Stephen Garner

Stephen Garner
Princeton University | PU · Department of Geosciences

PhD

About

47
Publications
9,309
Reads
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4,459
Citations
Citations since 2016
9 Research Items
2197 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
Additional affiliations
September 1992 - present
Princeton University
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (47)
Article
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A diagnostic framework is developed to explain the response of tropical cyclones (TCs) to climate in high-resolution global atmospheric models having different complexity of boundary conditions. The framework uses vortex dynamics to identify the large-scale control on the evolution of TC precursors-first non-rotating convective clusters and then we...
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Simulations of baroclinic cyclones often cannot resolve moist convection but resort to convective parametrization. An exception is the hypohydrostatic rescaling, which in principle can be used to better represent convection with no increase in computational cost. The rescaling is studied in the context of a quasi-steady, convectively active, barocl...
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Plain Language Summary Recent observational studies suggest that Atlantic hurricane activity is strongly affected by extratropical weather processes, but modeling studies disagree about the importance of such an impact. Using a regional atmospheric model, we conduct idealized experiments to explore the extratropical impact on Atlantic hurricane act...
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High-resolution simulation can be a powerful means of evaluating and tuning orographic drag schemes, but connecting the parameterized drag, which is a local forcing, with the model drag, which is fundamentally global, is not entirely straightforward. The simplest idea is to filter the velocity down to its divergent component and exploit Bernoulli's...
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In Part II of this two-part paper, documentation is provided of key aspects of a version of the AM4.0/LM4.0 atmosphere/land model that will serve as a base for a new set of climate and Earth system models (CM4 and ESM4) under development at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The quality of the simulation in AMIP (Atmospheric Model...
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In this two-part paper, a description is provided of a version of the AM4.0/LM4.0 atmosphere/land model that will serve as a base for a new set of climate and Earth system models (CM4 and ESM4) under development at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). This version, with roughly 100km horizontal resolution and 33 levels in the vertic...
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Tropical cyclones are studied under the idealized framework of rotating radiative-convective equilibrium, achieved in a large doubly-periodic f -plane by coupling the column physics of a global atmospheric model to rotating hydrostatic dynamics. Unlike previous studies which prescribe uniform sea surface temperature (SST) over the domain, SSTs are...
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The impact of topographic internal lee wave drag (wave drag hereafter) on several aspects of the low-frequency circulation in a high-resolution global ocean model forced by winds and air-sea buoyancy fluxes is examined here. The HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) is run at two different horizontal resolutions (one nominally 1/12° and the other 1...
Article
This paper examines two internal lee wave closures that have been used together with ocean models to predict the time-averaged global energy conversion rate into lee waves and dissipation rate associated with lee waves and topographic blocking: the Garner (2005) scheme and the Bell (1975) theory. The closure predictions in two Southern Ocean region...
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The theoretical minimum eyewall pressure of tropical cyclones can be computed from convective available potential energy (CAPE) if the buoyancy in the CAPE is allowed to feed back on the surface pressure via hydrostatic balance. The relationship between this so-called hurricane CAPE and the surface pressure is exploited by a widely used algorithm f...
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A high-resolution regional atmospheric model is used to simulate present-day western North Pacific (WNP) tropical cyclone (TC) activity and to investigate the projected changes for the late twenty-first century. Compared to observations, the model can realistically simulate many basic features of the WNP TC activity climatology, such as the TC gene...
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Rotating radiative–convective equilibrium is studied by extracting the column physics of a mesoscale-resolution global atmospheric model that simulates realistic hurricane frequency statistics and then coupling it to rotating hydrostatic dynamics in doubly periodic domains. The parameter study helps in understanding the tropical cyclones simulated...
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The impact of parameterized topographic internal lee wave drag on the input and output terms in the total mechanical energy budget of a hybrid coordinate high-resolution global ocean general circulation model forced by winds and air-sea buoyancy fluxes is examined here. Wave drag, which parameterizes the generation of internal lee waves arising fro...
