Stéphanie Longet

Stéphanie Longet
University of Oxford | OX · Nuffield Department of Medecine

PhD in Life Sciences

About

51
Publications
7,502
Reads
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1,017
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2014 - February 2019
Trinity College Dublin
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Mucosal vaccination
Education
January 2011 - March 2014
University of Lausanne
Field of study
  • Life Sciences
September 2009 - December 2010
University of Lausanne
Field of study
  • Genomics and experimental Biology
October 2005 - June 2008
University of Lausanne
Field of study
  • Science in Biology

Publications

Publications (51)
Article
Full-text available
Two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces a strong systemic SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral response. However, SARS-CoV-2 airborne transmission makes mucosal immune response a crucial first line of defense. Therefore, we characterized SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG responses induced by BNT162b2 vaccine, as well as IgG responses to other pathogenic and season...
Preprint
Both infection and vaccination, alone or in combination, generate antibody and T cell responses against SARS–CoV–2. However, the maintenance of such responses – and hence protection from disease – requires careful characterisation. In a large prospective study of UK healthcare workers (PITCH, within the larger SIREN study) we previously observed th...
Article
Full-text available
The 2013–2016 Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa was unprecedented in case numbers and fatalities, and sporadic outbreaks continue to arise. Antibodies to the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) are strongly associated with survival and their use in immunotherapy is often initially based on their performance in neutralisation assays. Other immune effect...
Article
Full-text available
The trajectories of acquired immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection are not fully understood. We present a detailed longitudinal cohort study of UK healthcare workers prior to vaccination, presenting April-June 2020 with asymptomatic or symptomatic infection. Here we show a highly variable range of responses, some of...
Preprint
Lassa fever virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa fever, a disease endemic in West Africa. Exploring the relationships between environmental factors and LASV transmission across ecologically diverse regions can provide crucial information for the design of appropriate interventions and disease monitoring. We measured LASV-specific IgG seropo...
Article
Full-text available
Duration of protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with HIV (PWH) following vaccination is unclear. In a sub-study of the phase 2/3 the COV002 trial (NCT04400838), 54 HIV positive male participants on antiretroviral therapy (undetectable viral loads, CD4+ T cells >350 cells/ul) received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) 4-6 weeks apart...
Article
Full-text available
The tuberculosis vaccine, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), also affords protection against non-tuberculous diseases attributable to heterologous immune mechanisms such as trained innate immunity, activation of non-conventional T-cells, and cross-reactive adaptive immunity. Aerosol vaccine delivery can target immune responses toward the primary site o...
Article
Full-text available
Background Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 affects the immune response to the first dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We aimed to compare SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell and antibody responses in health-care workers with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection following a single dose of the BNT162b2 (tozinameran; Pfizer–BioNTech) mRNA vaccine. Method...
Chapter
Vaccine adjuvants are a diverse range of compounds that have the ability to improve vaccine potency through more efficient antigen presentation and delivery, stimulation of the innate immune system or prolonged effect on adaptive immunity. Through these mechanisms, adjuvants can enable better vaccine responses in specific population groups, such as...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 affects the immune response to the first dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We aimed to compare SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell and antibody responses in health-care workers with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection following a single dose of the BNT162b2 (tozinameran; Pfizer-BioNTech) mRNA vaccine. Met...
Article
Full-text available
Extension of the interval between vaccine doses for the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was introduced in the UK to accelerate population coverage with a single dose. At this time, trial data was lacking, and we addressed this in a study of UK healthcare workers. The first vaccine dose induced protection from infection from the circulating alpha (B.1.1.7) va...
Preprint
Full-text available
Duration of protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with HIV (PWH) following vaccination is unclear. In a sub-study of the phase 2/3 the COV002 trial ( NCT04400838 ), 54 HIV positive male participants on antiretroviral therapy (undetectable viral loads, CD4+ T cells >350 cells/ul) received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) 4-6 weeks apa...
Article
Full-text available
Filoviruses, especially Ebola virus, cause sporadic outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fever with very high case fatality rates in Africa. The 2013–2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa provided large survivor cohorts spurring a large number of human studies which showed that specific neutralising antibodies played a key role in protection following a na...
