Stephen Dunham

Stephen Dunham
University of Nottingham | Notts · School of Veterinary Medicine and Science

BVSc PhD MRCVS

About

56
Publications
9,225
Reads
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1,209
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2003 - September 2008
University of Glasgow
Position
  • Lecturer
January 1998 - January 2015
University of Nottingham
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (56)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction EEHV-1 is a viral infection of elephants that has been associated with a fatal haemorrhagic syndrome in Asian elephants. Previous studies have suggested that pregnant animals may shed more virus than non-pregnant animals. Methods This study examined whether pregnancy affected the frequency or magnitude of shedding of elephant endothel...
Article
Full-text available
The data described in this article pertains to Kuchipudi et al. (2014), “Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in chickens but not ducks is associated with elevated host immune and pro-inflammatory responses” [1]. While infection of chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus subtypes often leads to 100% mortality...
Article
Full-text available
Although wild ducks are considered to be the major reservoirs for most influenza A virus subtypes, they are typically resistant to the effects of the infection. In contrast, certain influenza viruses may be highly pathogenic in other avian hosts such as chickens and turkeys, causing severe illness and death. Following in vitro infection of chicken...
Article
Full-text available
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses cause severe infection in chickens at near complete mortality, but corresponding infection in ducks is typically mild or asymptomatic. To understand the underlying molecular differences in host response, primary chicken and duck lung cells, infected with two HPAI H5N1 viruses and a low pathogeni...
Article
Full-text available
For vertebrate organisms where a reference genome is not available, de novo transcriptome assembly enables a cost effective insight into the identification of tissue specific or differentially expressed genes and variation of the coding part of the genome. However, since there are a number of different tools and parameters that can be used to recon...
Article
Full-text available
Veterinary students face an increasing array of pressures and this has been reflected in the findings of several surveys which demonstrate high levels of stress amongst this population (Hafen and others 2008, Mellanby and others 2010, Totemeyer and others 2012). In response to this and the inclusion of ‘student support’ in the National Student Surv...
Article
Full-text available
Background One requisite of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is to normalise the data with an internal reference gene that is invariant regardless of treatment, such as virus infection. Several studies have found variability in the expression of commonly used housekeeping genes, such as beta-actin (ACTB) and glyceraldehyde-3-phospha...
Article
Full-text available
The large-scale outbreak of disease across Northern Europe caused by a new orthobunyavirus known as Schmallenberg virus has caused considerable disruption to lambing and calving. Although advances in technology and collaboration between veterinary diagnostic and research institutes have enabled rapid identification of the causative agent and the de...
Article
Full-text available
Respiratory epithelial cells and macrophages are the key innate immune cells that play an important role in the pathogenesis of influenza A virus infection. We found that these two cell types from both human and pig showed comparable susceptibilities to initial infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus (A/turkey/Turkey/1/...
Poster
Gene expression profiling of avian influenza infected primary chicken and duck cells: potential role of JAK-STAT pathway in host innate resistance to H5N1 infection
Article
Introduction and Objectives Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive lung disease of unknown cause. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood but activation of latent TGFß on lung epithelium is an important factor. TGFß must be activated, as it is secreted in a latent complex with its propeptide, the latency associated peptide, and the av...
Poster
Impaired viral replication (Antiviral) and anti-proinflammatory responses contribute to innate host resistance in H5N1 influenza virus infected primary pig cells
Conference Paper
Background / Purpose: Influenza viruses pose a major global threat to both animal and human health. This study examines innate host response to low and high pathogenicity influenza A viruses following infection of primary tracheal and macrophage cells between typically ‘resistant’ and ‘susceptible’ host species (pigs and humans respectively). Ma...
Article
Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is a common disorder of performance horses and is associated with poor performance and accumulation of mucus and inflammatory cells in lower airway secretions. Horses with IAD frequently have increased relative counts of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); less commonly relative counts of eosinophil...
Article
Full-text available
Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for most subtypes of influenza A, and a source of novel viruses with the potential to cause human pandemics, fatal zoonotic disease or devastating epizootics in poultry. It is well recognised that waterfowl typically show few clinical signs following influenza A infection, in contrast, terrestrial poultry suc...
Article
Full-text available
A major determinant of influenza infection is the presence of virus receptors on susceptible host cells to which the viral haemagglutinin is able to bind. Avian viruses preferentially bind to sialic acid alpha2,3-galactose (SAalpha2,3-Gal) linked receptors, whereas human strains bind to sialic acid alpha2,6-galactose (SAalpha2,6-Gal) linked recepto...
Article
Full-text available
Avian influenza viruses are considered to be key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. A major determinant of infection is the presence of virus receptors on susceptible cells to which the viral haemagglutinin is able to bind. Avian viruses preferentially bind to sialic acid α2,3-galactose (SAα2,3-Gal) linked receptors, wherea...
