Stephen J Bailey

Stephen J Bailey
Loughborough University | Lough · School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

BSc, MSc, PhD

About

155
Publications
79,735
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10,456
Citations
Citations since 2017
92 Research Items
7634 Citations
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Publications

Publications (155)
Article
Full-text available
Short-term dietary nitrate (NO3−) supplementation has the potential to enhance performance during submaximal endurance, and short-duration, maximal-intensity exercise. However, it has yet to be determined whether NO3− supplementation before and during submaximal endurance exercise can improve performance during a short-duration, maximal-intensity e...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of acute and short-term nitrate (NO3−)-rich beetroot juice (BR) supplementation on performance outcomes and muscle oxygenation during bench press and back squat exercise. Fourteen recreationally active males were assigned in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design to supplement for 4 d...
Article
Full-text available
New findings: What is the central question of this study? Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a novel pre-exercise priming strategy. We asked whether IPC would alter mitochondrial respiratory function and V̇O2 kinetics and improve severe-intensity exercise performance? What is the main finding and its importance? IPC expedited overall V̇O2 kinetics...
Article
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Background Nitrate (NO 3 ⁻ ) supplementation has been reported to lower motor unit (MU) firing rate (MUFR) during dynamic resistance exercise; however, its impact on MU activity during isometric and ischemic exercise is unknown. Purpose To assess the effect of NO 3 ⁻ supplementation on knee extensor MU activities during brief isometric contraction...
Article
Full-text available
Micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction in response to shear stress has been observed in cystic fibrosis (CF), and has been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) regulates endothelial actin cytoskeleton dynamics and cellular alignment...
Article
Full-text available
Background Physical activity is a modifiable risk factor for health and wellbeing, all-cause mortality and healthy aging. However, for middle- to older-age females less is known about the benefits of sports participation on these outcomes. Further, the acceptability and feasibility of setting-up, implementing and maintaining sports-based programmes...
Article
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This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials examined whether dietary nitrate supplementation attenuates exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and is reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. Medline and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception to June 2020. Inclusion criteria were studies in adult humans co...
Article
Full-text available
Background Dietary inorganic nitrate (NO 3 ⁻ ) is a polyatomic ion, which is present in large quantities in green leafy vegetables and beetroot, and has attracted considerable attention in recent years as a potential health-promoting dietary compound. Numerous small, well-controlled laboratory studies have reported beneficial health effects of inor...
Article
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Background: The COVID-19 lockdown could engender disruption to lifestyle behaviors, thus impairing mental wellbeing in the general population. This study investigated whether sociodemographic variables, changes in physical activity, and sleep quality from pre- to during lockdown were predictors of change in mental wellbeing in quarantined older ad...
Article
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Purpose: This study assessed the impact of normobaric hypoxia and acute nitrate ingestion on shivering thermogenesis, cutaneous vascular control, and thermometrics in response to cold stress. Method: Eleven male volunteers underwent passive cooling at 10 °C air temperature across four conditions: (1) normoxia with placebo ingestion, (2) hypoxia...
Article
Background: The countermovement jump (CMJ) test is often employed to assess power generated in the lower limbs and has been related to performance in several sports modalities. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of caffeine supplementation on jump height, average power (AP), peak power (PP), maximum velocity (Vmax), force produc...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a systematic review of human trials examining the effects of dietary phytochemicals on Nrf2 activation. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, Medline, Embase and CAB abstracts were searched for articles from inception until March 2020. Studies in adult humans that measured Nrf2 activation (gene or protein expression changes) follow...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To assess the effect of acute nitrate-rich (BJ) and nitrate-depleted (PL) beetroot juice ingestion on 2 km running performance in amateur runners, and to what extent the ergogenic effect of BJ supplementation would be influenced by the sex of the participants; Methods: Twenty-four amateur long-distance runners (14 males and 10 females) per...
Article
The aim of this study was to compare the acute cardiometabolic and perceptual responses between local and whole-body passive heating. Using a water-perfused suit, 10 recreationally active males underwent three 90 min conditions: heating of the legs with upper-body cooling (LBH), whole-body heating (WBH) and exposure to a thermoneutral temperature (...