Article
There is an urgent requirement for safe and effective vaccines to prevent COVID-19. A concern for the development of new viral vaccines is the potential to induce vaccine-enhanced disease (VED). This was reported in several preclinical studies with both SARS-CoV-1 and MERS vaccines but has not been reported with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. We have used fe...
Article
Full-text available
The extent to which immune responses to natural infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and immunization with vaccines protect against variants of concern (VOC) is of increasing importance. Accordingly, here we analyse antibodies and T cells of a recently vaccinated, UK cohort, alongside those recovering from nat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is normally controlled by effective host immunity including innate, humoral and cellular responses. However, the trajectories and correlates of acquired immunity, and the capacity of memory responses months after infection to neutralise variants of concern - which has important...
Article
Full-text available
Oral vaccination has the potential to offer a safer and more efficacious approach for protection against enteric pathogens than injection-based approaches, especially in developing countries. One key advantage is the potential to induce intestinal immune responses in addition to systemic immunity. In general, antigen delivery via the oral route tri...
Article
Full-text available
Safe and effective vaccines will provide essential medical countermeasures to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we assessed the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the intradermal delivery of INO-4800, a synthetic DNA vaccine candidate encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the rhesus macaque model. Single and 2 dose vaccination regimens wer...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Following a single dose of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, higher antibody titres are observed following prior SARS-CoV-2 infection than in infection-naive individuals, but T-cell responses are less well defined. Methods: We sampled healthcare workers (HCWs) enrolled in the UK PITCH study, before and after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. We measured...
Article
Full-text available
A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has been identified as the causative agent of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Animal models, and in particular non-human primates, are essential to understand the pathogenesis of emerging diseases and to assess the safety and efficacy of novel vaccines and therapeutics. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 replicates in the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Safe and effective vaccines will provide essential medical countermeasures to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the intradermal delivery of INO-4800, a synthetic DNA vaccine candidate encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the rhesus macaque model. Single and 2 dose vaccination regimens wer...
Article
Full-text available
Zaireebolavirus (EBOV) is a highly pathogenic filovirus which can result in Ebola virus disease (EVD); a serious medical condition that presents as flu like symptoms but then often leads to more serious or fatal outcomes. The 2013–16 West Africa epidemic saw an unparalleled number of cases. Here we show characterisation and identification of T cell...
Preprint
Full-text available
Both natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 and immunization with a number of vaccines induce protective immunity. However, the ability of such immune responses to recognize and therefore protect against emerging variants is a matter of increasing importance. Such variants of concern (VOC) include isolates of lineage B1.1.7, first identified in the UK,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Both natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 and immunization with vaccines induce protective immunity. However, the extent to which such immune responses protect against emerging variants is of increasing importance. Such variants of concern (VOC) include isolates of lineage B.1.1.7, first identified in the UK, and B.1.351, first identified in South Afr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Both natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 and immunization with a number of vaccines induce protective immunity. However, the ability of such immune responses to recognize and therefore protect against emerging variants is a matter of increasing importance. Such variants of concern (VOC) include isolates of lineage B1.1.7, first identified in the UK,...
Article
Full-text available
Ebola viruses are enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the Filoviridae family and can cause Ebola virus disease (EVD), a serious haemorrhagic illness with up to 90% mortality. The disease was first detected in Zaire (currently the Democratic Republic of Congo) in 1976. Since its discovery, Ebola virus has caused sporadic outbreaks in...
Article
Full-text available
There is a vital need for authentic COVID-19 animal models to enable the pre-clinical evaluation of candidate vaccines and therapeutics. Here we report a dose titration study of SARS-CoV-2 in the ferret model. After a high (5 × 10 ⁶ pfu) and medium (5 × 10 ⁴ pfu) dose of virus is delivered, intranasally, viral RNA shedding in the upper respiratory...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic necessitates the fast development of vaccines to meet a worldwide need. mRNA-based vaccines are the most promising technology for rapid and safe SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development and production. We have designed CVnCoV, a lipid-nanoparticle (LNP) encapsulated, sequence o...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is an urgent requirement for safe and effective vaccines to prevent novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2. A concern for the development of new viral vaccines is the potential to induce vaccine-enhanced disease (VED). This was reported in several preclinical studies with both SARS-CoV-1 and MERS vaccines but has not been r...