Article
Full-text available
THE incidence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map), the cause of Johne's disease in animals, appears to be increasing in the uk ([sac 2000][1]). Infection can be congenital, or acquired from contaminated milk, freshly voided faeces or the environment. Infection is followed by
Article
Retroviral infections are particularly important in cats, which are commonly infected with feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus. This article describes the biology of these viruses and explores current issues regarding vaccination and diagnosis. The seeming lack of a recognized retrovirus infection in dogs is speculated on, and c...
Poster
Detection of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis in food animals using real-time PCR
Article
SIR, — We would like to thank all the veterinary practitioners, veterinary nurses, veterinary support staff and cat owners involved in the recruitment of cats for our study concerning the epidemiology of feline injection-site sarcomas (fiss) in the uk ( VR , November 4, 2006, vol 159, pp 641-642
Article
Protection against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) has been achieved using a variety of vaccines notably whole inactivated virus (WIV) and DNA. However protection against more virulent isolates, typical of those encountered in natural infections, has been difficult to achieve. In an attempt to improve protection against virulent FIV(GL8), we co...
Article
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a natural infection of domestic cats, which produces a disease with many similarities to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in man. The virus is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in pet cats worldwide. As such an effective vaccine is desirable both for its use in veterinary medicine and a...
Article
A cDNA encoding feline granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor was cloned from alveolar macrophages using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cDNA is 426 bp in length and encodes a predicted mature protein of 127 amino acids and the majority of the signal peptide. The recombinant protein (rfGM-CSF) was express...
Article
A cDNA encoding feline granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor was cloned from alveolar macrophages using the reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cDNA is 426 bp in length and encodes a predicted mature protein of 127 amino acids and the majority of the signal peptide. The recombinant protein (rfGM-CSF) was express...
Article
Nucleic acid immunisation entails the delivery of DNA (or RNA) encoding a vaccine antigen to the recipient. The DNA is taken up by host cells and transcribed to mRNA, from which the vaccine proteins are then translated. The expressed proteins are recognised as foreign by the host immune system and elicit an immune response, which may have both cell...
Article
The appearance of non-cytolytic T cells that suppressed feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication in vitro, and FIV-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses was compared in a group of seven, specific pathogen free (SPF) domestic cats following primary infection with the Glasgow(8) isolate of FIV (FIV(GL-8)). FIV proviral burdens were quantif...
Article
Full-text available
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a common naturally occurring gammaretrovirus of domestic cats that is associated with degenerative diseases of the hematopoietic system, immunodeficiency, and neoplasia. Although the majority of cats exposed to FeLV develop a transient infection and recover, a proportion of cats become persistently viremic and many s...
Article
A molecular clone of the Glasgow-8 isolate of FIV (FIVGL8) was rendered replication defective by an in-frame deletion in either reverse transcriptase (deltaRT) or integrase (deltaIN) genes for use as DNA vaccines. To test the ability of these multi-gene vaccines to protect against two feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) isolates of differing virule...
Article
Full-text available
The expectation that cell-mediated immunity is important in the control of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection led us to test a DNA vaccine administered alone or with cytokines that favored the development of a Th1 immune response. The vaccine consisted of two plasmids, one expressing the gag/pol genes and the other expressing the env gene of Fe...
Article
A cDNA encoding feline granulocyte colony stimulating factor (fG-CSF) was cloned from alveolar macrophages using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The cDNA is 949 bp in length and encodes a predicted mature protein of 174 amino acids. Recombinant fG-CSF was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion and purified by affinity...
Article
Cytokines are soluble proteins produced by nucleated cells throughout the body. They have wide ranging effects on cell growth and differentiation, mediating immune responses, haemopoiesis and tissue repair. Advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to a vast increase in knowledge of their biological properties and subsequently their use in hu...
Article
cDNA clones encoding two isoforms of feline stem cell factor (fSCF) have been isolated using RT-PCR and their sequences determined. The cDNAs encode a predicted full length fSCF protein of 274 amino-acids and a shorter isoform of 246 amino acids. Feline SCF shows a high degree of homology to the SCFs of other species at both the nucleic acid and pr...
Article
A cDNA corresponding to canine IL-2 has been isolated and sequenced. The cDNA was synthesised using RT-PCR, with oligonucleotide primers designed from conserved regions of published IL-2 sequences. The cDNA encodes a predicted full length IL-2 protein of 155 amino-acids. At the nucleic acid level, the canine cDNA shows 92, 88, 88, 82 and 74% homolo...
Chapter
Many experimental strategies have been adopted in experiments to protect cats from FIV infection by vaccination, and some have been successful. The interest in developing a vaccine arose both because FIV is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in pet cats and because the feline virus provides a model for its counterpart in man, human immunodef...

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