Stéphanie Demoulin

Stéphanie Demoulin
Université Catholique de Louvain - UCLouvain | UCLouvain · Institute for psychological research

About

73
Publications
70,017
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,518
Citations
Introduction

Publications

Publications (73)
Article
Full-text available
This article contributes to the literature on the antecedents and consequences of prison officers’ job satisfaction. First, we argue that organizational dehumanization (i.e., employees’ perceptions of being treated as tools by their organization) explains how work environment factors determine job satisfaction. Second, we propose that the role play...
Article
Full-text available
Metadehumanization, the perception of being treated as less than a human by others, is a pervasive phenomenon in intergroup relations. It is dissociated from stigmatization or stereotypes, and it has been recently identified as a critical process in severe alcohol use disorders (SAUD). Metadehumanization is associated with a wide array of negative...
Article
Full-text available
The belief that sexualization might be used as a source of power for women in Western societies is spreading (Anderson 2014; Erchull and Liss 2013). The present research aims at evaluating the interpersonal consequences for women endorsing this belief. In three experimental studies with Belgian and French participants (100 college men in Study 1; 1...
Article
Background: Metadehumanization (i.e., the perception of being considered as less than human by others) is proposed to be widespread in stigmatized populations, such as people with severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD). However, the relations between metadehumanization, self-dehumanization (i.e., the self-perception of being less than human), and stigm...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the frequency of women's exposure to sexually objectifying behaviors in their daily life, (e.g., through comments on their appearance, gazing or touching), no previous work has investigated how such a focus on their physical appearance influences women’s meta-perceptions. Capitalizing on recent studies showing that sexually objectified wome...
Article
This research examined the negative relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and organizational dehumanization (i.e., employees’ perceptions that their organization treats them like tools), and specifically the consequences of this LMX-dehumanization relationship on employees’ emotional exhaustion, affective commitment, and voice behaviors...
Article
We investigated how two forms of objectification (i.e., sex- and beauty-based objectification) relate to metadehumanization (i.e., the perception of being dehumanized) and emotional consequences for victims. Capitalizing on previous research, we hypothesized that sex-based objectification would induce animalistic metadehumanization and that beauty-...
Article
How one approaches gender differences in general likely influences the way one handles mixed-gender negotiations. In the present paper, we examine general beliefs on how women negotiators do-as opposed to how they "should"-handle gender in order to increase their chances of success. First, we hypothesised that people's general beliefs would support...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, an important number of studies aimed at levelling the playing field for women and men at the bargaining table. In spite of this, women continue to find themselves largely at a disadvantage when negotiating with a male counterpart. In this review, we focus on a neglected yet potentially important factor contributing to the gender ga...
Article
In the present paper, we investigate dehumanization processes from a victim perspective. We propose that dehumanization experiences, i.e. metadehumanization, arise from people’s feelings that their fundamental human needs are thwarted and that such experiences influence their emotions, self-esteem, and coping strategies. Our model is put at test in...
Article
Background: Dehumanization, i.e., the denial of one’s humanity, has important consequences for social interactions. Earlier works mainly studied the dehumanizer’s perspective, neglecting victims and particularly psychiatric populations. This study’s goal is thus to investigate if patients with severe alcohol-use disorders (SAUD) feel dehumanized by...
Article
Full-text available
Research shows that the two fundamental dimensions of warmth and competence often relate negatively in intergroup stereotypes. This ‘compensation effect’ emerges in group and person perception but has never been examined in situations of interpersonal comparisons involving the self as an individual. In three experiments, we adapted the Quiz Master...
Article
Self-objectification has been claimed to induce numerous detrimental consequences for women at the individual level (e.g., sexual dysfunction, depression, eating disorders). Additionally, at the collective level, it has been proposed that self-objectified women might themselves contribute to the maintenance of the patriarchal status quo, for instan...
Article
Full-text available
Sex is power belief (SIPB) positively relates to self‐objectification. This research aims at expanding this finding. We propose that SIPB involves an instrumental view of one's own body (i.e., self‐objectification) that leads women to experience the negative consequences classically associated with self‐objectification. We further suggest that SIPB...
Article
Full-text available
To maintain a positive overall view of their group, people judge likeable ingroup members more favourably and deviant ingroup members more harshly than comparable outgroup members. Research suggests that such derogation of deviant ingroup members aims to restore the image of the group by symbolically excluding so-called 'black sheeps'. We hypothesi...
