Stephen Douglas Atkinson

Stephen Douglas Atkinson
Oregon State University | OSU · Department of Microbiology

Doctor of Philosophy

About

210
Publications
33,089
Reads
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1,555
Citations
Introduction
I currently work at the Department of Microbiology , Oregon State University, where I research fish pathogens, principally myxozoans.
Additional affiliations
December 2014 - present
Oregon State University
Position
  • Research Associate
November 2011 - November 2014
Oregon State University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
July 2006 - November 2011
The University of Queensland
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (210)
Article
Full-text available
Background Parasite evolution has been conceptualized as a process of genetic loss and simplification. Contrary to this model, there is evidence of expansion and conservation of gene families related to essential functions of parasitism in some parasite genomes, reminiscent of widespread mosaic evolution —where subregions of a genome have different...
Article
Full-text available
Proteases and their inhibitors play critical roles in host-parasite interactions and in the outcomes of infections. Ceratonova shasta is a myxozoan pathogen that causes enteronecrosis in economically important salmonids from the Pacific Northwest of North America. This cnidarian parasite has host-specific genotypes with varying virulence, making it...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cnidarians are the most ancient venomous organisms. They store a cocktail of venom proteins inside unique stinging organelles called nematocysts. When a cnidarian encounters chemical and physical cues from a potential threat or prey animal, the nematocyst is triggered and fires a harpoon-like tubule to penetrate and inject venom into the...
Article
We described two novel myxozoan parasite species Ceratomyxa argentina n. sp. and Ceratomyxa raneyae n. sp. from the gall bladder of Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup) from the Patagonian coast of Argentina. Both species can be distinguished from other ceratomyxids by myxospore and polar capsule (nematocyst) morphology and morphometry, fish host and geograp...
Article
Full-text available
Myxozoans are widely distributed aquatic obligate endoparasites that were recently recognized as belonging within the phylum Cnidaria. They have complex life cycles with waterborne transmission stages: resistant, infectious spores that are unique to myxozoans. However, little is known about the processes that give rise to these transmission stages....
Article
Turkey has more than 200 endemic freshwater fish species, one of which is the Ankara nase, Chondrostoma angorense Elvira, 1987 (Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae), a food fish in northern Turkey. Like most endemic fish species in Turkey, its myxosporean parasite fauna (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) are not yet described. We surveyed twenty C. angorense from Lâdik...
Article
Recent range‐expansions of whirling disease impelled us to understand the impacts of its causative agent, the myxozoan parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, on lesser‐studied fish hosts. Mountain Whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) overlap broadly with M. cerebralis across the Western United States and Canada, and populations have experienced widespread dec...
Article
Full-text available
The evolutionary aspects of cystatins are greatly underexplored in early-emerging metazoans. Thus, we surveyed the gene organization, protein architecture, and phylogeny of cystatin homologues mined from 110 genomes and the transcriptomes of 58 basal metazoan species, encompassing free-living and parasite taxa of Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria (inclu...
Article
Full-text available
This study was a cooperative investigation of myxosporean infections of Notopterus notopterus, the bronze featherback, which is a popular food fish in the South Asian region. We examined fish from Lake Kenyir, Malaysia and the River Ganga, Hastinapur, Uttar Pradesh, India, and observed infections with two myxosporeans: Myxidium cf. notopterum (Myxi...
Article
Full-text available
DNA cytosine methylation is central to many biological processes, including regulation of gene expression, cellular differentiation and development. This DNA modification is conserved across animals, having been found in representatives of sponges, ctenophores, cnidarians and bilaterians, and with very few known instances of secondary loss in anima...
Article
Full-text available
DNA cytosine methylation is central to many biological processes, including regulation of gene expression, cellular differentiation and development. This DNA modification is conserved across animals, having been found in representatives of sponges, ctenophores, cnidarians and bilaterians, and with very few known instances of secondary loss in anima...
Article
Full-text available
Here, we report the 15,103 bp mitochondrial genome of the freshwater fabriciid tubeworm Manayunkia occidentalis. We recovered 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA, and 22 tRNA. The gene order is consistent with the conserved pattern observed in most annelids.
Article
Myxozoans are parasitic, microscopic cnidarians that have retained the phylum-characteristic stinging capsules called nematocysts. Free-living cnidarians, like jellyfish and corals, utilize nematocysts for feeding and defence, with discharge powered by osmotic energy. Myxozoans use nematocysts to anchor to their fish hosts in the first step of infe...
Article
Myxozoans are obligate parasites that have complex life cycles requiring alternate vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, with transmission via microscopic waterborne spores. Unusually for parasites, they belong to the phylum Cnidaria, alongside thousands of free-living corals, sea anemones, jellyfish and hydrozoans. Their cnidarian affinity is affirme...
Article
Full-text available
Ceratonova shasta is an important myxozoan pathogen affecting the health of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of North America. C. shasta exists as a complex of host-specific genotypes, some with low to moderate virulence, and one that causes a profound, lethal infection in susceptible hosts. High throughput sequencing methods are powerful t...
