Stéphane Robert

Stéphane Robert
French National Centre for Scientific Research | CNRS · Langage, langues et cultures d'Afrique noire, UMR 8135

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52
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Introduction
Stéphane Robert currently works at the Langage, langues et cultures d'Afrique noire Lab, UMR 8135 of the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). Stéphane does research in African linguistics, Semantics, Linguistic Typology, and has collaborations in Neurolinguistics. Her current project is 'grammatical description of Atlantic languages'.

Publications

Publications (52)
Data
Context inuences the processing of verb transitivity in French sentences: more evidence for semantic−syntax interactions abstract The influence of semantic context on verb argument structure processing was investigated in two experiments using both ERP and behavioral measures. Participants were presented with sentences ending with syntactically an...
Article
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Transcategorial morphemes share the common ability to be used synchronically across different syntactic categories (synchronic grammaticalization). This paper first shows that transcategoriality is a general property of linguistic systems, variously exploited by languages, then addresses the theoretical questions raised by these morphemes. A new mo...
Article
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The Fonctional Architecture of Language and the Model of Mosaic Complexity As living beings, language can be described in terms of a mosaic complexity, a model drawn from the biological domain, in several respects. First, its functional architecture appears to be that of a layered system whereby minimal units are recursively grouped by juxtapositio...
Chapter
Wolof has a remarkable aspectual system with two levels of organization: (1) the basic verbal system is organized into inflectional paradigms expressing polarity and focus features. These basic conjugations share a common perfective value and have the speech moment as tense locus. Perfective aspect is therefore the unmarked value and is analyzed he...
Book
Wolof has a remarkable aspectual system with two levels of organization: (1) the basic verbal system is organized into inflectional paradigms expressing polarity and focus features. These basic conjugations share a common perfective value and have the speech moment as tense locus. Perfective aspect is therefore the unmarked value and is analyzed he...
Book
Le wolof (langue Niger-Congo du groupe atlantique) a gardé les principales fonctionnalités du système des langues à classes mais il l’a simplifié sous certains aspects et systématisé par ailleurs de manière particulière. L’ensemble du lexique nominal est ainsi réparti dans différentes classes qui commandent des accords spécifiques. A côté de leur r...
Article
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The influence of semantic context on verb argument structure processing was investigated in two experiments using both ERP and behavioral measures. Participants were presented with sentences ending with syntactically and/or semantically congruous or incongruous noun phrases and they were asked to judge the overall acceptability of the sentences. Sy...
Article
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Présentation synthétique du wolof. Le wolof est parlé par huit à dix millions de locuteurs, principalement au Sénégal. Comme la plupart des langues du groupe atlantique, le wolof est une langue à classes nominales et à alternances consonantiques du radical. L'incidence morphosyntaxique des classes y est cependant moindre. De manière caractéristique...
Article
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For content questions, Wolof uses interrogative proforms without additional particles or case marking. Question words do not in themselves indicate their syntactic functions. Neither – due to the general fronting rule for question words – is the syntactic function of interrogative pronouns marked by their position, as is the case for arguments in d...
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This paper presents an overview of the formal markings characteristic of focus in Atlantic languages and reflection on some problematic uses of focused forms. A common (but not universal) feature of these languages is the use of verb morphology (in various ways) to express focus. What is most remarkable in several Atlantic languages (and apparently...
Article
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Due to the specificity of its verb conjugation system, Wolof (Senegal) favors parataxis for clause combining and provides an interesting case where interclausal dependency can be marked by forms indicating information hierarchy. Furthermore, the study of clause combining shows that, with some restrictions on possible combinations, the various combi...
Article
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This chapter, entrenched in cognitive linguistics, proposes a multidimensional approach to the layering of the lexicon and its semantic organization, explicating the principles of variation and stabilization of lexical networks. Semantic variation is considered as inherent to language structure and driven by common universal cognitive mechanisms wh...
Article
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From a philosophical point of view, living beings can be described as mosaics, i.e. systems where the whole leaves a large degree of autonomy to the properties of the component parts. This structure arises through the action of two basic mechanisms: the juxtaposition of identical identities and the integration of these entities into a more complex...
Article
The role of deictic reference in Wolof is particularly interesting for two reasons. First, it permeates the entire system of the language (in noun determination, predication and subordination). Second, this language has a suffix which indicates the absence of localization in the space of the speaker - which plays a special role in the construction...
Article
Full-text available
The role of deictic reference in Wolof is particularly interesting for two reasons. First, it permeates the entire system of the language (in noun determination, predication and subordination). Second, this language has a suffix which indicates the absence of localization in the space of the speaker - which plays a special role in the construction...
Book
This volume offers theoretical and empirical contributions from varied disciplines addressing central questions at the forefront of the current literature in the domain of space: the nature of space in language, the variability of spatial systems across languages and its impact on language and cognitive development. It includes contributions from f...
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Ce texte est un bilan de l'appel à proposition issu de l'ACI cognitique.
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Transcategorial morphemes share the common ability to be used synchronically across different syntactic categories (synchronic grammaticalization). This paper first shows that transcategoriality is a general property of linguistic systems, variously exploited by languages, then addresses the theoretical questions raised by these morphemes. A new mo...
Article
Full-text available
Résumé Cet article jette les bases d'une typologie de la transcatégorialité, en distinguant trois types de fonctionnements transcatégoriels qui peuvent être reliés à différentes stratégies de distribution de l'information dans les systèmes linguistiques. (1) Dans les langues à morphologie lourde (e.g. flexionnelles), le changement de catégorie est...