Article
Full-text available
Information about a victim's emotional state influences observers' justice-providing reactions. This study (N = 124) tested people's motives for distribution of justice depending on whether emotions with differential social value were experienced by a victim. Uniquely human (UH) emotions are highly valued compared to non-uniquely human (NUH) emotio...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present research was twofold. First, we examined the effects of perceived organizational support (POS) on workplace conflict (i.e., relationship conflict and task conflict). Second, we identified one mechanism explaining these relationships, namely failure-related trust. Using a sample of 263 teachers from Belgium, the results of Stu...
Article
Dehumanization, defined as the denial of one’s membership to humanity, is a process repeatedly reported in extreme contexts (e.g., genocides) but also in everyday life interactions. Some antecedents of dehumanizing experiences (e.g., social exclusion, negative stereotypes) have been reported among patients presenting psychiatric disorders, but dehu...
Book
Full-text available
Ce chapitre traite de la question du bégaiement sous l’angle d’analyse de la psychologie sociale et des processus de stigmatisation. Dans un premier temps, différents éléments théoriques concernant la stigmatisation sociale subie par les personnes bègues et les conséquences que ce type de situation peut entraîner en termes de santé mentale, d’inser...
Article
Past social projection research has mainly focused on target characteristics as a moderator of projective effects. The current research considers the power of the perceiver and how it affects projection of competence and warmth. In three studies, participants first rated themselves on a list of traits/preferences, then performed a power manipulatio...
Article
Full-text available
Perceived organizational support (POS) has been found to predict important organizational outcomes such as increasing employees’ well-being. In this research, we examine a new underlying mechanism of the relationship between POS and employees’ well-being, that is, employees’ perceptions that their organization dehumanizes them. This proposition was...
Article
Full-text available
The present work investigated associations of older people with humanness. Focusing on complementary approaches (attribute-based, metaphor-based, and target-based), 4 studies tested the hypothesis that older people are the targets of animalistic dehumanization. Using an emotional attribution task, Study 1 (N = 112) explored infrahumanization and sh...
Article
Full-text available
Research on gender effects in negotiation has largely relied on stereotypically masculine negotiation paradigms (e.g., selling a car). Globally, though with relatively weak effects sizes, this research shows that women tend to underperform men in negotiations. The present research examines gender effects in negotiations involving typically female-r...
Article
Three experiments investigated whether the selection of a representative in intergroup interdependence settings can reflect group members' strategic behaviour. We tested the impact of an individual's intragroup status (normative vs. pro-out-group deviant, Experiments 1-3) and of voting procedure (Experiments 2 and 3) on the choice of an in-group re...
Article
Full-text available
A longitudinal field survey tested the reciprocal effects of acculturation preferences and prejudice among ethnic minorities and majorities. Data were collected at two points in time from 512 members of ethnic minorities and 1143 majority members in Germany, Belgium and England. Path analyses yielded not only the lagged effects of prejudice on accu...
Article
Full-text available
Research on outgroup infrahumanization is based on the subtle and not deliberate distinction of secondary emotions, an exclusively human emotion, and primary emotions, which are shared by animals and human beings. According to prior studies, people attribute more secondary emotions to the ingroup than to the outgroup which they deny or restrict the...
Article
We argue (1) that the empirical evidence offered by the authors is insufficient to sustain their claim; (2) that, beyond methodological problems, the proposed underlying cognitive mechanism is largely speculative and that a reverse, more motivational, path is equally plausible; and (3) that the distinction and antecedence of inherence intuitions wi...
Article
Full-text available
Intercultural contact may lead to temporary phases of acculturative stress but is also associated with personal growth. While this topic has been well studied, we argue that there has been a lack of systematic investigation in the form of panel data studies. The present article examines the temporal pattern of stress and self-esteem, with measures...
Article
In two experiments, we analyzed the use of intra-group differentiation between normative and deviant members as an identity mobilization strategy in intergroup negotiations. Because ingroup members sometimes try to obtain the support of outgroup audiences to attain their goals, we propose that in intergroup negotiations, people attempt to minimize...
Article
In this introductory chapter, first we stress the importance of concentrating on interactions as a whole rather than on interaction partners separately when studying relations between groups of equal or of different status. Second, we emphasize the critical, but traditionally understudied, role of intergroup misunderstandings in the emergence of in...