Article
Full-text available
Myxosporea (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) are common fish parasites with complex life cycles that involve annelid hosts. Two economically important salmonid-infecting myxosporeans from rivers of the northwestern United States, Ceratonova shasta (Noble, 1950) and Parvicapsula minibicornis Kent et al., 1997, have life cycles that require a freshwater annelid ho...
Article
Full-text available
Ceratonova shasta is the etiological agent of myxozoan-associated enteronecrosis in North American salmonids. The parasite's life cycle involves waterborne spores and requires both a salmonid fish and a freshwater fabriciid annelid. The success and survival of annelids can be enhanced by flow moderation by dams, and through the erosion of fine sedi...
Article
Full-text available
We surveyed introduced yellow perch Perca flavescens (Mitchill, 1814) from the Willamette River, OR, USA, to determine if these fish have co-introduced myxosporean parasites. Mature parasite myxospores were observed in brains of 3/19 fish, and were morphologically and molecularly consistent with Myxobolus neurophilus (Guilford 1963), a parasite kno...
Article
Although aerobic respiration is a hallmark of eukaryotes, a few unicellular lineages, growing in hypoxic environments, have secondarily lost this ability. In the absence of oxygen, the mitochondria of these organisms have lost all or parts of their genomes and evolved into mitochondria-related organelles (MROs). There has been debate regarding the...
Article
Full-text available
Examination of 35 barramundi (Lates calcarifer) from aquaculture cages in Setiu Wetland, Malaysia, revealed a single fish infected with three Henneguya spp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea). Characterization of the infections using tissue tropism, myxospore morphology and morphometry, and 18S rDNA sequencing, supported description of three new species: Henne...
Article
Full-text available
Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842) is a widespread freshwater fish and an important component of the economically important whitebait fisheries across the Southern Hemisphere. We report a new myxosporean parasite (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) infecting the kidney of G. maculatus from northwestern Patagonia (Argentina). Ortholinea lauquen sp. nov. was characte...
Article
The myxozoan parasite Ceratonova shasta is an important pathogen that infects multiple species of Pacific salmonids. Ongoing genetic surveillance has revealed stable host-parasite relationships throughout the parasite's endemic range. We applied Bayesian phylogenetics to test specific hypotheses about the evolution of these host-parasite relationsh...
Article
In a survey of marine annelids for myxosporean infection in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, we collected 3,214 polychaetes from 21 families and found infections in 6 spionid individuals. Based on gross morphology and COI sequencing, all infected spionids were identified as Streblospio benedicti. Infection prevalence was 0.8% (6/734) of that spec...
Article
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a globally distributed, freshwater parasitic ciliate that infects wild and cultured fishes. It has a direct, temperature-dependent life cycle that enables rapid multiplication when hosts are plentiful and environmental conditions are favorable. Accurate detection is central to the control of Ich infections and...
Article
Full-text available
The complete mitochondrial genome of the banded cusk-eel, Raneya brasilensis (Kaup, 1856), was obtained using next-generation sequencing approaches. The genome sequence was 16,881 bp and exhibited a novel gene order for a vertebrate. Specifically, the WANCY and the nd6–D-loop regions were re-ordered, supporting the hypothesis that these two regions...
Article
Full-text available
The distribution of the freshwater, myxozoan parasite Ceratonova shasta, in the Pacific Northwest of North America is limited to overlap in the ranges of its 2 hosts: the polychaete Manyunkia sp., and Pacific salmonids. Studies in the Klamath River (Oregon/California) and Deschutes River (Oregon), showed that the parasite population is comprised of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research Infrastructures (RIs) are facilities, resources and services used by the scientific community to conduct research and foster innovation. LifeWatch ERIC has developed various virtual research environments, which include many virtual laboratories (vLabs) offering high computational capacity and comprehensive collaborative platforms that supp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research Infrastructures (RIs) are facilities, resources and services used by the scientific community to conduct research and foster innovation. LifeWatch ERIC has developed various virtual research environments, which include many virtual laboratories (vLabs) offering high computational capacity and comprehensive collaborative platforms that supp...
Article
We describe two novel myxosporean parasites from Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, an economically important freshwater catfish from the Amazon basin, Brazil. Myxobolus tapajosi n. sp., was found in the gill filaments of 23.5% of 17 fish, with myxospores round to oval in frontal view and biconvex in lateral view: length 15 (13.5-17) μm and width 10.7 (...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the involvement of oligochaetes in the life cycles of fresh water myxozoan parasites in Brazil. In a fish farm in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, we examined 192 oligochaetes and found that two (1%) released Aurantiactinomyxon type actinospores. We identified infected oligochaetes by morphology: both were Pristina synclites, from f...
Article
Myxozoans are endoparasites with complex life cycles that alternate between invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Though considered protozoans for over 150 years, they are now recognized as metazoans, given their multicellularity and ultrastructural features. In recognition of synapomorphies and cnidarian-specific genes, myxozoans were placed recently...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research Infrastructures (RIs) are facilities, resources and services used by the scientific community to conduct research and foster innovation. LifeWatch ERIC has developed various virtual research environments, which include many virtual laboratories (vLabs) offering high computational capacity and comprehensive collaborative platforms that supp...
