Stephen Billett

Stephen Billett
Griffith University · Arts, Education and Law Group

About

231
Publications
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Publications

Publications (231)
Article
Context: Learning to prescribe is challenging for junior doctors. Significant efforts have been made to improve prescribing education, especially in view of the high rates of prescribing errors made by junior doctors. However, considerations of educational options often overlook the fact that learning to prescribe and prescribing practices rely on...
Article
Prescribing in acute healthcare settings is a complex interprofessional process with a high incidence of medication errors. Opportunities exist to improve prescribing learning through collaborative practice. This qualitative interview-based study aimed to investigate the development of junior doctors' prescribing capacity and how pharmacists contri...
Chapter
There is a growing need for a comprehensive and informed account of how learning across working life can be conceptualised, its range of purposes outlined, and processes supporting that learning understood. Consensus exists across governments and supra-national agencies, spokespersons for industry, occupations, employees, workplaces, education syst...
Chapter
There are growing national and global policy focuses as well as local concerns about lifelong learning, particularly as it pertains to working life. Yet, at the commencement of this book, it is important to capture some key precepts through what comprises these concerns and how they can be understood and addressed. These include being clear about w...
Chapter
This chapter discusses how practice-based professional development experiences can be used to build occupational capacities and, concurrently, sustain and transform the practices of work communities. It focuses upon how both individual and collective change can be brought about through interactions between professional practitioners within their wo...
Chapter
This chapter sets out the context, framing, procedures and broad outcomes of a 3-year investigation of continuing education and training in Australia. The investigation sought to identify what might comprise approaches to and models of continuing education and training that might be applied across Australia, nationally, its regions and industry sec...
Book
This volume considers, rethinks and reorganizes how support for learning across working life can be best conceptualized, organized and enacted. It considers educational and learning support processes that include approaches that fit well within working lives and workplaces, and support work and learning as a co-occurrence. These are the key focuses...
Article
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The provision of workplace support is central to how and what is and can be learnt at work. Hence, the distribution of those experiences is an important factor in the quality of workplace learning experiences. The study reported and discussed here aims to identify differences in levels of support and opportunities for applying knowledge in workplac...
Chapter
This chapter commences the discussion that then continues across the contributions of this monograph regarding how practice-based learning experiences (i.e. those in the circumstances of practice and usually outside of university settings) can be utilised and integrated within higher education courses in effective and sustainable ways. This discuss...
Chapter
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The collection of papers that comprise this edited monograph addresses issues confronting universities’ attempts to integrate practice-based learning in higher education curriculum. It is through accounts and analyses of activities that the kinds and extents of this jostling of cultures within and amongst the academy, industry, government and profe...
Chapter
This chapter identifies contributions of Francophone traditions and conceptions of learning through work and learning for work and the practices deployed to understand more fully these processes of learning. It identifies and elaborates from an Anglophone perspective four distinctive qualities of the contributions within this edited monograph. Thes...
Article
Learning in the circumstances of practice stands as the commonest and most enduring way occupational capacities have been learnt across human history, and, likely, are currently learnt. Yet, a comprehensive account of this means of learning remains absent, which limits the legitimacy of workplaces as sites of learning, the learning arising from the...
Chapter
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A key priority for research on professional development is elaborating how employees become and remain high-performing workers who are able to effectively respond to the changing requirements of their work. This chapter focuses on how workers develop such high performance at work. It is proposed that current accounts of professional expertise devel...
Chapter
Experiences in clinical settings have long been featured in medical education. Students engage in these experiences across their undergraduate programmes and beyond their registration as doctors during specialty training. Such is the institutional, personal and financial investment in the provision of these practice-based experiences that it is imp...
Article
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Learning experiences in the circumstances of work (i.e. where work is undertaken) are becoming increasingly discussed, included in educational programs at all levels, and seen as a key means for addressing individuals’ learning across working lives. These experiences are also now being directed to a widening range of personal, workplace, community...
Article
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Current tertiary education and training provisions are designed mainly to meet the learning needs of those preparing for entry into employment and specific occupations. Yet, changing work, new work requirements, an ageing workforce and the ongoing need for employability across lengthening working lives make it imperative that this educational focus...