Article
Objective Beetroot juice (BJ) supplementation has been reported to enhance skeletal muscle contractile function; however, it is currently unclear whether BJ supplementation elicits comparable improvements in power output during different types of skeletal muscle contractions. The purpose of the current study was to assess the effect of BJ supplemen...
Article
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether (poly)phenol supplementation augments the physiological adaptations to exercise training. Eligible studies administered a (poly)phenol supplement alongside ≥2 weeks of supervised exercise in adult humans. After screening, 22 studies were included in the analysis. Isoflavones an...
Article
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Symptoms of psychological distress and disorder have been widely reported in people under quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic; in addition to severe disruption of peoples' daily activity and sleep patterns. This study investigates the association between physical-activity levels and sleep patterns in quarantined individuals. An international Go...
Article
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Background: Maximal strength-speed exercise is a powerful stimulus to acutely increase concentrations of circulating steroid hormones and homocysteine [Hcy]. There is some evidence that antioxidant beverages rich in polyphenols can attenuate [Hcy] levels and modulate endocrine responses in favor of an anabolic environment. Polyphenols-rich pomegra...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether supplementation with nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) can improve high-intensity intermittent running performance in trained males in normoxia and different doses of normobaric hypoxia. Eight endurance-trained males ( , 62 ± 6 ml·kg ⁻¹ ·min ⁻¹ ) completed repeated 90 s intervals at 110% of peak treadmill velocity, fr...
Article
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Background Public health recommendations and government measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have enforced restrictions on daily-living. While these measures are imperative to abate the spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on mental health and emotional wellbeing is undefined. Therefore, an international online survey (ECLB-COVI...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary nitrate (NO 3 −) supplementation, which can enhance performance in exercise settings involving repeated high-intensity efforts, has been linked to improved skeletal muscle contractile function. Although muscular strength is an important component of explosive movements and sport-specific skills, few studies have quantified indices of muscul...
Article
Hypoxic modulation of nitric oxide (NO) production pathways in the cutaneous microvasculature and its interaction with cold-induced reflex vasoconstriction, independent of local cooling, has yet to be identified. This study assessed the contribution of NO to non-glabrous microvasculature perfusion during hypoxia and whole-body cooling with concomit...
Article
Full-text available
Public health recommendations and governmental measures during the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic have enforced numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation, and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to mitigate spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on psychosocial healt...
Article
This study tested the hypothesis that exposure to chlorine-sterilised pool water would impair oral nitrate reduction (ONR). ONR was assessed in elite swimmers before and after morning and afternoon pool-based training. Nonswimmers were only assessed in the morning. ONR was similar in swimmers and nonswimmers (P = 1.000) and unchanged before and aft...
Article
Full-text available
Although recognised as effective measures to curb the spread of the COVID-19 outbreak, social distancing and self-isolation have been suggested to generate a burden throughout the population. To provide scientific data to help identify risk factors for the psychosocial strain during the COVID-19 outbreak, an international cross-disciplinary online...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary nitrate (NO 3 −) supplementation has been evidenced to induce an ergogenic effect in endurance and sprint-type exercise, which may be underpinned by enhanced muscle contractility and perfusion, particularly in type II muscle fibers. However, limited data are available to evaluate the ergogenic potential of NO 3 − supplementation during othe...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to abate the spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on health behaviours and lifestyles at home is undefined. Therefore, an international online survey was launche...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Public health recommendations and governmental measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to abate the spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on health behaviours and lifest...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Public health recommendations and governmental measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have enforced numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to mitigate spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on psychosocial health is undefined....
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Although recognised as effective measures to curb the spread of the COVID-19 outbreak, social distancing and self-isolation, have been suggested to generate burden throughout the population. To provide scientific data to help identify risk-factors for the psychosocial strain during the COVID-19 outbreak, an international cross-discipli...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Public health recommendations and governmental measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have enforced numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to abate the spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on health behaviours and lifestyle a...