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Twenty-first-century projections of Atlantic climate change are downscaled to explore the robustness of potential changes in hurricane activity. Multimodel ensembles using the phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3)/Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B (SRES A1B; late-twenty-first century) and phase 5 of the Coupled Model...
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This paper discusses the possible existence of hurricanes in an atmosphere without water vapor and analyzes the dynamic and thermodynamic structures of simulated hurricane-like storms in moist and dry environments. It is first shown that the "potential intensity" theory for axisymmetric hurricanes is directly applicable to the maintenance of a bala...
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The process of hydrostatic adjustment in a vertical column is discussed in the context of rain formation and sedimentation. The authors assume an event of instantaneous condensation in a midatmospheric layer that removes mass from the gas phase and produces latent heating. It is shown that the rain formation leads to a change of the surface pressur...
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The process of hydrostatic adjustment in a vertical column is discussed in the context of rain formation and sedimentation with particular emphasis given on the evolution of the surface pressure. We assume an event of instantaneous condensation in a mid-atmospheric layer which removes mass from the gas phase and implies latent heating. It is shown...
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Stormy Weather One of the most active questions about the effects of global warming is whether, and how, it might affect the frequency and the strength of hurricanes. Some studies have suggested that warming will bring fewer, and less energetic, hurricanes, while others have claimed that we can expect more intense storms. Bender et al. (p. 454 ; se...
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Atlantic tropical cyclone activity has trended upward in recent decades. The increase coincides with favorable changes in local sea surface temperature and other environmental indices, principally associated with vertical shear and the thermodynamic profile. The relative importance of these environmental factors has not been firmly established. A r...
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Increasing sea surface temperatures in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and measures of Atlantic hurricane activity have been reported to be strongly correlated since at least 1950 (refs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5), raising concerns that future greenhouse-gas-induced warming could lead to pronounced increases in hurricane activity. Models that explicitly simulate hu...
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A hurricane-like vortex is proven possible through a research that it can form and exist in a dry environment. Dry hurricane dynamics maybe related to polar lows and extraterrestrial vortex phenomena and is believed that hurricanes may have formed during the colder periods of Earth's history. Kerry Emanuel's 1986 axisymmetric hurricane intensity th...
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In this study, a new modeling framework for simulating Atlantic hurricane activity is introduced. The model is an 18-km-grid nonhydrostatic regional model, run over observed specified SSTs and nudged toward observed time-varying large-scale atmospheric conditions (Atlantic domain wavenumbers 0-2) derived from the National Centers for Environmental...
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Convection cannot be explicitly resolved in general circulation models given their typical grid size of 50 km or larger. However, by multiplying the vertical acceleration in the equation of motion by a constant larger than unity, the horizontal scale of convection can be increased at will, without necessarily affecting the larger-scale flow. The re...
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A novel type of limited double-moment scheme for bulk microphysics is presented here for cloud-system-resolving models (CSRMs). It predicts the average size of cloud droplets and crystals, which is important for representing the radiative impact of clouds on the climate system. In this new scheme, there are interactive components for ice nuclei (IN...
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The atmospheric circulation spans a wide range of spatial scales, including the planetary scale (~10,000km), synoptic scale (~2,000km), mesoscale (~200km), and convective scales (<20km). The wide scale separation between convective motions, responsible for the vertical energy transport, and the planetary circulation, responsible for the meridional...
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This paper investigates the impacts of horizontal resolution on the statistical behavior of convection. An idealized radiative–convective equilibrium is simulated for model resolutions ranging between 2 and 50 km. The simulations are compared based upon the analysis of the mean state, the energy and water vapor transport, and the probability distri...
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Topographic drag schemes depend on grid-scale representations of the average height, width, and orientation of the subgrid topography. Until now, these representations have been based on a combination of statistics and dimensional analysis. However, under certain physical assumptions, linear analysis provides the exact amplitude and orientation of...
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The configuration and performance of a new global atmosphere and land model for climate research developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are presented. The atmosphere model, known as AM2, includes a new gridpoint dynamical core, a prognostic cloud scheme, and a multispecies aerosol climatology, as well as components from previ...
