). After either 3...
Article
When recollection is difficult, people may use schematic processing to enhance memory. Two experiments showed that a delay between witnessing and recalling a visual sequence increases schematic processing, resulting in stereotypic memory errors. Participants watched a slide show of a man and a woman performing stereotype-consistent and stereotype-i...
Article
Over the past two decades, numerous experiments have shown that spoken word perception creates detailed memory traces, containing not only word meanings, but also extraneous, perceptual or contextual details. This is shown, for example, by voice-specific priming effects. Based on such results, exemplar theories suggest the mental lexicon may consis...
Article
Full-text available
We examined associative priming of words (e.g., TOAD) and pseudohomophones of those words (e.g., TODE) in lexical decision. In addition to word frequency effects, reliable base-word frequency effects were observed for pseudohomophones: Those based on high-frequency words elicited faster and more accurate correct rejections. Associative priming had...
Article
Full-text available
Like all probabilistic decisions, recognition memory judgments are based on inferences about the strength and quality of stimulus familiarity. In recent articles, B. W. A. Whittlesea and J. Leboe (2000; J. Leboe & B. W. A. Whittlesea, 2002) proposed that such memory decisions entail various heuristics, similar to well-known heuristics in overt deci...
Article
According to dual-process theories of memory, "old" responses in recognition may reflect the separate or combined effects of two states, specific recollection and feelings of nonspecific familiarity. When decisions are based on familiarity, people may attribute enhanced perceptual fluency to memory for prior occurrence. In this experiment, we teste...
Article
Full-text available
Although memory is typically measured by recall or recognition, it is also expressed by fluent or stylized task performance. In this experiment, 12 volunteers (called speakers) completed four experimental stages over a 2-week period. They read printed words aloud in two sessions, before and after exposure to auditory training tokens. They later com...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were tested to see if executive dysfunction impacts their implementation of expectancy biases in a priming task. Young adults, healthy older adults, and individuals with MCI made speed-related decisions to sequentially presented word pairs. The proportion of category related (e.g., app...
Article
Pickering & Garrod (P&G) deserve appreciation for their cogent argument that dialogue merits greater scientific consideration. Current models make little contact with behaviors of dialogue, motivating the interactive alignment theory. However, the theory is not truly “mechanistic.” A full account requires both representations and processes bringing...
Article
When people perform a recognition memory task, they may avail themselves of different forms of information. For example, they may recall specific learning episodes, or rely on general feelings of familiarity. Although subjective familiarity is often valid, it can make people vulnerable to memory illusions. Research using verbal materials has shown...
Article
Viewed from the perspective of psycholinguistics, words are fairly magical entities, representing the psychological level at which twenty-six meaningless letters coalesce into thousands of meaningful units. Many choose only to study word-recognition itself, modeling RT data gathered from lexical decision or naming tasks. Others choose to follow the...
Article
Although speech signals are continuous and variable, listeners experience segmentation and linguistic structure in perception. For years, researchers have tried to identify the basic building-block of speech perception. In that time, experimental methods have evolved, constraints on stimulus materials have evolved, sources of variance have been ide...
Article
When presented with negative outcomes, people often engage in counterfactual thinking imagining various ways that events might have been different. This appears to be a spontaneous behavior, with considerable adaptive value. Nevertheless, counterfactual thinking may also engender systematic biases in various judgment tasks, such as allocating blame...
Article
Full-text available
Stuidies show that distinctive (e.g., attractive) people are better remembered than typical people (B. L. Cutler & S. D. Penrod, 1995). We investigated the effect of a Black person's presence on recognition accuracy for surrounding White individuals. Regarding eyewitness accuracy for an event, we expected more errors for White targets accompanied b...
Article
Full-text available