Stephane Saussier

Stephane Saussier
Université de Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne | UNiVPARIS1 · Sorbonne Graduate Business School (IAE de Paris)

Professor

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119
Publications
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2,172
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Publications

Publications (119)
Technical Report
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Public procurement, the generic term used to refer to procurement contracts (traditional procurement), public service delegations (including concessions) and public private partnerships, currently represents today significant amounts of money as it is believed to account for nearly 15% of the GDP in France. Whilst the public procurement system must...
Article
Full-text available
[eng] Given their potential to affect contract law, antitrust policy, and business practice, it is important that theories of contracting stand on an empirical footing as solid as possible. This article reviews the empirical literature on contracting with emphasis on the relative contributions of agency and transaction cost theories. After describi...
Article
Full-text available
[eng] There is a vast literature in transaction cost economics on the choice made by firms to integrate or not. To our knowledge, there have been no previous tests for understanding decisions made by governments to provide a service or to outsource. Our paper presents such a test, using a data base on all units supplying water for towns of more tha...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper aims to examine the link between the corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication efforts of companies and their ability to obtain public procurement contracts. Design/methodology/approach The authors are exploiting a database with the number of public procurement contracts won by SBF 120 companies in France and a constru...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the impact of renegotiations on contract renewals. Using an original dataset of procurement contracts in the French car park sector, we show that there exists an optimal level of renegotiations that positively affects the probability of renewing a contract with the same partner. This result holds only when public authorities hav...
Article
In this paper, we studied the influence of contract renewals on water prices in France. When studying French water contracts in force between 2008 and 2018, we found that contract renewals have little influence on the prices paid by consumers. However, at contract renewal times, the share of the price that goes to the firms decreases. This price de...
Article
In this paper, we studied the influence of contract renewals on water prices in France. When studying French water contracts in force between 2008 and 2018, we found that contract renewals have little influence on the prices paid by consumers. However, at contract renewal times, the share of the price that goes to the firms decreases. This price de...
Article
Will the Phenix Rise from its Ashes? Some Thoughts on the Use of Public-Private Partnerships by Local Authorities This article describes the use of public-private partnerships by local governments since their creation in France in 2004. We argue that the municipalities' objectives and constraints explain the development of such contracts. We also s...
Book
Access to water is one of the most pressing global issues of the twenty-first century, particularly when set against the background of a rapidly growing global population. This book provides a cutting-edge, comprehensive overview of the challenges facing water governance and regulatory choices. The recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals set...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter exposes the enormous opportunities presented by the emergence of Big Data in public procurement and the lack of investment and effort for exploiting these opportunities. Big Data in public procurement holds the promise of fundamentally transforming how procurement performance is understood and it can provide a vastly superior guide to...
Article
Are public contracts less adaptable than private contracts? Using a comprehensive set of contracts for a standard product, we compare procurement contracts in which the procurer is either a public administration or a private corporation. We find that public‐to‐private contracts feature more rigidity clauses than private‐to‐private contracts and tha...
Article
Full-text available
Public–private partnerships (PPPs) are long-term contractual agreements between the public and private sector for the provision of public infrastructures and services. Due to tighter budget constraints and to a renewed interest in greater involvement of the private sector in the provision of public services, PPPs are likely to grow in the near futu...
Chapter
This introductive chapter proposes a state of play of the different public–private partnership (PPP) arrangements. After recalling their weight in the total provision of infrastructure and public facilities, we define the different PPP families and the way they are generally awarded. This chapter establishes a preliminary basis to understand the ec...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors propose a review of the empirical results on the relative performance (in terms of price and service quality in particular) of outsourced solutions, compared to traditional in-house delivery of public services. It also questions the role of the competitive pressure and of the choice of the type of contract to explain th...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors explain the advantages related to the outsourcing of public services and the involvement of private partners, as identified in the economic literature. Then, they discuss the main challenges associated with PPPs in terms of transaction costs, information asymmetries, and contractual incompleteness. They end by insisting...
Book
This book investigates the economic decisions behind the implementation of public-private partnerships (PPPs). The first part of the book discusses different forms of public procurement contracts, in particular in France and the UK, and provides an economic analysis of the potential advantages and pitfalls of public-private partnerships. This explo...
Article
A commonly accepted view in the academic literature is that dispensing with competition may only be beneficial when tendering complex contracts. However, restricted auctions are frequently used among EU member states to procure small contracts. In this article, we investigate this paradox. Using an original data set of 180 contracts used by a local...
Article
Williamson’s 1976 study of natural-monopoly franchise bidding launched extensive debate concerning the degree to which transaction-cost problems afflict government franchising. We propose that municipalities vary in ability to discipline franchisees, and that this heterogeneous ability affects franchise renewal patterns and the quasi-rents that fra...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Cette note est publiée sous la responsabilité des auteurs et n'engage que ceux-ci. Stéphane Saussier a et Jean Tirole b Renforcer l'effi cacité de la commande publique L a commande publique, terme générique qui regroupe les marchés publics, les délégations de service public et les contrats de partenariat, repré-sente aujourd'hui des montants consid...