Article
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Transcategorial (or polyfunctional) morphemes share the common ability to be used synchronically across different syntactic categories (synchronic grammaticalization). The present analysis for this particular functioning relates the polysemy of these morphemes to their syntactic flexibility in a dynamic way : the variation of the syntactic scope of...
Article
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Présentation de la notion de fonctionnement transcatégoriel ou grammaticalisation synchronique et résumé des articles de l'ouvrage.
Article
Cet ouvrage est une contribution originale aux débats sur la grammaticalisation et sur le statut des catégories linguistiques. Il présente, en effet, un phénomène que l'on peut appeler “grammaticalisation synchronique” ou “transcatégorialité” : dans de nombreuses langues, on trouve ainsi un certain nombre de morphèmes qui fonctionnent, en synchroni...
Article
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Partant d'une réflexion sur les propriétés structurelles spécifiques du langage, on propose une nouvelle formulation des rapports entre pensée et langage en termes de projection et de réduction dimensionnelle, et l'on montre que les dissymétries observées entre interprétation et production peuvent s'expliquer par ces rapports particuliers entre lan...
Article
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Le wolof offre une remarquable économie structurelle, organisée autour de deux singularités typologiques. La grammaticalisation du focus dans la conjugaison (1) permet, en effet, d'expliquer le dépouillement du système intonatif de cette langue et l'absence de marquage prosodique de la focalisation qui y est attesté (2) : la focalisation, recevant...
Article
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L'article présente un aperçu des enjeux cognitifs des différents grands courants en linguistique (grammaire générative, fonctionnalisme et grammaires cognitives, modèle de Culioli)
Article
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This paper presents an overview of the intonational system of Wolof (a non-tone language belonging to the Atlantic branch of Niger-Congo), based on the analysis of several recorded corpora. This system has several interesting typological features, including the absence of any intonational marking of focus. There is a particularly close relationship...
Article
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In Wolof, focus is marked by specific verbal inflections depending on the syntactic status of the focused constituent (subject, verb or complement). Moreover, each focus marking inflection displays various pragmatic functions which are here accounted for by a regular mechanism combining (1) a unitary definition of focus with (2) various discursive...
Article
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Cet article étudie la question de la sémantique grammaticale au travers du problème de la grammaticalisation en synchronie. L'emploi, en synchronie, de morphèmes dans différentes catégories syntaxiques est analysé en terme de fonctionnement fractal et illustré par différents exemples. Le modèle de grammaire fractale permet en effet de rendre compte...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between language and thought is often dealt with in terms of categorization, i.e. considering the way languages capture representations into meaningful units. However, in language activity, linguistic units never appear alone: they are always incorporated into, and at the same time operated upon by a process of linearization of tho...
Article
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RESUME : Dans diverses langues africaines, la flexion verbale exprime, outre les determinations traditionnelles d'aspect, de temps, de modalite et de personne, des distinctions de nature discursive liees a la hierarchie informationnelle et a l'organisation de l'enonce en theme et rheme (ou focus). Les deux langues etudiees ici presentent cependant...
Article
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Le wolof possède un triplet d'indices de détermination par rapport à l'espace du locuteur : -i (proximité), -a (éloignement), -u (indétermination spatiale). Ces indices spatiaux traversent l'ensemble du système de la langue car qu'ils apparaissent à la fois dans la formation des déterminants définis du nom, dans celle de morphèmes subordonnants (pr...
Article
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This paper uses the example of ginnaaw, a polysemous morpheme of Wolof, to demonstrate that grammaticalization can be understood as one of what may be called the FRACTAL PROPERTIES of language. In fact, ginnaaw's synchronic uses across three syntactic categories (noun, preposition and subordinating conjunction) can be described as a common semantic...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between language and thought is often dealt with in terms of categorization, i.e. considering the way languages capture representations into meaningful units. However, in language activity, linguistic units never appear alone: they are always incorporated into, and at the same time operated upon by a process of linearization of tho...
Article
Full-text available
Le système verbal du wolof comporte une conjugaison baptisée notamment Aspect zéro ou Aoriste comparable à une forme verbale nue ou réduite que l'on retrouve dans de nombreuses langues. Cette conjugaison présente des degrés de dépendance syntaxique variables ainsi que des valeurs sémantiques très diverses allant du gnomique à la consécution en pass...
Book
Au moment de la double explosion des recherches sur le cerveau et sur l'informatique, l'étude du langage connaît un renouveau quis'accompagne d'interrogations multiples. Or dans le même temps, tout un courant linguistique, sortant l'analyse du langage du champ desgrammaires formelles, s'est emparé de l'étude des énoncés de la vie quotidienne, dans...
Article
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Examining what seems at first to be purely aspectual morphemes in wolof, this paper will first bring to light the puzzling polysemy of these. On the face of it, the variation in meaning appears to be quite similar in the different aspectual morphemes and can be expressed by the following rule : aspectual specifications yield a temporal expression w...
Article
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In the first place, this paper shows that utterances with focus take different meanings at odds with a unitary definition of focus. These meanings fall into three main areas: identification, explanation and intensive exclamation. A new definition of focus is then put forward, as a specific mode of identification: assertion consists in the qualitati...
Book
En s'attaquant à l'un des problèmes les plus embrouillés de la linguistique africaine, cet ouvrage de sémantique grammaticale tente de montrer comment le concept d'énonciation permet de fonder une linguistique qui articule grammaire et discours, langue et parole, unité de sens et polysémie. L'originalité de la méthode consiste à partir d'une descri...
Article
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Le wolof (langue atlantique de la famille Niger-Congo parlée principalement au Sénégal) présente un système complexe pour l'expression de la négation: il possède, notamment, un suffixe négatif qui est affixé principalement aux conjugaisons focalisantes et, deux conjugaisons négatives (en plus de l'injonctif négatif). L'usage de ces différentes form...

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Projects (3)
Project
Convergence and divergence inside the group, specific categories, with special focus on Wolof and on Joola languages