Stephen Anthony Brewster

Stephen Anthony Brewster
University of Glasgow | UofG · School of Computing Science

PhD

About

500
Publications
141,204
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
15,223
Citations
Introduction
Professor of human-computer interaction at the University of Glasgow. I am interested in multimodal interaction, audio, haptics, mobile, in-car interaction, accessibility
Additional affiliations
October 1995 - present
University of Glasgow
September 1994 - March 1995
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Position
  • ERCIM research fellow
October 1990 - December 1994
The University of York
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (500)
Article
This article discusses the Keyboard Augmentation Toolkit (KAT), which supports the creation of virtual keyboards that can be used both for standalone input (e.g., for mid-air text entry) and to augment physically tracked keyboards/surfaces in mixed reality. In a user study, we firstly examine the impact and pitfalls of visualising shortcuts on a tr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Electrotactile stimulation is a novel form of haptic feedback. There is little work investigating its basic design parameters and how they create effective tactile cues. This paper describes two experiments that extend our knowledge of two key parameters. The first investigated the combination of pulse width and amplitude (Intensity) on sensations...
Article
People with memory impairments following an acquired brain injury stand to benefit from smartphone apps as memory aids. Due, in part, to usability issues they use smartphone-based reminding less than the general population. Evidence suggests this group may benefit from user interface (UI) designs with more screens with less information per screen (...
Data
[https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6373681] These are the datasets about the experimental group (N=20, where N is the sample size, that is, 20 participants in total) and control group (N=20, where N is the sample size, that is, 20 participants in total) for our published paper entitled "Multimodal Biosensing for Vestibular Network-Based Cybersickness...
Chapter
Mixed Reality (MR) headsets enable the rendering of virtual content selectively intermixed with reality. These headsets have the capacity to allow passengers to break free from the restraints of physical displays placed in constrained environments such as cars, trains and planes. Moreover, they have the potential to allow passengers to make better...
Article
Virtual reality (VR) has the potential to induce cybersickness (CS), which impedes CS-susceptible VR users from the benefit of emerging VR applications. To better detect CS, the current study investigated whether/how the newly proposed human vestibular network (HVN) is involved in flagship consumer VR-induced CS by simultaneously recording autonomi...
Conference Paper
How the performance of autonomic physiological, and human vestibular network (HVN)-based brain functional connectivity (BFC) features differ in a VR sickness classification task is underexplored. Therefore, this paper presents an AI-aided comparative study of the two. Results from different AI models all show that autonomic physiological features r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a survey informing a user-first approach todesigning calming affective haptic stimuli by eliciting user prefer-ences in different social scenarios. Prior affective haptics researchpresented users with stimuli and recorded emotional responses. Bycontrast this work focuses on the sensations users wish to expe-rience and how these...
Article
Background: Attachment research has been limited by the lack of quick and easy measures. We report development and validation of the School Attachment Monitor (SAM), a novel measure for largescale assessment of attachment in children aged 5-9, in the general population. SAM offers automatic presentation, on computer, of story-stems based on the Ma...
Preprint
Segmenting audio into homogeneous sections such as music and speech helps us understand the content of audio. It is useful as a pre-processing step to index, store, and modify audio recordings, radio broadcasts and TV programmes. Deep learning models for segmentation are generally trained on copyrighted material, which cannot be shared. Annotating...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines key challenges in supporting passenger use of augmented and virtual reality headsets in transit. These headsets will allow passengers to break free from the restraints of physical displays placed in constrained environments such as cars, trains and planes. Moreover, they have the potential to allow passengers to make better use...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a novel category of affective vibrotactile stimuli which evoke real-world sensations and details a study into emotional responses to them. The affective properties of short and abstract vibrotactile waveforms have previously been studied and shown to have a narrow emotional range. By contrast this paper investigated emotional r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Attachment research has been limited by the lack of quick and easy measures. We report development and validation of the School Attachment Monitor (SAM), a novel measure for largescale assessment of attachment in children aged 5-9, in the general population. SAM offers automatic presentation, on computer, of story-stems based on the Manc...
Conference Paper
With the development of consumer virtual reality (VR), people have increasing opportunities to experience cybersickness (CS)-a kind of visually-induced motion sickness (MS). In view of the importance of CS mitigation (CSM), this paper reviews the methods of electrostimulation-based CSM (e-CSM), broadly categorised as either "VR-centric" or "Human-c...
Conference Paper
Many head-mounted virtual reality display (VR-HMD) applications that involve moving visual environments (e.g., virtual rollercoaster, car and airplane driving) will trigger cybersickness (CS). Previous research Arshad et al. (2015) has explored the inhibitory effect of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on vestibular cortical e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The gradual implementation of automated driving systems opens a wide range of opportunities for researchers and vehicle designers to transform vehicle interiors into a place for productivity and well-being. Former events held by the organizers have identified a research agenda to transform vehicles into a space for office work. This second edition...
