Stephen Bush

Stephen Bush
GE Global Research · Connectivity Laboratory

PhD

About

132
Publications
16,261
Reads
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1,125
Citations
Citations since 2017
2 Research Items
305 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
Additional affiliations
January 2013 - present
General Electric
Position
  • Quantum Key Distribution in the Power Grid
January 2011 - present
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Position
  • IEEE P1906.1 Working Group Chair
August 2010 - June 2012
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Position
  • A. Professor
Description
  • Taught Quantum Computation and Communication Graduate course.
Education
June 1981 - June 1985
Carnegie Mellon University
Field of study
  • Electrical and Computer Engineering

Publications

Publications (132)
Article
Full-text available
Traffic signals are ubiquitous devices that first appeared in 1868. Recent advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have led to unprecedented improvements in such areas as mobile handheld devices (i.e., smartphones), the electric power industry (i.e., smart grids), transportation infrastructure, and vehicle area networks. Given t...
Article
Nanoscale communication fills a gap, namely, ad hoc communication among entities whose length scale is on the order of nanometers. These entities may be entirely synthetic, but in practice they have more often involved machine communication with small-scale biological entities, namely, subcellular components. Communication directly with and through...
Article
Although the importance of innovation and standardization (I&S) of technology is well understood in the information and communications technology (ICT) community, there is a lack of awareness of the definitions of I&S, the relationship between I&S, and popular theories of I&S. The IEEE Communications Society's Emerging Technical Subcommittee on Inn...
Article
Full-text available
Nanoscale communication is expected to offer unprecedented benefits. However, lack of a precise definition and general framework for nanoscale communication has resulted in limited impact and dissipated effort. The IEEE P1906.1/Draft 1.0 Recommended Practice for Nanoscale and Molecular Communication Framework provides the precise, common definition...
Conference Paper
Problems of delay and resultant driver frustration continue to get worse as congestion increases in large cities. The delays can be minimized by optimization of traffic signals. Traffic signal optimization is a complex problem making improvements difficult. Recent advances in sensors and communication have enabled the use of novel algorithms for im...
Patent
Full-text available
A control system for an electric power system is provided. The control system includes a wireless communication system for tracking one or more electric vehicles and receiving a battery charge data of said electric vehicles. The control system also includes a load sensor for sensing load of the electric power system. The control system further incl...
Patent
Full-text available
Systems, methods, and apparatus for electrical grid quantum key distribution is disclosed. According to the invention, a method is provided for secure communications in an electrical power distribution network. An example of the method can include evaluating vulnerability of communications control nodes associated with the network; distributing qua...
Article
The communication network supports applications within the power grid that cannot be handled by local control; there is a mutual relationship that influences their network structures. This leads to the hypothesis that there is a fundamental relationship involving the eigenvalues of the power grid and communication network adjacency matrices. The in...
Article
IEEE Vision for Smart Grid Communications: 2030 and Beyond Reference Model, directly overlays events in the power grid with communication performance on the same spacetime model, it ensures a perspective that verifies that any of the myriad of communication technologies chosen will provide the required support for the Smart Grid. For Corporate or I...
Article
This paper explores the significance of persistence length in modeling and simulation of nanoscale networks. Persistence length, used by chemists and biologists, pertains to a wide range of high-aspect ratio, small-scale materials, and has a significant impact on communication at the nanoscale. For example, it applies to carbon nanotubes, microtubu...
Article
This IEEE Vision for Smart Grid Communications: 2030 and Beyond Roadmap is a high-levelsupplement of the full vision document IEEE Vision for Smart Grid Communications: 2030 andBeyond. Communication is a major enabling technology for the Smart Grid. We believe that the powergrid will tend to utilize advances in communications since the data exchang...
Article
This document provides a vision of the communications-related aspects of the Smart Grid in the year 2030 and lays out the technology roadmap that will lead us to the vision. The basic premise behind the Smart Grid is to improve the stability, efficiency, and robustness of the nation’s power grid through an integrated information network. Conceptual...
Patent
Full-text available
An information system includes a bulletin board-type interface that enables virtual messages propagating through the system, to interface with one another. The virtual messages are created by a virtual system embedded within the information system. The virtual messages may model any of various network services and predict traffic based on the netwo...