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This paper examines the accuracy of surface elevations in a forward global numerical model of 10 tidal constituents. Both one-layer and two-layer simulations are performed. As far as the authors are aware, the two-layer simulations and the simulations in a companion paper (Deep-Sea Research II, 51 (2004) 3043) represent the first published global n...
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Many aspects of geophysical flows can be described compactly in terms of potential vorticity dynamics. Since potential temperature can fluctuate at boundaries, however, the boundary conditions for potential vorticity dynamics are inhomogeneous, which complicates considerations of potential vorticity dynamics when boundary effects are dynamically si...
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The shallow atmospheric fronts that develop in the early winter along the east coast of North America have been attributed, in various modeling and observational studies, to the land-sea contrasts in both surface heating and friction. However, typical synoptic conditions are such that these `coastal' fronts could also be a type of upstream influenc...
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Numerical solutions presented in a companion paper show that two-dimensional mesoscale terrain becomes a much stronger barrier to a continuously stratified flow when the flow contains warm advection. Here it is shown that this baroclinic enhancement is a strictly nonlinear phenomenon. The linear analysis indicates a weakening of the upstream respon...
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The life cycles of short baroclinic waves are investigated with the intention of completing a simple classification of nonlinear equilibration scenarios. Short waves become important in moist environments as latent heating reduces the scale of maximum baroclinic instability. Long-wave life cycles (wavenumber 6) were previously found to depend on de...
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The wide disparities in baroclinic wave development between spherical and Cartesian geometry are investigated with the purpose of assessing the role of the eddy momentum fluxes. Differences are already significant at the linear stage, as momentum fluxes are predominantly poleward in spherical geometry and predominantly equatorward in Cartesian geom...
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A time-dependent numerical model with open boundaries is used in an effort to distinguish between permanent and transient upstream flow changes and to relate these to developments near the mountain. It is found that permanent alterations are primarily due to an initial surge not directly related to wave breaking. Wave breaking, in addition to estab...
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The dynamics of quasi-geostrophic flow with uniform potential vorticity reduces to the evolution of buoyancy, or potential temperature, on horizontal boundaries. There is a formal resemblance to two-dimensional flow, with surface temperature playing the role of vorticity, but a different relationship between the flow and the advected scalar creates...
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The equilibration of two-dimensional baroclinic waves differs fundamentally from equilibration in three dimensions because two-dimensional eddies cannot develop meridional temperature or velocity structure. It was shown in an earlier paper that frontogenesis together with diffusive mixing in a two-dimensional Eady wave brings positive potential vor...
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The convective updraught forms within an expanding region of disturbed flow separated from the undisturbed environment by "storm fronts'. Forced (or neutral) ascent occurs at a surface "gust front' on the upwind side of the cold pool. We distinguish squall lines from ordinary convection by looking at the coherence between the forced and convective...
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Some fundamental properties of nongeostrophic baroclinic waves are examined by solving the equations of motion linearized about Eady's basic state at the next order of balance beyond quasi-geostrophic (QG) theory. The study fits into a general effort to broaden the view of `slow-manifold' behavior. The specific motivation is to identify balanced pr...
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Numerical simulation has failed to answer some fundamental questions about atmospheric frontogenesis because of the artificial minimum resolved scale in grid point and spectral models alike. A fully Lagrangian primitive-equation numerical model is developed for nonturbulent, slab-symmetric flow on an f-plane. With physical position treated as an ex...
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Under the assumption of weak background rotational and wind shear effects, an attractive computational upper boundary condition capable of transmitting gravity waves is generalized for use in a variety of f-plane models. Issues relating to numerical implementation are discussed.
Article
Supervised by Kerry A. Emanuel. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, 1986. Includes bibliographical references (leaves [219]-222).
Article
Several models of open-ocean tidal elevations have rms accuracies on the order of 1 cm. These are either purely empirical, or involve assimilations of data into hydrodynamical models. We have adapted the Hallberg Isopycnal Model (HIM) to be a forward model of global tides. Following upon the work of Jayne and St. Laurent (2001), we show that the ac...

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