Article
Genotypes of the myxosporean parasite Ceratonova shasta are defined by the number of ATC repeats in the parasite's ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region 1. These genotypes correlate with specific salmonid fish hosts. We observed coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch ) and rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) with mixtures of genotypes II a...
Article
Full-text available
We describe three new Henneguya spp. (Myxobolidae) found parasitizing two species of cichlid fish from the Amazon basin, Brazil: H. tucunarei n. sp. from gill filaments of Cichla monoculus and H. tapajoensis n. sp. from gill filaments of Cichla pinima, both from the Tapajós River, Pará State and H. jariensis n. sp. in the fins of Cichla monoculus f...
Article
We describe a new freshwater myxosporean species Ceratomyxa gracillima n. sp. from the gall bladder of the Amazonian catfish Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii ; the first myxozoan recorded in this host. The new Ceratomyxa was described on the basis of its host, myxospore morphometry, ssrDNA and internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) sequences. Infec...
Article
Kudoa inornata is a myxosporean parasite that develops in the somatic muscle of spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus, an economically and ecologically important fish in estuaries and harbors in southeastern North America. In South Carolina (SC), USA, over 90% of wild adult spotted seatrout are infected. To inform potential mitigation strategies, we...
Article
Full-text available
Myxobolus cerebralis is a myxozoan parasite and the etiological agent of whirling disease in salmonids. The parasite's life cycle involves waterborne spores and requires both a salmonid fish and the benthic freshwater oligochaete worm Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae). Wildfires can lead to the erosion of fine sediments into stream channel...
Article
Full-text available
Myxozoa is a diverse, speciose group of microscopic parasites, recently placed within the phylum Cnidaria. Myxozoans are highly reduced in size and complexity relative to free-living cnidarians, yet they have retained specialized organelles known as polar capsules, akin to the nematocyst stinging capsules of free-living species. Whereas in free-liv...
Article
The involvement of oligochaetes in the life cycles of fresh water myxozoan parasites in Brazil was investigated. Of 333 oligochaetes collected in a fish farm in the State of São Paulo, three (0.9%) released Aurantiactinomyxon type spores. From 86 worms collected in a fish farm in Mato Grosso do Sul State, 1 (0.9%) released actinospores with a novel...
Article
Full-text available
Blue chub, Gila coerulea Girard, 1856 is a freshwater cyprinid fish native to inland drainages of western North America. It has not previously been recorded as a host of any myxosporean parasite (Cnidaria: Myxosporea), despite myxosporeans being cosmopolitan in freshwater and marine fishes worldwide and sympatric with this host. Herein, we describe...
Article
Full-text available
Background Myxozoa is a speciose group of endoparasitic cnidarians that can cause severe ecological and economic effects. Although highly reduced compared to free-living cnidarians, myxozoans have retained the phylum-defining stinging organelles, known as cnidae or polar capsules, which are essential to initiating host infection. To explore the ada...
Article
Full-text available
Myxozoans (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) are almost exclusively endoparasites of aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, with the notable exception being two species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 described from terrestrial shrews (Soricidae) in central Europe. Myxospores of the two parasites are morphologically indistinguishable, but ha...
Article
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As part of a biodiversity study in northwestern Hungary, we conducted a parasitological survey of small mammals. In both common shrews (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) and pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus Linnaeus), we found myxospores of a species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 (Myxosporea) and plasmodia in the bile ducts within the live...
Chapter
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This chapter summarises the collective knowledge of myxozoan life cycles gained through experimental studies and observations. We review myxozoan life cycles, factors that influence parasite development and the conditions required for laboratory maintenance of invertebrate hosts. Unusual modes of transmission, including fish-to-fish and vertical tr...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter summarises the collective knowledge of myxozoan life cycles gained through experimental studies and observations. We review myxozoan life cycles, factors that influence parasite development and the conditions required for laboratory maintenance of invertebrate hosts. Unusual modes of transmission, including fish-to-fish and vertical tr...
Chapter
Full-text available
Discoveries published in 2007 and 2008 expanded the known host range of myxozoans beyond poikilotherms to include mammals and birds. Here we review records of myxozoans from small terrestrial mammals, waterfowl and those associated with humans, and augment them with data from our ongoing studies. True myxosporean infections—those with active parasi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Increased global connectivity and shorter transportation times translate to a higher probability and frequency that hosts and their parasites will be introduced to foreign locations and will arrive viable. However, myxozoans are heteroxenous with two obligatory hosts and two free-living life stages, so even if a parasite is introduced, a myriad of...
Chapter
Full-text available
Myxozoan species and genera have been defined traditionally using morphological characteristics of spores and developmental stages, host preference and tissue specificity. Use of morphology is, however, limited in some taxa by a lack of reliable characters or ambiguities in their origin. For instance, morphological variation can characterise spores...
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