Conference Paper
Despite emerging evidence linking pain sensation to exercise performance (Mauger et al., 2010), the role of pain sensation in exercise-induced fatigue has received limited research attention. Paracetamol (or acetaminophen, ACT) is a non-specific inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase enzymes. These enzymes synthesise prostaglandins, which sensitise group...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Pomegranate juice (POMj) contains abundant soluble polyphenolic antioxidant compounds and is recommended for its cardioprotective/atheroprotective properties. However, very few studies have investigated the efficacy of POMj supplementation to alter physiological responses during intensive physical exercise. This placebo-controlled stud...
Article
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PurposeThis study tested the hypothesis that a novel, audio-visual-directed, home-based exercise training intervention would be effective at improving cardiometabolic health and mental well-being in inactive premenopausal women.Methods Twenty-four inactive premenopausal women (39 ± 10 years) were randomly assigned to an audio-visual-directed exerci...
Article
We tested the hypothesis that acute supplementation with nitrate (NO3-)-rich beetroot juice (BR) would improve quadriceps muscle oxygenation, pulmonary oxygen uptake ( O2) kinetics and exercise tolerance (Tlim) in normoxia and that these improvements would be augmented in hypoxia and attenuated in hyperoxia. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-ove...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF). This review aimed to quantify CF-related redox imbalances. Methods Systematic searches of the Medline, CINAHL, CENTRAL and PsycINFO databases were conducted. Mean content of blood biomarkers from people with clinically-stable CF and non-CF cont...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Problem statement: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multi-system, life-shortening autosomal recessive disease that affects more than 70,000 people worldwide. Common co-morbidities of CF include obstructive lung disease, pancreatic insufficiency and diabetes mellitus, which contribute to exacerbated free radical production. Additionally, antioxidant status...
Article
Full-text available
Polyphenols are secondary metabolites involved in a myriad of critical processes in plants. Over recent decades, special attention has been paid to the anti-oxidative role of fruit-derived polyphenols in the human diet, with evidence supporting the contribution of polyphenols in the prevention of numerous non-communicable disease outcomes. However,...
Article
Key points: •Dietary nitrate supplementation increases plasma nitrite concentration, which provides an oxygen-independent source of nitric oxide and can delay skeletal muscle fatigue. •Nitrate supplementation has been shown to increase myofibre calcium release and force production in mouse skeletal muscle during contractions at a supra-physiologic...
Article
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is characterised by recurrent transient peripheral vasospasm and lower nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in the cold. We investigated the effect of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BJ) supplementation on i) NO-mediated vasodilation, ii) cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and skin temperature (T sk ) following local cooling a...
Article
We tested the hypotheses that the parameters of the power-duration relationship, estimated as the end-test power (EP) and work done above EP (WEP) during a 3-min all out exercise test (3MT), would be reduced progressively following 40 min, 80 min and 2 h of heavy-intensity cycling, and that carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion would attenuate the reduction...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Problem statement: Flow mediated dilation is compromised in cystic fibrosis (CF), demonstrating endothelial dysfunction in response to shear stress. Inhibition of endothelial CF-transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity causes a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant state. Inflammation and oxidative stress cause endothelial barrier dysfunction...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to assess oxidative stress biomarkers prior to and following different forms of exercise. Ten elite male judokas (age: 18.1±1.7 years, athletic experience: 6 years with a training frequency of 6 Judo-sessions/week) performed three cycle ergometry sessions comprising a 30s Wingate test (MAX), 30 min at 60% maximal-aerob...
Article
Purpose: Dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate (NO3-) can enhance high-intensity exercise performance by improving skeletal muscle contractility and metabolism, but the extent to which this might be linked to altered psychophysiological processes is presently unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of NO3--rich beetro...
Article
Exhaustive single-leg exercise has been suggested to reduce time to task failure (Tlim) during subsequent exercise in the contralateral leg by exacerbating central fatigue development. We investigated the influence of acetaminophen (ACT), an analgesic which may blunt central fatigue development, on Tlim during single-leg exercise completed both wit...