Article
A two year longitudinal study examined the influence of social contact abroad on student sojourners’ cultural adjustment and intergroup affect. Social contact was measured with regard to the three people that sojourners (exchange students) spent most time with. Both the quality of the relationship with each contact and the cultural background (host...
Article
Full-text available
This research aims at analyzing the association between two core variables of the employee-organization relationship (i.e., organizational identification and perceived organizational support) and union membership. Our study shows that perceived organizational support was negatively related to union membership but only for low identifiers. In line w...
Article
In two Studies, we explore the role of perceived organizational support in the determination of union representatives among employees. We show that the more employees perceive that their organization care about their well-being, the more they are willing to choose union representatives that are close or share some resemblance with the top managemen...
Article
Emotions influence information processing because they are assumed to carry valuable information. We predict that induced anger will increase ethnic but not gender intergroup bias because anger is related to conflicts for resources, and ethnic groups typically compete for resources, whereas gender groups typically engage in relations of positive in...
Article
Full-text available
According to Scheepers, Spears, Doosje, & Manstead (2006), instrumental goals refer to the maximization of profit whereas identity goals are associated with the attainment of a positive social identity. In two experiments, we show that when negotiations are purely instrumental individuals prefer pro-outgroup deviants as representatives (Experiments...
Article
Social categorization is a powerful determinant of social behavior. As group membership becomes salient, individuals come to behave as group members and, consequently, appraise interactions according to these salient group identities (Turner, 1987). The aim of the present article is to investigate the impact of social categorization on perceptions...
Article
Although conflicts most often occur between groups, research and theory on conflict management and negotiation have largely focused on the interpersonal system and ignored how groups negotiate a solution to their intergroup conflict. Thus we have a thorough understanding of the motivational, cognitive, and affective processes underlying the develop...
Article
Full-text available
Immigration, cultural diversity and integration are among the most central challenges for modern societies. Integration is often impeded by negative emotions and prejudices held by the majority members towards immigrants in a common society. Based on the ingroup projection model (Mummendey & Wenzel, 1999), we examined the impact of perceived relati...
Chapter
Theories of Group Attachment2Appraisals of Intergroup Relations3From Prejudice to Emotions4Intergroup Behaviors5Challenges and Promises
Article
Full-text available
A widely researched panacea for reducing intergroup prejudice is the contact hypothesis. However, few longitudinal studies can shed light on the direction of causal processes: from contact to prejudice reduction (contact effects) or from prejudice to contact reduction (prejudice effects). The authors conducted a longitudinal field survey in Germany...
Article
The stereotype content model (SCM) proposes potentially universal principles of societal stereotypes and their relation to social structure. Here, the SCM reveals theoretically grounded, cross-cultural, cross-groups similarities and one difference across 10 non-US nations. Seven European (individualist) and three East Asian (collectivist) nations (...
Article
Full-text available
People tend to infra-humanize by attributing more human essence to their in-group than to out-groups. In the present article, we focus on the attribution of primary and secondary emotions to operationalize the human essence. We propose that, in order to infra-humanize, people need to be categorized in meaningful groups. In addition, we argue that w...
Article
In two experiments we show that the context in which groups are perceived influences how they are judged in a compensatory manner on the fundamental dimensions of social judgment, that is, warmth and competence. We manipulate the type of country (high in competence and low in warmth vs. high in warmth and low in competence) to which a target countr...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that people tend to infra-humanize outgroup members by being reluctant to attribute them secondary, uniquely human, emotions (Demoulin et al., 2004; Leyens et al., 2000). In the present paper, we extend the infra-humanization theory by arguing that people, going to the opposite pole of the humanness continuum, have also...
Article
Full-text available
Infra-humanizing outgroups involves considering outgroups less human and more animal-like than the ingroup, which is perceived, in essence, as fully human. In this article, the first section presents the theoretical background of infra-humanization and distinguishes it from related concepts, such as dehumanization. The three basic hypotheses of the...
Article
This research tested the infra-humanization hypothesis that uniquely human emotions (e.g., love, sorrow) are automatically more linked in memory with the in-group than with the out-group. No such difference is expected for non-uniquely human emotions (e.g., joy, sadness) which pertain to everybody, including animals. Two studies using semantic prim...
Article
Full-text available
This research tested the infra-humanization hypothesis that uniquely human emotions (e.g., love, sorrow) are automatically more linked in memory with the in-group than with the out-group. No such difference is expected for non-uniquely human emotions (e.g., joy, sadness) which pertain to everybody, including animals. Two studies using semantic prim...