Patent
Full-text available
A system for controlling a swarm that includes a plurality of autonomous objects may include a processing system and a controller. The processing system may compute the primitives to be applied to each pair of objects in the swarm, and may combine the primitives to generate higher-level primitives. The processing system may generate a graph of the...
Chapter
This document provides a vision of the communications-related aspects of the Smart Grid in the year 2030, and lays out the technology roadmap that will lead us to the vision. This document starts with some basic knowledge of the power grid and follows up with fundamental building blocks for the communication infrastructure that will accompany the S...
Book
Advances in power electronics will impact both the smart grid and its supporting communication. Advances in high-power solid-state electronics along with communication will enable the power grid to operate in a more efficient and flexible manner. A comprehensive review of power electronic advances in flexible alternating-current transmission system...
Article
Communication latency is a concern for networked control systems. This often results in the decision to either forego or disable network management for fear of impacting the performance of a networked control system. The result is that the network remains unobservable until problems are too late to correct and communication problems become severe e...
Article
A safe and reliable in vivo nanoscale communication network will be of great benefit for medical diagnosis and monitoring as well as medical implant communication. This review article provides a brief introduction to nanoscale and molecular networking in general and provides opinions on the role of active networking for in vivo nanoscale informatio...
Article
The issue of availability and the speed with which faults are mitigated in automated electric power distribution within the emerging smart grid is addressed. The evolution of the smart grid depends upon convergence towards the best coupling of communication and power distribution. This paper seeks to examine the impact of two coupled network struct...
Article
A scale free communication network in a power network is provided. The scale free communication network comprises a plurality of distribution devices communicatively coupled to each other in a power network that include a protection device and a controller coupled to each of the plurality of distribution devices in the power network. The controller...
Conference Paper
We present four new change detection methods that create an automated change map from a probability map. In this case, the probability map was derived from a 3D model. The primary application of interest is aerial photographic applications, where the appearance, disappearance or change in position of small objects of a selectable class (e.g., cars)...
Book
A highly useful resource for professionals and students alike, this cutting-edge, first-of-its-kind book provides a thorough introduction to nanoscale communication networks. Written in a clear tutorial style, this volume covers a wide range of the most important topics in the area, from molecular communication and carbon nanotube nano-networks, to...
Conference Paper
There are similarities between microtubules in living cells and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Both microtubules and carbon nanotubes have a similar physical structure and properties and both are capable of transporting information at the nanoscale. Microtubules and carbon nanotubes can also self-organize to create random graph structures, which can be u...
Article
Wireless ad hoc communication on the nanoscale will require thinking outside of the traditional radio spectrum. New applications will utilize new forms of wireless communication channels. For example, nanoscale communication will enable precise mechanisms for directly interacting with cells in vivo. Information may be sent to and from specific cell...
Article
A data provenance framework is subject to security threats and risks, which increase the uncertainty, or lack of trust, in provenance information. Information assurance is challenged by incomplete information; one cannot exhaustively characterize all threats or all vulnerabilities. One technique that specifically incorporates a probabilistic notion...
Conference Paper
This paper addresses the use of active probing as a tool for implementing life-cycle dependability growth concepts in networked control systems. In the controls field, the potential benefits of active probing in stochastic control were first recognized by Tse and Bar-Shalom [1974]. Significant practical development of active probing techniques, how...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper proposes a biological cell-based communication pro tocol to enable communication between biological nanodevices. Inspi red by existing communication network protocols, our solution combines two molecular com- puting techniques (DNA and enzyme computing), to design a protocol stack for molecular communication networks. Based on computatio...
Conference Paper
Existing approaches to detect modeled activities in video often require the precise specification of the number of actors or roles, or spatial constraints, or other limitations that create difficulties for generic detection of group activities. We develop an approach to detect group behaviors in video, where an arbitrary number of participants are...