Article
It is important to neither over-emphasise nor understate the importance of productive post-school transitions. However, for students who are at risk of unsuccessful transitions, there are potential and long-lasting risks. Consequently, there is a need to understand more about post-school transitions and the ways in which policy settings, and school...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Contemporary workers in countries with advanced industrial economies are required to engage in continuing work-related learning to maintain their occupational competence and employability. Learning at and through work is now seen to be central a means of achieving the individual and enterprise specific goals. This is partially because different soc...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose ‐ This paper aims to consider and appraise current developments and emerging perspectives on learning in the circumstances of work, to propose how some of the challenges for securing effective workplace learning may be redressed. Design/methodology/approach ‐ First, new challenges and perspectives on learning in the circumstances of work ar...
Article
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodological demonstration of how written and visual language in narrative and small stories about older workers might be read in multiple ways as supporting and/or constraining recent policy reform. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Critical theory and critical discourse analysis, supported by narr...
Chapter
Over the last decade, reforms to senior schooling provisions have occurred across most Australian states and territories. The policy reforms have been mandated to enable more young people to make successful transitions through the final years of secondary school and on to the more desirable and widely acceptable post-school options of full-time wor...
Chapter
This chapter provides an introduction to Part III, a set of chapters which draw on focus group and interview data gathered in an Australian study of transitions from senior schooling to post-school life. Specifically, the research sought to investigate what constituted “productive transitions” from a range of perspectives in a number of communities...
Chapter
Securing effective transitions for students who are 'at risk' requires a range of factors to be effectively addressed and occurs best when the school, the community and parents work together. The case study presented here indicates how positive outcomes can be achieved through such partnerships, yet equally are imperilled when one element of the pa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Workers, world-wide, increasingly need to engage in continuing education and training to respond to changing workplace requirements, maintain and increase productivity, remain workplace competent (employable), and participate in longer work lives. Australian workers are no exception here. Yet, given that most of the current Australian tertiary educ...
Article
Global concerns about the growing impact of ageing populations on workplace productivity and on welfare budgets have led to a range of governmentsupported measures intended to retain and upskill older workers. Yet, a consistent theme in the research literature is that older workers are reluctant and harder to train than younger workers, and that, r...
Chapter
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To understand what constitutes errors at work and, in particular, how productive learning might arise from those errors, it is necessary to go beyond viewing errors as only objective social facts. That is, only considering errors from the perspective of observable shortfalls in performance, as judged by others. Instead, it is necessary to also acco...
Book
Leaving school, whether to move on to training, work or education, is a fundamental rite of passage the world over. This volume draws on a wealth of international sources and studies in its analysis of the ‘transitions’ young students make as they move on from their secondary schooling. It identifies how these transitions are planned for by policym...
Chapter
This chapter proposes a socio-personal account that explains innovations at work. These innovations are central to sustaining the viability of enterprises in the face of continual changes in work requirements and client needs. They also comprise the process through which workers come to both learn and actively remake their occupational practices. T...
Chapter
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Offered here is an explanatory account of the process of learning through and for working life comprising a relational interdependence between social and personal contributions to that learning. These contributions are enacted through workplace activities and interactions, the legacy of which is change or learning in workers. Yet, these contributio...
Chapter
The Handbook has four sections. Section I is concerned with the theory of cooperative education, with particular focus on the learning that occurs in the workplace. This part also addresses contemporary issues such as assessment of cooperative education, and identifies areas of needed research. Section II examines the practice of co-op worldwide. T...
Chapter
The provision of learning experiences in workplaces is now commonly discussed, included in educational programs and seen as a means of addressing individuals’ learning across all stages of their working lives. Yet much still needs to be understood about learning in work settings and identifying ways of improving these experiences for a range of pur...
Article
Many countries are becoming increasingly reliant upon an aging workforce. Yet, much literature positions older workers as ‘last resort’ employees, held in low esteem by employers whose preference for youth extends into decision-making about workplace engagement and support. As part of a broader study on maintaining the competence of older workers,...
Article
Over the last decade several innovative approaches to enhance students' transition to graduate nurse year have been implemented or piloted. This paper describes a study that investigated how the social practices of clinical partnership placement model underpin workplace learning for undergraduate students as they transitioned to graduate. A mixed m...
Article
Full-text available
The addition of iron to high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) oceanic waters stimulates phytoplankton, leading to greater primary production. Large-scale artificial ocean iron fertilization (OIF) has been proposed as a means of mitigating anthropogenic atmospheric CO(2), but its impacts on ocean ecosystems below the photic zone are unknown. Natural...