Article
Full-text available
This article investigates the essentialist perception of social categories and differentiates it from two closely related concepts, namely entitativity and natural kind-ness. We argue that lay perceptions of social categories vary along three dimensions: natural kind-ness, entitativity, and essentialism. Depending on whether membership in social ca...
Article
Full-text available
Social motivation has been shown to influence various cognitive processes. In the present paper, it is verified that people are motivated to view out-groups as possessing a lesser degree of humanity than the in-group (Leyens et al., 2000) and that this motivation influences logical processing in the Wason selection task. So far, studies on infra-hu...
Article
Full-text available
In line with the psychological essentialism perspective, Leyens et al. (2000) have hypothesized that people attribute different essences to groups and that they attribute more uniquely human characteristics to their own group than to out-groups. Leyens et al. have focused on two types of emotions, which in Roman languages have specific labels, such...
Article
Full-text available
People attribute more secondary emotions to their ingroup than to outgroups. This effect is interpreted in terms of infrahumanization theory. Familiarity also could explain this differential attribution because secondary emotions are thought to be less visible and intense than primary ones. This alternative explanation to infrahumanization was test...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the influence of an audience's knowledge of the group membership of a target on the communication of information about this target. Participants were asked to rank order five traits to describe a person labelled as an engineer to an imaginary audience. Overall they were more likely to choose traits stereotypical of the target's...
Article
The moderating role of group identification on infra-humanization of the out-group is investigated. Participants (N = 74), all Italian students, were asked to describe two national groups, Italians and Germans, by selecting from a list of characteristics those that were typical of each group. In the list, among other words, there were some primary...
Article
Full-text available
Emotion scientists often distinguish those emotions that are encountered universally, even among animals ( “primary emotions”), from those experienced by human beings ( “secondary emotions”). No attempt, however, has ever been made to capture the lay conception about this distinction and to find the criteria on which the distinction is based. The f...
Article
Full-text available
Groups are social constructions with differences. People spontaneously attempt to explain differences between groups. Stereotypes often play this explanatory role. Specifically, group members tend to attribute different essences to social categories. Given widespread ethnocentrism, it is not surprising that individuals reserve “the human essence” f...
Article
Full-text available
Emotion scientists often distinguish those emotions that are encountered universally, even among animals ("primary emotions"), from those experienced by human beings ("secondary emotions"). No attempt, however, has ever been made to capture the lay conception about this distinction and to find the criteria on which the distinction is based. The fir...
Article
Full-text available
In explaining differences between groups, people ascribe the human essence to their ingroup and consider outgroups as less human. This phenomenon, called infra-humanization, occurs outside people's awareness. Because secondary emotions (e.g. love, hope, contempt, resentment) are considered uniquely human emotions, people not only attribute more sec...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested the hypothesis that people perceive their ingroup as experiencing more uniquely human secondary emotions than the outgroup. Jacoby's process-dissociation procedure was used to measure participants' controlled recognition memory for materials that associated the ingroup or outgroup with secondary or primary emotions. Conscious memo...
Article
Full-text available
According to Leyens et al.’s (2000) theory, intergroup discrimination involves a differential appraisal of the ingroup’s and the outgroup’s uniquely human characteristics. Four experiments investigated how emotions that are considered uniquely (i.e. secondary emotions) and non uniquely (i.e. primary emotions) human (Demoulin et al., 2001a) are diff...
Article
According to Leyens et al.'s (2000) theory, intergroup discrimination involves a differential appraisal of the ingroup's and the outgroup's uniquely human characteristics. Four experiments investigated how emotions that are considered uniquely (i.e. secondary emotions) and non uniquely (i.e. primary emotions) human (Demoulin et al., 2001a) are diff...
Article
Full-text available
According to the psychological essentialism perspective, people tend to explain differences between groups by attributing them different essences. Given a pervasive ethnocentrism, this tendency implies that the human essence will be restricted to the ingroup whereas outgroups will receive a lesser degree of humanity. Therefore, it is argued that pe...
Article
Full-text available
If people favor their ingroup, are especially concerned with their own group, and attribute different essences to different groups, itfollows that their essence must be superior to the essence of other groups. Intelligence, language, and certain emotions are all considered to be distinctive elements ofhuman nature or essence. The role ofintelligenc...