Article
Full-text available
An intersection of two worlds, emerging nano- technologies and network/communication theory, is poised to change the nature of information assurance. New communication paradigms will be derived from the transition from micro- to nano-scale devices. The related degrees of freedom and constraints associated with these new technologies will change our...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present a biological Nano and MEMS communication platform that uses Nano logic computation based on controlled cell-signaling mechanisms. The proposed solution also integrates compartmentalisation techniques to support parallel processing. Based on our solution, our objective is to create a nanoscale communication networks between...
Book
Active networking is an exciting new paradigm in digital networking that has the potential to revolutionize the manner in which communication takes place. It is an emerging technology, one in which new ideas are constantly being formulated and new topics of research are springing up even as this book is being written. This technology is very likely...
Chapter
IntroductionBackground Active Network FrameworkActive Network ArchitectureImplementations of Active Network ComponentsNode Operating SystemsAnalysis of Active NetworksSelected ApplicationsAcknowledgmentGlossaryCross References
Conference Paper
Sensor coverage has benefit from finding better ways to communicate among smaller sensors. Also, as development in nanotechnology progresses, the need for low-cost, robust, reliable communication among nano-machines become apparent. Communication and signaling within newly engineered inorganic and biological nano-systems were allowed for extremely...
Article
We present a simple distributed concept that appears to insinuate SWARM behavior in a collection of mobile platforms. The control is based on the inter-mobile platform communication links' signal-to-noise ratio. This double use of communications is a ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes an approach to detecting distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks that is based on fundamentals of information theory, specifically Kolmogorov complexity. The algorithm is based on a concept of Kolmogorov complexity that states that the joint complexity measure of random strings is lower than the sum of the complexities of...
Article
We present a simple distributed concept that appears to insinuate SWARM behavior in a collection of mobile platforms. The control is based on the inter-mobile platform communication links’ signal-to-noise ratio. This double use of communications is a natural linkage for SWARM behavior.
Article
Full-text available
The primary contribution of this work is to examine the energy efficiency of pulse coupled oscillation for time synchronization in a realistic wireless network environment and to explore the impact of mobility on convergence rate. Energy coupled oscillation is susceptible to interference; this approach uses reception and decoding of short packet bu...
Article
Full-text available
We present progress on the experimental validation of a fundamental and universally applicable vulnerability analysis framework that is capable of identifying new types of vulnerabilities before attackers innovate attacks. This new framework proactively identifies system components that are vulnerable based upon their Kolmogorov Complexity estimate...
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental understanding of gain provided by motion prediction in wireless ad hoc routing is currently lacking. This paper examines benefits in routing obtainable via prediction. A theoretical best-case non-predictive routing model is quantified in terms of both message overhead and update time for non-predictive routing. This best- case model o...
Article
Sensorcoverage willbenefit fromfinding better ways to communicate among smallersensors. Also,as development innanotechnology progresses, theneedforlow-cost, robust, reliable communication among nano-machines will becomeapparent. Communication andsignaling within newly engineered inorganic andbiological nano-systems willallowfor extremely denseandef...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mobile wireless communication is susceptible to signal blockage, which is loss of signal, typically due to physical obstruction, over a longer duration relative to fading. Measurements indicate that blockage has a significant impact on reliability in both open and rural areas. Reliable multicast, a transport layer mechanism, attempts to gain networ...
Article
Full-text available
Technical Report Abstract Page Title ,Nano-Communications: A New Field? An Exploration into a Carbon Nanotube Communication,Network Author(s) ,Stephen F. Bush,,,Phone:8*833-6827 Yun Li
Article
The integrated application within random carbon nanotube networks (CNT) to carry and fuse information, as well as perform simple sensing, is explored. One may imagine small CNT networks with functionalized nanotubes simultaneously sensing multiple targets in-vivo for unprecedented understanding of biological pathways. This is clearly distinct from...
Article
This is a brief letter outlining speculative ideas for semantic web reasoning about information assurance. Much work has been done on the development of semantic web applications for reasoning about information assurance. A significant portion of this work is focused upon semantic web ontologies and reasoning about security policies and the underly...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines flexibility in ad hoc networks and suggests that, even with cross-layer design as a mechanism to improve adaptation, a fundamental limitation exists in the ability of a single optimization function, defined a priori, to adapt the network to meet all quality-of-service requirements. Thus, code implementing multiple algorithms wil...