Article
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In advanced and developing economies, ageing populations and low birth rates are emphasising the need for retaining and sustaining competent older workers. This paper examines human resource and governmental policy and practice implications from the contradictory accounts directed towards those workers aged over 44 years, who are usually classified...
Chapter
Given the ambitious goals for and interest in integrating students’ experiences in both educational and practice settings, it is helpful to have some clear bases from which to proceed in planning, enacting and evaluating these educational provisions. It is necessary, therefore, to understand the kinds of educational purposes to be achieved, and mea...
Chapter
Higher education institutions are now increasingly expected to organise curriculum and utilise pedagogies that can realise educational outcomes for three interrelated outcomes. These outcomes are (i) the development of specific capacities within students comprising the canonical knowledge of the occupation, (ii) an understanding of different manife...
Chapter
The healthcare workforce is a complex entity that provides ongoing challenges for the preparation of professionals. This chapter examines the preparation of undergraduate student nurses to become functioning registered nurses through their experiences in practice settings. The concept of preceptorship is explored as a premise to examining workplace...
Article
Submarine canyon systems provide a heterogeneous habitat for deep-sea benthos in terms of topography, hydrography, and the quality and quantity of organic matter present. Enhanced meiofauna densities as found in organically enriched canyon sediments suggest that nematodes, as the dominant metazoan meiobenthic taxon, may play an important role in th...
Data
Samples collected at two different depths (ca. 3200 and ca. 4200 m) in the Setúbal and Cascais canyons off the Portuguese coast, during the HERMES RRS Charles Darwin cruise CD179, were analysed for (1) sediment biogeochemistry (TOC, TN) and (2) composition, and structural and trophic diversity of nematode communities. Multivariate PERMANOVA analysi...
Book
In higher education institutions across the globe, there is a growing interest in integrating classroom learning with experience in practice settings. This interest is the result of an increased emphasis on courses that prepare students for specific occupations in the hopes that upon graduation students will be job-ready. Developing Learning Profe...
Article
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Issues arising from an ageing society, a low fertility rate and growing need for a skilled work force have seen increased government commitment to improving the participation rate of mature-aged workers. Education and training are seen as a principal strategy to increase the employability of these workers, yet participation in training is low and d...
Article
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Governments are currently mobilising their national workforces to compete effectively in a globalised economy where being export‑effective and import‑competitive are necessary to secure national economic and social goals. Australia is no exception here. Yet, in this country, as in others, similar mobilisations occurred in earlier times, most notice...
Article
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Not having clear pathways, or the social means and personal capacities to make a productive transition from schooling can inhibit young people's participation in social and economic life thereafter. This paper advances an analysis of how policy documents associated with senior schooling from across Australian states address the needs of students wh...
Article
This paper advances tentative bases for understanding workplace pedagogic practices. It draws on a series of studies examining learning through everyday work activities and guided learning in the workplace. These studies identified the contributions and limitations of these learning experiences. However, whether referring to the activities and inte...
Article
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This article proposes lifelong learning as a socio‐personal process and a personal fact. As such, it is conceptually distinct from an educational provision, which constitutes one kind of institutional fact. In making this distinction, this article seeks to elaborate a major flaw in the precepts for conceptualisation and enactment of the report Lear...
Article
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This chapter draws on historical and conceptual accounts of learning to discuss and illuminate the nature and effectiveness of learning for occupations through practice. This discussion includes an analysis of the historical development of practice settings as places where occupational knowledge is generated, transformed, and sustained over time. I...
Article
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The relations among learning, work and subjectivity are discussed here to offer explanations about how individuals direct their learning throughout their working lives. These explanations are salient for informing policy and practice about learning for, through and throughout working life. The prospects for realising the kinds of goals that governm...
Article
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What motivates and directs individuals towards particular careers is an important issue for vocational and professional education. Individuals, their families and community invest significant time and financial resources when learning about and how to participate effectively in their selected occupation. Yet, given high attrition rates in some form...
Chapter
There is a growing interest in practice-based learning in countries with both advanced and developing economies. Much of this interest is directed towards augmenting students’ learning within vocational or higher education programmes of initial occupational preparation or those for professional development (i.e., further development of occupational...
Article
This chapter proposes and elaborates a model of lifelong professional learning referred to as a 'learning practice' and illustrated through its application to the healthcare sector. A learning practice comprises a duality between the contributions to learning provided by engaging in everyday work activities in professional work settings and how pro...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing interest in practice-based learning in countries with both advanced and developing economies. Much of this interest is directed towards augmenting students' learning within vocational or higher education programs of initial occupational preparation or those for professional development (i.e., further development of occupational k...