Article
It is not clear how the parameters of the power-duration relationship [critical power (CP) and W'] are influenced by the performance of prolonged endurance exercise. We used severe-intensity prediction trials (conventional protocol) and the 3-min all-out test (3MT) to measure CP and W' following 2 h of heavy-intensity cycling exercise and took musc...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract PURPOSE:: The effect of playing surface on physical performance during a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test, and the mechanisms for any potential playing-surface-dependent effects on RSA performance, is equivocal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of natural grass (NG) and artificial turf (AT) on physical performance,...
Article
Full-text available
It has been reported that mental fatigue decreases exercise performance during high-intensity constant-work-rate exercise (CWR) and self-paced time trials (TT) in recreationally-trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether performance is impaired following a prolonged cognitive task in individuals trained for competitive...
Preprint
Background Physical activity (PA) is a modifiable risk factor for non-communicable disease morbidity and all-cause mortality in middle age and older age adults. Moreover, aging is accompanied by an increased incidence of loneliness, social isolation and low quality of life, and issues associated with poor mental health and psychological wellbeing....
Thesis
Exercise-induced fatigue is a complex, multifactorial process, the physiological bases of which are still widely debated. Recent research has implicated pain sensation in the aetiology of exercise-induced neuromuscular fatigue. Indeed, acute consumption of acetaminophen (ACT, or paracetamol), a non-specific inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enz...
Article
Purpose:: Dietary nitrate supplementation has been reported to improve performance in kayaking and rowing exercise which mandate significant recruitment of the upper body musculature. Since the effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on swimming performance is unclear, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dietary nitrate supplem...
Article
Full-text available
The functional significance of pomegranate (POM) supplementation on physiological responses during and following exercise is currently unclear. This systematic review aimed (i) to evaluate the existing literature assessing the effects of POM supplementation on exercise performance and recovery; exercise-induced muscle damage, oxidative stress, infl...
Article
Regular exercise-induced acute inflammatory responses are suggested to improve the inflammatory profile and insulin sensitivity. As body temperature elevations partly mediate this response, passive heating might be a viable tool to improve the inflammatory profile. This study investigated the acute, and chronic effects of hot water immersion on inf...
Article
Purpose: To determine the accuracy of critical power (CP) and W' (the curvature constant of the power-duration relationship) derived from self-paced time-trial (TT) prediction trials using mobile power meters to predict 16.1-km road cycling TT performance. This study also aimed to assess the agreement between functional threshold power (FTP) and C...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Acute acetaminophen (ACT) ingestion has been shown to enhance cycling time-trial performance. The purpose of this study was to assess whether ACT ingestion enhances muscle activation and critical power (CP) during maximal cycling exercise. Methods: Sixteen active male participants completed two 3-min all-out tests against a fixed resist...
Article
Purpose: Recent research suggests that acute consumption of pharmacological analgesics can improve exercise performance, but the ergogenic potential of ibuprofen (IBP) administration is poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that IBP administration would enhance maximal exercise performance. Methods: In one study, 13 physically acti...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: We investigated the influence of inorganic nitrate ([Formula: see text]) supplementation on local sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during exercise in hot conditions. Method: Eight healthy, young subjects were assigned in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design to receive [Formula: see text]-rich beetroot (BR) juice (140 mL...
Article
The asymptote (critical power; CP) and curvature constant (W') of the hyperbolic power-duration relationship can predict performance within the severe-intensity exercise domain. However, the extent which these parameters relate to skeletal muscle morphology is less clear, particularly in endurance trained individuals who, relative to their lesser t...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Montmorency tart cherry juice (MC) on nitric oxide (NO) biomarkers, vascular function and exercise performance. In a randomized, double blind, placebo (PLA) – controlled, crossover study, 10 trained cyclists (mean ± SD; V̇O2peak 59.0 ± 7.0 ml/kg/min) acutely ingested 30 mL of either MC or...