Article
Full-text available
If current trends continue, the next generation of enterprise networks is likely to become a more complex mixture of hardware, communication media, architectures, protocols, and standards. One approach toward reducing the management burden caused by growing complexity is to integrate management support into the inherent function of network operatio...
Conference Paper
A key component in efficient and intelligent sensor networking is inducing collaborative behavior. We examine collaboration from the point of view of synchronizing activity. Power consumption and pulse-coupled oscillation are explored in terms of low power time synchronization. More complex synchronous patterns are examined via Boolean Network stat...
Article
This aricle discusses the similarity between the propagation of pathogens (viruses and worms) on computer networks and the proliferation of pathogens in cellular organisms (organisms with genetic material contained within a membrane-encased nucleus). It introduces several biological mechanisms which are used in these organisms to protect against su...
Chapter
The science of complexity theory, whose fundamentals have been developed over many decades, is poised to provide a new perspective to computer science and to computer networking in particular. An understanding of complexity theory will enable better system performance and add novel features as well as better security. A network of communicating nod...
Article
This paper presents results in two mutually complementary areas: distributed immunological information assurance and a new signature matching technique based upon Kolmogorov Complexity. This paper introduces a distributed model for security based on biological paradigms of Epidemiology and Immunology. In this model each node in the network has an i...
Article
This article presents the architecture and initial feasibility results of a proto-type communication network that utilizes genetic programming to evolve services and protocols as part of network operation. The network evolves responses to environmental conditions in a manner that could not be pre-programmed within legacy network nodes a priori. A p...
Article
Active Networking provides a framework in which executable code within data packets can execute upon intermediate network nodes. Active Virtual Network Management Prediction (AVNMP) provides a network prediction service that utilizes the capability of Active Networks to easily inject fine-grained models into the communication network to enhance net...
Article
This is a speci#cation for the network architecture and functionality of the Rapidly Deployable Radio Network. Invariants for each protocol layer, as well as con#guration, recon#guration, link quality, and mobility are speci#ed. Implementation of high level functionality is prioritized, while refraining from over-specifying some of the interesting...
Article
This study is the first known implementation of jitter control in an active network. Jitter control is performed by active packets in a distributed packet by packet basis within an active network rather than on a per flow basis as in today's passive networks. This provides many new benefits and challenges. The concept and results of an experimental...
Article
Full-text available
This precis describes a tool for quantifying the vulnerability of a communications network. It is important that information warfare studies include both offensive and defensive strategies in an integrated manner since neither can be studied in isolation. It is assumed that an attacker has a finite amount of resources with which to discover faults...
Article
Full-text available
This paper extends a stochastic theory for bu#er #ll distribution for multiple #on" and #o# " sources to a mobile environment. Queue #ll distribution is described by a set of di#erential equations assuming sources alternate asynchronously between exponentially distributed periods in #on" and #o# " states. This paper includes the probabilities that...
Article
Full-text available
In the course of e#orts to more fully utilize the power of active networks to build a self-managing communications network, the nature of entanglement and the relationship between modeling and communication become of utmost importance. This paper provides a very brief introduction to Active Networks and the Active Virtual Network Management Predict...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this paper is to define and analyze systems which exhibit brittle behavior. This behavior is characterized by a sudden and steep decline in performance as the system state changes. This can be due to input parameters which exceed a specified input, or environmental conditions which exceed specified operating boundaries.
Article
This work provides the results of the on-going design and implementation of a control and management network (an orderwire) for a mobile wireless ATM system. There are novel uses for an orderwire which receives time and position from the Global Positioning System (GPS). Position information is used for such things as beam steering and determination...
Article
Page Title Active Network Management, Kolmogorov Complexity, and Streptichrons Author(s) A.B. Kulkarni Phone (518)387-6827 S.F. Bush 8*833-6827 Component Electronic Systems Laboratory Report Number 2000CRD107 Date December 2000 Number of Pages 17 Class 1 Key Words active networks, emergence, network management, complexity This report discusses the...