Article
Full-text available
This conference paper examines the perceptions of a group of employees aged 45 or more about their experiences of age discrimination in the work place. Retaining older workers is one way in which a productive work force can be maintained. However, a review of the literature reveals consistently negative attitudes by employers towards older workers,...
Article
This paper elaborates the role and development of personal epistemologies when learning through and for work. It does this by drawing on explanatory propositions from psychology, sociology and philosophical accounts. The aim here is to go beyond conceptions of epistemological beliefs and to position personal epistemologies as being active, intentio...
Article
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Australian Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutions are perhaps the most heterogeneous of the nation's educational sectors. However, their capacity to provide inclusive education is constrained by their curriculum focus and pedagogical practices and culturally-premised assumptions that may inhibit learning for students from diverse cultu...
Article
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The perennial debate concerning the so-called ‘theory-practice gap’ pervades health professional education. It is uncertain whether this gap – the notion that knowledge gained in university does not translate well into the workplace – is unavoidable or if it is a manifestation of the learning approaches used and the cultures operative in the two lo...
Article
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Across advanced industrial economies, programs in higher education are increasingly becoming occupationally specific and universities are being seen as providers of ‘higher vocational education’. With this have come expectations that graduates from these programs will enjoy smooth transitions into professional practice. Aligned with these expectati...
Chapter
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Understanding what comprises competence at work needs to accommodate both socially derived and personally constituted perspectives of that competence. From the socially derived perspective, there is a need to account for occupational requirements and situational factors, which together constitute competent performance at work. This performance has...
Article
This Australian study evaluated the effectiveness of a solution-focused education intervention in extending and improving emergency nursing responses to patients who present because of self-injury. Emergency nurses commonly report lack of training and feeling unskilled in managing people who present because of self-harm. Most educational interventi...
Article
To identify what motivates individuals to engage in a nursing career. Recruitment and retention of nurses is a worldwide concern that is associated with several compounding factors, primarily the high attrition of its new graduates and an ageing workforce. Given these factors, it is necessary to understand why individuals choose to nurse, what keep...
Article
Self-harm is a risk factor for further episodes of self-harm and suicide. The most common service used by self-injurers is the emergency department. However, very often, nurses have received no special training to identify and address the needs of these patients. In addition this care context is typically biomedical and without psychosocial skills,...
Article
How student nurses are permitted to participate in healthcare settings during placements is central to their skill development, formation of occupational identity and retention in nursing. Novices' participation and learning was mapped through their clinical experiences from student to graduate, as part of a multi-method longitudinal study examinin...
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This article conceptualizes and elaborates what constitutes learning experiences. It does so from a perspective that centres on experiences as arising through relations between social and personal worldsyet also acknowledges the mediation of brute facts (i.e., nature). The social contributions are twofold, yet quite distinct. First, there are immed...
Chapter
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This chapter discusses the changing and emerging characteristics of work, work practice and work requirements, and their consequences for vocational education. Changing patterns in work and working life are proposed as comprising: (i) the kind of work available; (ii) how individuals participate in work; (iii) what constitutes competence within that...
Chapter
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This chapter critically appraises the potential of action learning as a professional development strategy for teachers. Using the case of a professional development programme that prepared vocational teachers to become industry consultants, the chapter examines the potential and the impediments of this approach to managing change in technical and v...
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The purpose of this support document is to: (1) provide a fuller version of the literature review than in the report and issues paper; and (2) provide the interview schedules that were used to gather the data for this project. (Contains 7 footnotes.) [Funding for this report was provided through the Australian Department of Education, Science and T...
Article
This chapter advances some conceptual bases for understanding learning through work. Regardless of whether it arises through everyday work activities or through experiences that are intentionally organized and supported by experienced coworkers, learning through work is shaped by workplace participatory practices. There are two contributions to suc...
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The teaching profession within the broader sector of Technical, Vocational Education and Training is differentiated by the way in which this educational provision is manifested in a particular country, the institutions within that country, and what purposes it seeks to serve at a particular moment in that country's social and economic development....
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This chapter identifies contributions to the learning of vocational practice from experiences in both educational institutions and workplaces. It proposes that each of these setting potentially provides particular contributions to learning vocational practice. When each set of contributions is usefully exercised and integrated they stand to purpose...