Article
Public-private partnership (PPP) policy strategies emphasize the ability of PPPs to foster innovation. Evidence reported in literature supports less the inherent quality of PPPs for innovation and more the importance of contributing factors. The contractual agreement is the setting of these factors. In this context, an analytical model based on beh...
Conference Paper
We compare procurement contracts where the procurer is either a public agent or a private corporation. Using algorithmic data reading and textual analysis on a rich dataset of contracts for a standardized product and service from a single provider, we find that public contracts feature more rigidity clauses than private-to-private contracts and the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the impact of renegotiations on contractual relationship. Using an original data-set of expired public-private contracts in the French car park sector, we investigate the link between renegotiations and contract renewals. Indeed, if renegotiations led to surplus decrease, then parties would not be prone to contract again togethe...
Article
Full-text available
French municipalities often contract out the provision of local public services to private companies, and regularly choose the same private operator for a range of different services. We develop a model of relational contracts that shows how this strategy may lead to better performance at lower cost for public authorities. We test the implication o...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we analyze the private participation in prison services in three countries: Brazil, France, and the United States. We highlight striking differences in efficiency between these countries and argue that the explanation for these differences is not restricted to the way property rights are distributed (i.e.public vs. private management...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we investigate the relationship between operating cost and number of bidders for local bus contracts in London. Using an original database on 806 calls for tender on bus routes, we find that a higher number of bidders, whether actual or expected, is associated with a lower cost of service. This finding has important policy implication...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose an evaluation of French public private partnerships by focusing on the implementation phase of infrastructure but also, which is the first time to our knowledge, the operational phase of projects. Using a questionnaire administered to thirty projects in operation, we evaluate the effectiveness of this type of contract, in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This document was requested by the European Parliament's Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection Summary : As concession contracts are long-term agreements that are inherently incomplete, the economic literature suggests that rigid award rules are inadequate. We suggest that the Directive for the awarding of concession contracts should...
Chapter
Full-text available
Résumé Si les partenariats public-privé (PPP) sont d'actualité, avec de fortes incitations venant de la Commission Européenne pour les développer et la volonté d'innover en France en créant de nouvelles formes de PPP, il n'en reste pas moins que les retours d'expériences sont inégaux. Ils suggèrent, selon les cas, que les PPP peuvent être une solut...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this article, we investigate the relative performances of company-owned outlets vs. franchised outlets using an original database consisting of 231 units of a French chain. At first glance, the financial and quality performances of company-owned units are better than franchised units. However, the opposite is true when the particular characteris...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we use a large database of more than 3700 interfirm relationships in force between French firms in 2003 to study the way they achieve cooperation. We find that cooperation is enhanced by a partner's reputation. Our results also suggest that while formal contracts have a direct negative impact on ex-post cooperation, they are an enh...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we analyze the private participation in prison services in three countries: Brazil, France, and the United States. We highlight striking differences in efficiency between these countries and argue that the explanation for these differences is not restricted to the way property rights are distributed (i.e. public vs. private managemen...
Article
Full-text available
This year, the Nobel committee decided to award Oliver E. Williamson for his contribution to the understanding of the boundaries of the firm. What is a firm? What activities should be internalized? Which ones should be external-ized? Which ones should be mixed (i.e. internalized and externalized)? What is the specific coordination device that is av...
Article
Legal frameworks, especially in Europe, encourage private participation and competition in the management of public services. However, many local public authorities concentrate the various services they have in charge in the hands of a single operator, leading to horizontal integration which a priori minimizes the positive effects of competition. T...
Article
Full-text available
While, in practice, the participation of private actors at the local and national government levels through various types of contractual agreements has been increasing over the last decades, there are still few studies on the functioning and performances of such relationships. Our aim is to highlight some significant theoretical and empirical issue...
Article
In many countries, governments are pushing for the introduction of competition in the organization of public services and more broadly in public procurement. The development of public–private partnerships throughout the world is a good illustration of this trend. In order to foster competition, competitive tendering through the use of auctions is n...
Article
In this article, we investigate the relative performances of company-owned outlets vs. franchised outlets using an original database consisting of 150 units of a French chain. At first glance, the financial and quality performances of company-owned units are better than franchised units. However, this result is reversed when the particular characte...
Article
One recurring theme that emerges from empirical studies on franchising is the coexistence of franchised and company-owned units within the same chain. This paper supports the idea that mixed chains or dual distributions are efficient organizations when both the behavior of managers and the nature of local markets are costly to observe. We also show...
Article
In this paper we review contracting issues raised by a government’s decision to contract out activities linked to public services, as well as highlighting potential future research avenues. We first review the different kinds of contracting arrangements and public private partnerships used by government to contract out their activities. In Section...
Article
Full-text available
Using original data concerning organizational choices made by French local authorities awarding their local public services, we show how the spatial dimension may contribute to the debate on public-private partnerships. If geographic agglomeration of private operators may be explain by some search of synergies and cost reduction, it may also be exp...