Preprint
Full-text available
A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has been identified as the causative agent of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Animal models, and in particular non-human primates, are essential to understand the pathogenesis of emerging diseases and to the safety and efficacy of novel vaccines and therapeutics. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 replicates in the upper...
Article
Full-text available
Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that can cause Ebola virus disease (EVD). It is thought that EVD survivors are protected against subsequent infection with EBOV and that neutralising antibodies to the viral surface glycoprotein (GP) are potential correlates of protection. Serological studies are vital to assess neutrali...
Article
Full-text available
The complement system is a key component of innate immunity which readily responds to invading microorganisms. Activation of the complement system typically occurs via three main pathways and can induce various antimicrobial effects, including: neutralization of pathogens, regulation of inflammatory responses, promotion of chemotaxis, and enhanceme...
Article
Full-text available
Vaccination has been well recognised as a critically important tool in preventing infectious disease, yet incomplete immunisation coverage remains a major obstacle to achieving disease control and eradication. As medical products for global access, vaccines need to be safe, effective and inexpensive. In line with these goals, continuous improvement...
Article
Full-text available
Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastric infection that can lead to peptic ulcers and is an identified risk factor for gastric cancer development. Although much effort has been put into the development of a Helicobacter pylori vaccine over the last three decades, none has yet reached clinical application. Specific challenges pertaining to effecti...
Article
Full-text available
Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) that results in 3–4 million cases globally with 100,000–150,000 deaths reported annually. Mostly confined to developing nations, current strategies to control the spread of cholera include the provision of safe drinking water and improved sanitation and hygi...
Article
Mucosal immune responses are in the first line of defence against most infections and protective mucosal immunity can be achieved by mucosal vaccination. However, mucosal tolerance and physicochemical features of the mucosal environment pose challenging obstacles to the development of mucosal vaccines. Vaccine formulations must be designed to enhan...
Article
Oral vaccines present an attractive alternative to injectable vaccines for enteric diseases due to ease of delivery and the induction of intestinal immunity at the site of infection. However, susceptibility to gastrointestinal proteolysis, limited transepithelial uptake and a lack of clinically acceptable adjuvants present significant challenges. A...
Article
Diarrhoeal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and cholera imposing a significant global burden. There is currently no licensed vaccine for ETEC. Development of new nonliving oral vaccines has proven difficult due to the physicochemical and immunological challenges associated with the...
Article
The importance of secretory IgA in controlling the microbiota is well known, yet how the antibody affects the perception of the commensals by the local immune system is still poorly defined. We have previously shown that the transport of secretory IgA in complex with bacteria across intestinal microfold cells results in an association with dendriti...
Article
Full-text available
Intravenous administration of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies has proven a clinically valid approach in the treatment or at least relief, of many acute and chronic pathologies such as infection, immunodeficiency, and a broad range of autoimmune conditions. Plasma-derived IgG or recombinant IgG are most frequently used for intravenous or subcut...
Article
Full-text available
Shigella flexneri, by invading intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and inducing inflammatory responses of the colonic mucosa, causes bacillary dysentery. Although M cells overlying Peyer's patches are commonly considered as the primary site of entry of S. flexneri, indirect evidences suggest that bacteria can also use IECs as a portal of entry to th...
Article
Full-text available
Immunotherapy with monoclonal and polyclonal immunoglobulin is successfully applied to improve many clinical conditions, including infection, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency. Most immunoglobulin products, recombinant or plasma-derived, are based on IgG antibodies, whereas to date, the use of IgA for therapeutic application has remained ane...
Article
Full-text available
The available virus-like particle (VLP)-based prophylactic vaccines against specific human papillomavirus (HPV) types afford close to 100% protection against the type-associated lesions and disease. Based on papillomavirus animal models, it is likely that protection against genital lesions in humans is mediated by HPV type-restricted neutralizing a...

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