Chapter
Full-text available
Ultrasonic tactile stimulation can give the user contactless tactile feedback in a variety of human-computer interfaces. Parameters, such as duration, rhythm, and intensity, can be used to encode information into tactile sensation. The present aim was to investigate the differentiation of six ultrasonic tactile stimulations that were varied by form...
Article
Full-text available
Ultrasound haptics is a contactless haptic technology that enables novel mid-air interactions with rich multisensory feedback. This paper surveys recent advances in ultrasound haptic technology. We discuss the fundamentals of this haptic technology, how a variety of perceptible sensations are rendered, and how it is currently being used to enable n...
Article
Full-text available
Background Smartphone reminding applications can help overcome memory difficulties experienced by people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Cognitive difficulties with memory and attention make entering reminders into a device, and remembering to set reminders, challenging for this group. ApplTree is a reminding app with features that aim to address...
Article
Mixed Reality (MR), Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) headsets can improve upon existing physical multi-display environments by rendering large, ergonomic virtual display spaces whenever and wherever they are needed. However, given the physical and ergonomic limitations of neck movement, users may need assistance to view these display...
Poster
Full-text available
Levitating particle displays are an emerging technology where content is composed of physical pixels. Unlike digital displays, manipulating the content is not straightforward because physical constraints affect the placement and movement of each particle: dragging a particle may cause it to collide with others along its movement path. We describe i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Electrotactile feedback can be used as a novel method to evoke different sensations on the skin. However, there is a lack of research exploring electrotactile feedback on the palm. This paper presents two experiments that investigate the effects of manipulating pulse width, amplitude and frequency of electrical stimulation on perceived sensations (...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Child cyclists are at greater risk for car-to-cyclist accidents than adults. This is in part due to developmental differences in the motor and perceptual-motor abilities of children and adults, and missing cycling infrastructure. To address these issues, we examine unimodal and projection-based techniques to support children in maintaining a good l...
Conference Paper
This video shows a concept of a future mobile office in a semi-automated vehicle that uses augmented reality. People perform non-driving tasks in current, non-automated vehicles even though that is unsafe. Moreover, even for passengers there is limited space, it is not social, and there can be motion sickness. In future cars, technology such as aug...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Our research aims to improve passenger journeys across both public and private transport, in cars, buses, planes and trains by utilizing Mixed Reality head-mounted (e.g. visual/auditory augmented and virtual reality) displays. This paper discusses our initial motivations and formative work in this area, both for in-car VR [33, 32] and for in-flight...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Automated vehicles will allow users to engage in non-driving activities related to work and well-being. This workshop will explore a number of questions related to human-computer interaction in vehicles with the ultimate goal of allowing users to be productive in automated vehicles, as well as to engage in activities that successfully increase thei...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the increasing development of Augmented reality (AR), the number of its purposes and applications in vehicles rises. Augmented reality may help to increase road safety, support more immersive (non-) driving related activities, and finally enhance driving and passenger experience. AR may also be the enabling technology to increase trust and acc...
Conference Paper
We describe a novel display concept where levitating particles are used to add a dynamic display element to static physical objects. The particles are actuated using ultrasound, for expressive output without mechanical constraints. We explore novel ways of using particles to add dynamic output to other objects, for new interactive experiences. We a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A challenge in sonification design is mapping data param-eters onto acoustic parameters in a way that aligns with a listener’s mental model of how a given data parameter should sound. Studies have used the psychophysical scaling method of magnitude estimation to systematically evaluate how participants per-ceive mappings between data and sound param...
Conference Paper
This article presents the School Attachment Monitor, a novel interactive system that can reliably administer the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (a standard psychiatric test for the assessment of attachment in children) without the supervision of trained professionals. Attachment problems in children cause significant mental health issues an...
Conference Paper
Developing educational tools aimed at children with disabilities is a challenging process for designers and developers because existing methodologies or frameworks do not provide any pedagogical information and/or do not take into account the particular needs of users with some type of impairment. In this study, we propose a framework for the desig...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Haptic feedback is used in cars to reduce visual inattention. While tactile feedback like vibration can be influenced by the car's movement, thermal and cutaneous push feedback should be independent of such interference. This paper presents two driving simulator studies investigating novel tactile feedback on the steering wheel for navigation. Firs...
Conference Paper
Designing technology for problem-free operation is vital, but equally important is considering how a user may understand or act upon errors and various other 'stuck' situations if and when they occur. Little is currently known about what children think and want for overcoming errors. In this paper we report on design-for-error workshops with childr...