Article
This article provides an empirical assessment of payment schemes implemented in technology licensing agreements. We propose that differences in payment schemes reflect the ex ante measurement costs and the ex post contractual hazards existing in such agreements. We argue that such costs evolve with the quality of the protection provided to the lice...
Article
In this paper, we use a large database of more than 3,700 strategic relationships in force between French firms in 2003 to study the way they govern their relationships combining both relational and formal elements. We argue that these two dimensions might be complements or substitutes depending on the characteristics of the relationships as well a...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, using a large database concerning more than 3 400 strategic relationships in force between French firms in 2003, we study the way they govern their relationships. More precisely, we show that depending on the characteristics of their relationships observed governance structures features combined relational as well as formal elements....
Article
In this article, we explore the contractual design of toll infrastructure concession contracts. We highlight the fact that the contracting parties try to sign not only complete rigid contracts in order to avoid renegotiations but also flexible contracts in order to adapt contractual framework to unanticipated contingencies and to create incentives...
Book
Pourquoi certains accords contractuels sont-ils plus conflictuels que d'autres? Pourquoi certaines entreprises externalisent-elles une partie de leur production? Les partenariats public-privé sont-ils un moyen efficace d'organiser la production de services publics?La théorie des coûts de transaction est devenue un cadre de référence pour étudier le...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we explore the contractual design of toll road concession contracts. We highlight the fact that contracting parties try to sign not only complete rigid contracts in order to avoid renegotiations but also flexible contracts in order to adapt contractual framework to contingencies and to create incentives for cooperative behavior. Th...
Article
Using an original database concerning 1102 French local public authorities in 2001, we explore the relationships between prices charged by private operators in water contracts and ex post competition. We show that prices charged in contracts in which operators are in a monopoly situation throughout the duration of the contract, are not affected by...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we explore the contractual design of toll infrastructure concession contracts. We highlight the fact that the contracting parties do not only try to sign complete rigid contracts in order to avoid renegotiations but also flexible contracts in order to adapt contractual framework to unanticipated contingencies and to create incentiv...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates a new dataset of franchise networks in nine countries in order to assess whether and to what extent do institutions influence the practice of franchising. Our regressions relate the structure of franchise networks (the rate of franchised units as opposed to corporate units) to individual parameters supposed to reflect the ex...
Article
Full-text available
We use an original database of 5000 French local public authorities to explore the impact of organizational choice and performance as measured by consumer prices. In quantifying the impact of the choice of public-private partnerships (PPPs) on performance, we consider the related issue of the determinants of organizational choice. We estimate a swi...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we explore the contractual design of toll infrastructure concession contracts. We highlight the fact that the contracting parties do not only try to sign complete rigid contracts in order to avoid renegotiations but also flexible contracts in order to adapt contractual framework to unanticipated contingencies and to create incentiv...
Article
Full-text available
We develop and implement a collocation method to solve for an equilibrium in the dynamic legislative bargaining game of Duggan and Kalandrakis (2008). We formulate the collocation equations in a quasi-discrete version of the model, and we show that the collocation equations are locally Lipchitz continuous and directionally differentiable. In numeri...
Article
Research and development at the nanoscale requires a large degree of integration, from convergence of research disciplines in new fields of enquiry to new linkages between start-ups, regional actors and research facilities. Based on the analysis of two clusters in nanotechnologies (MESA+ (Twente) and other centres in The Netherlands and Minatec in...
Article
Full-text available
-Abstract- What we want to stress in this paper is that, based on a transaction cost economics framework, it is possible to go a step further in empirical tests of the theory, not only by trying (1) to explain contractual choices that are observed (what is generally done in previous works) but also, and above all, by attempting (2) to connect obser...
Article
Introduction: What is a firm? Since the seminal article on the nature of the firm by Coase (1937), this question has been put under the attention of a growing number of economists looking for a theory of the firm, and, since the beginning of the 1970s, significant progress has been made. Yet, despite the important literature on the subject, this qu...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we use a transaction cost economics framework to address the question of the optimum organizational arrangement of public services and the link to observed performances. Using an original database of more than 2 000 organizational choices made by French public authorities, and another data base of 73 French water supply contracts, we...
Article
Full-text available
Contract Theories and Franchising Franchising is an excellent field of application for contract theories. This paper aims at surveying the recent literature on franchise chains and contracts. It focuses on the choice of contractual terms (the « contractual design ») with an emphasis on incentive mechanisms, the choice of organizational form (vertic...
Article
Full-text available
[fre] Contract Theories and Franchising Franchising is an excellent field of application for contract theories. This paper aims at surveying the recent literature on franchise chains and contracts. It focuses on the choice of contractual terms (the « contractual design ») with an emphasis on incentive mechanisms, the choice of organizational form (...
Article
Full-text available
What is a firm? What are the main driving forces that explain the trade-off between make-or buy decisions? Since the seminal article of Coase on the nature of the firm (Coase 1937), those questions have been put under the attention of a growing number of economists, looking for a theory of the firm. Since the beginning of the 70's many progresses h...