Article
In the last two decades, and driven by economic and social imperatives, there has been much research into learning in workplaces. The first wave of research was mainly concerned to understand the problem of the lack of transfer from what was learnt in schools to settings and activities beyond schools (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Raizen, 1991; S...
Article
This paper provides an account of the inter-psychological processes that constitute learning through work. It does this by drawing on deliberations about the relative contributions of the immediate social world (i.e., workplace setting) that individuals encounter and the personal premises for individuals' learning. This account is realised through...
Article
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In Australia, the most common service used by self-injurers is the emergency department. Even though nurses are the key clinician available to such patients, nurses have usually received no special training to identify and address the needs of these clients. Building on the knowledge that emergency nurses feel ill-prepared, lack clear frameworks fo...
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This paper evaluates the need and prospects for older workers to develop and deploy effective and critical personal epistemologies in order to maintain workplace competence, successfully negotiate work transitions and secure ontological security in their working life. Furthermore, it addresses different ways of reflecting by workers, which types of...
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 Individuals actively and continually construct the knowledge required for their working lives. Two outcomes arise from this constructive process: (i) individual change (i.e. learning) and (ii) the remaking of culturally-derived practices comprising work. These arise through a relational interdependence between the contributions and agency of the p...
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Individuals' dispositions have long been held to direct and energise cognition in ways that shape how they experience and respond to events in the social world. Therefore, a consideration of these dispositions is likely to be helpful in understanding the inter-psychological processes between individual and social world that frame contemporary socio...
Chapter
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This chapter contextualizes the case studies that make up this volume. I begin by proposing that adult learning be viewed as the engagement of people in communities through practices of participation. Central to this approach is the duality between the affordances of the social world (i.e. the communities in which individuals participate) and how i...
Article
Beyond the obvious acquisition of the three "R's"--reading, writing and arithmetic--many other benefits derive from learning. Increases in self-esteem and confidence have often been cited as consistent, if unanticipated, outcomes of learning and have been achieved even when there has been limited gain in the competency being learned. Such confidenc...
Article
This book offers a range of emergent perspectives about learning through and for work. The common focus among these perspectives is to understand how individuals engage in and learn through their work. This includes how they learn about, manage and respond to change in their work and develop approaches and responses to learning in, through and for...
Article
Experiences in workplaces and educational institutions can both potentially be generative of rich vocational learning. That is, learning that has the capacity to be effective in the circumstances of its acquisition and be utilised in settings beyond those in which it was secured. It is worth noting, that this goal of extending the utility of what i...
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This introductory chapter discusses the development of considerations about learning through work and perspectives of workplace learning that are currently emerging through research internationally. A key purpose here is to map recent developments in thinking about learning through and for work. When one also considers individuals' needs to be lear...
Article
Recent studies of learning through work have included how professional identities are formed through participation in work. However, we need a more elaborated understanding of how professional identities are negotiated at times of rapid change in working practices. This chapter examines the personal strategies that vocational teachers adopt, and th...
Article
This discusses learning through work and throughout working life as workplace participatory practices (Billett 2002). These practices comprise a relational duality between what the workplace affords individuals and how they engage with what is afforded them. It is relational, because the social suggestion exercised through workplace activities is o...
Article
This chapter proposes that the key and lasting contribution of Lave and Wenger's book on situated learning is not the concept of community practice. Instead, it is their consideration of the personal within the social and the relational nature of learning through participation in the social (community) of practice that stands as its most salient le...
Article
Despite a lack of applied research, social partnerships are increasingly being adopted by both government and non-government agencies to meet localised needs in education and other fields. This paper discusses the findings of an investigation of how social partnerships can best be formed, developed and sustained over time. Earlier work identified p...
Article
The significance of the relationships among work, subjectivity and learning is proposed here as a means to understand how individuals are motivated to and direct their learning throughout working life. This, it is proposed, stands as a timely and necessary activity required to inform policy and practice, and also identify the kinds of conceptual pr...
Article
Drawing on studies of learning in workplaces, this chapter discusses the central role of individuals’ agency and epistemology to their participation in and learning through work, and the remaking of work practices. Learning through work is proposed as being the process and outcome of a relational interdependence between individuals and the social p...
Article
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As many, perhaps most, high‐school students engage in paid part‐time employment, there is available in any Australian senior school classroom a range of work experiences that can be used to assist students to consider and reflect on working life and post‐school pathways. Furthermore, these experiences are more readily available and authentic than t...

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