Article
This paper focuses on the Rapidly Deployable Radio Networks Project [4, 5] as an example of a specific predictive mobile network. The Virtual Network Configuration algorithm developed as part of RDRN uses a predictive mechanism for every phase of configuration, including location and handoff
Article
Page Title Detecting Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks using Kolmogorov Author(s) A.B. Kulkarni Phone (518)387-4291 S.F. Bush 8*833-4291 S.C. Evans Component Information and Decision Technologies Report Number 2001CRD176 Date December 2001 Number of Page 8 Class 1 Key Words Kolmogorov complexity, denial-of-service, active network, entropy This...
Article
The problem of Information Assurance is approached from the point of view of Kolmogorov Complexity and Minimum Message Length criteria. Several theoretical results are obtained, possible applications are discussed and a new metric for measuring complexity is introduced. Utilization of Kolmogorov Complexity like metrics as conserved parameters to de...
Article
Full-text available
This paper extends the work of [2] to a mobile environment. In that work, the equilibrium buffer fill distribution is described by a set of differential equations assuming sources alternate asynchronously between exponentially distributed periods in "on" and "off " states. This paper extends that work by including the probabilities that mobile sour...
Article
There is a trendtoward the use of predictive systems in communications networks. Atthe systems andnetwork management level predictive capabilities are focused on anticipating network faults and performance degradations. Simultaneously, mobile communication networks are being developed with predictivelocation and trackingmechanisms. Theinteractions...
Article
Full-text available
The most significant result from this project has been experimental validation that complexity plays a critical role in information assurance and can be broadly applied as the basis for security analysis and fault tolerant network design. Complexity Theory is a large and rapidly evolving science. As progress is made in various topics of Complexity...
Article
Identification of vulnerabilities in an information system is a critical component of information assurance. State-of- the-art vulnerability analysis techniques require maintenance of a database of known attacks. These databases are updated with new attack signatures only after systems have been compromised and previous attacks analyzed. This is cl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An active network allows packets to contain a mixture of code (algorithm) and data. The ratio of code to data can vary as the packet travels through the network. Such networks can also be vulnerable to attack via the transport of virus or worm code. A mitigation of this problem has been attempted via the use of active network probes to detect vulne...
Article
Full-text available
Research into active networking has provided the incentive to re-visit what has traditionally been classified as distinct properties and characteristics of information transfer such as protocol versus service; at a more fundamental level this paper considers the blending of computation and communication by means of complexity. The specific service...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a novel algorithm, the Active Virtual Network Management Protocol (AVNMP), for predictive network management. It explains how the Active Virtual Network Management Protocol facilitates the management of an active network by allowing future predicted state information within an active network to be available to network manageme...
Chapter
The primary conclusion is that further research is required to understand the nature of entanglement, causality, and the relationship between modeling and communications. For example, Active Network Management Prediction uses a model within a network to enhance the network performance to improve the model’s own performance, which thus improves the...
Article
Full-text available
Page Title Complexity-Based Information Assurance Author(s) S.F. Bush Phone (518)387-6827 S.C. Evans 8*833-6827 Component Electronic Systems Laboratory Report Number 2001CRD084 Date October 2001 Number of Page 18 Class 1 Key Words Kolmogorov Complexity, Information Assurance, Network Security, Network Management, Information Theory, Evolution of Co...
Article
Full-text available
Page Title Symbol Compression Ratio for String Compression and Estimation of Kolmogorov Complexity Author(s) S.C. Evans Phone (518)387-7014 S.F. Bush 8*833-7014 Component Information and Decision Technologies Report Number 2001CRD159 Date November 2001 Number of Page 11 Class 1 Key Words Kolmogorov Complexity, Compression, Minimum Message Length, B...
Article
Full-text available
Two approaches are proposed for revolutionary gains in MEMS device communication. The first is to view all network devices as computational or active devices. Computation can take many forms. The amount of computation may vary, but every device has some type of computation, either programmed or ambient. Use of computation in an optimal manner is th...
Article
Full-text available
Page Title Active Network Management, Kolmogorov Complexity, and Streptichrons Author(s) A.B. Kulkarni Phone (518)387-6827 S.F. Bush 8*833-6827 Component Electronic Systems Laboratory Report Number 2000CRD107 Date December 2000 Number of Pages 17 Class 1 Key Words active networks, emergence, network management, complexity This report discusses the...