Conference Paper
A long lasting problem in the design of auditory displays is how to design audio feedback that is aesthetically appealing and comfortable to listen to. Many systems focus solely on function and do not consider these other factors. This can lead to annoyance for users, or more extremely, abandonment of the system entirely. Instead of communicating i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gamification can change how and why people interact with software. A common approach is to use quantitative feedback to give users a feeling of progress or achievement. There are, however, other ways to provide users with motivation or meaning during normal computer interactions, such as using emotional reinforcement. This could provide a powerful...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cognitive and behavioural difficulties after acquired brain injury (ABI) may lead to reduced engagement in leisure and social activities. Increasing participation is a goal of neuropsychological rehabilitation and assistive and behaviour change technology can play an important role in this. Focus groups and interviews were conductive wi...
Article
Most research into haptic feedback for in-car applications has used vibrotactile feedback. In this article, two simulator studies investigate novel thermal feedback during driving for a lane change task. The distraction and time differences of audio and thermal feedback were investigated in the first, with results showing that thermal feedback does...
Conference Paper
Tactons are structured vibrotactile messages which can be used to transmit information solely through the cutaneous sense. These are particularly useful in situations where visual or auditory displays are unavailable or inappropriate. Most data:vibration mappings do not consider the user's perceptions of the mappings being used, which can lead to c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of ultrasound haptic feedback for mid-air gestures in cars has been proposed to provide a sense of control over the user's intended actions and to add touch to a touchless interaction. However, the impact of ultrasound feedback to the gesturing hand regarding lane deviation, eyes-off-the-road time (EORT) and perceived mental demand has not...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Augmented reality (AR) has the potential to improve road safety, support more immersive (non-) driving related activities, and finally enhance driving experience. AR may also be the enabling technology to help on the transition towards automated driving. However, augmented reality still faces a number of technical challenges when applied in vehicle...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Haptic feedback has been widely studied for in-car interactions. However, most of this research has used vibrotactile cues. This paper presents two studies that examine novel thermal feedback for navigation during simulated driving for a lane change task. In the first, we compare the distraction and time differences of audio and thermal feedback. T...
Article
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) in stroke survivors is low however the ubiquitous nature of smartphone technology means smartphone-based interventions could be a feasible and cost-effective approach to increase PA. We developed STARFISH, a group behavioural change intervention delivered via a smartphone app to help increase PA. OBJECTIVE: Follow...
Conference Paper
Levitating objects can be used as the primitives in a new type of display. We present levitating particle displays and show how research into object levitation is enabling a new way of presenting and interacting with information. We identify novel properties of levitating particle displays and give examples of the interaction techniques and applica...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The relationships between sounds and their perceived meaning and connotations are complex, making auditory perception an important factor to consider when designing sonification systems. Listeners often have a mental model of how a data variable should sound during sonification and this model is not considered in most data:sound mappings. This can...
Conference Paper
Room-scale Virtual Reality (VR) has become an affordable consumer reality, with applications ranging from entertainment to productivity. However, the limited physical space available for room-scale VR in the typical home or office environment poses a significant problem. To solve this, physical spaces can be extended by amplifying the mapping of ph...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Acoustic levitation enables a radical new type of human-computer interface composed of small levitating objects. For the first time, we investigate the selection of such objects, an important part of interaction with a levitating object display. We present Point-and-Shake, a mid-air pointing interaction for selecting levitating objects, with feedba...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Control interfaces and interactions based on touch-less gesture tracking devices have become a prevalent research topic in both industry and academia. Touch-less devices offer a unique interaction immediateness that makes them ideal for applications where direct contact with a physical controller is not desirable. On the other hand, these controlle...
Conference Paper
Sonification designers have little theory or experimental evidence to guide the design of data-to-sound mappings. Many mappings use acoustic representations of data values which do not correspond with the listener's perception of how that data value should sound during sonification. This research evaluates data-to-sound mappings that are based on p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Secure Attachment relationships have been shown to minimise social and behavioural problems in children and boosts resilience to risks such as antisocial behaviour, heart pathologies, and suicide later in life. Attachment assessment is an expensive and time-consuming process that is not often performed. The School Attachment Monitor (SAM) automates...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present rhythmic micro-gestures, micro-movements of the hand that are repeated in time with a rhythm. We present a user study that investigated how well users can perform rhythmic micro-gestures and if they can use them eyes-free with non-visual feedback. We found that users could successfully use our interaction technique (97% success rate acro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This demonstration showcases novel multimodal feedback designs for in-car mid-air gesture interaction. It explores the potential of multimodal feedback types for mid-air gestures in cars and how these can reduce eyes-off-the-road time thus make driving safer. We will show four different bimodal feedback combinations to provide effective information...
Conference Paper
In this demonstration we show a thermal interaction design on the steering wheel for navigational cues in a car. Participants will be able to use a thermally enhanced steering wheel to follow instructions given in a turn-to-turn based navigation task in a virtual city. The thermal cues will be provided on both sides of the steering wheel and will i...