Stéphane Natkin

Stéphane Natkin
Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers | CNAM · Département Informatique (INFO)

Docteur d'état, Université Pierre et Marie Curie

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111
Publications
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1,138
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Publications

Publications (111)
Chapter
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What is the mise-en-scene in a game or in other media? Undoubtedly it is a creative aspect of the production process. In filmmaking, it is the way we use a certain number of means (camera position, actors, sound, setting, etc) to serve an intention (Bordwell and Thompson, 2003), as for instance a narrative purpose, an emotional arise, a message. In...
Conference Paper
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This paper describes our research investigating the perception of difficulty in video games, defined as players’ estimation of their chances of failure. We discuss our approach as it relates to psychophysical studies of subjective difficulty and to cognitive psychology research into the overconfidence effect. The starting point for our study was th...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we study the link between difficulty and player's motivation in two games developed by Ubisoft®: Rayman®Legends and Tom Clancy's The Division®. We describe a method to estimate players' difficulty over time and link it's time varying effect with players retention. Results confirm flow and self-efficacy theory. Also, for the first hou...
Chapter
Erratum to: S. Natkin and J. Dupire (Eds.) Entertainment Computing – ICEC 2009 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-04052-8
Conference Paper
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One of the most problematic issues in healthcare is the patient's lack of adherence to the therapy. Patients' motivation is indeed hard to maintain when they have to execute repetitive, boring or tedious exercises. In such cases, they tend to practice less regularly and even to entirely give up the therapeutic protocol. Fortunately, therapeutic exe...
Article
In this paper we report on an experiment to monitor the user attention in a serious game called Le Village aux Oiseaux (The Birds' Village). The main motivation of this study stems from the importance of dynamically adapting scenario and challenges to the skills of each player. The solution we developed is a real-time, non-invasive visual attention...
Conference Paper
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This paper introduces issues about a methodology for the design of serious games that help players/learners understand their decision-making process. First, we discuss the development of a video game system based on a role-switching mechanic where the player becomes the game leader of the experience. Then, we introduce game mechanics designed to in...
Chapter
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Can we track the psychological traits or the profile of a player during gameplay, at least when the player is engaged in a ludic experience? We propose a game design methodology dedicated to the generation of a psychological profile of the player. Our experiment, a vocational guidance game, was created in collaboration with academic experts and ind...
Article
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Cet article présente les enjeux relatifs à la conception de jeux sérieux permettant au joueur-apprenant de mieux comprendre la manière dont il prend une décision. La dimension analytique est au cœur des problématiques de gameplay : quelles sont les mécaniques qui permettraient de faire prendre conscience au joueur de son comportement comme décideur...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces issues about a methodology for the design of serious games that help the player/learner understand their decision-making process. First, we discuss the development of a video game system based on a switching-role mechanic where the player can become the game leader of the experience. Then, we propose a set of rules to address...
Article
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Protein-protein interactions play a crucial role in biological processes. Protein docking calculations' goal is to predict, given two proteins of known structures, the associate conformation of the corresponding complex. Here, we present a new interactive protein docking system, Udock, that makes use of users' cognitive capabilities added up. In Ud...
Conference Paper
In the design process of interactive sound walk art installations, the composer must think his sound design in a real or a virtual space according to the listener’s promenade. For a given piece, the sound designer leaves to the interactor a certain amount of freedom and to the system, according to its level of self-sufficiency, a certain amount of...
Conference Paper
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This paper is a first step toward the exploration and further development of the narrative possibilities offered by emergent games. First, we present the five characteristics of emergent narratives that we believe to be fundamental: coherence, agency, possibility space, uncertainty and coauthoring. Then, we investigate the presence of these charact...
Conference Paper
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Our work is to analyze how the practice of chosen video games may influence the player’s interest. A set of video games was selected by a group of experts according to their qualities as games and their relations with scientific knowledge. A focus test experiment has been set up to evaluate the correlation between teenagers engagement and their int...
Article
Full-text available
What is a “serious” game? Believing that this frequently misused term should be replaced with “useful game”, we develop the idea here through a discussion of Jeu Serai. This is a project that was selected under the Ministry of the Industry’s call for Serious Game ideas. Our aim in this project is to use the basic video game mechanisms (exploration,...
Article
Accessible à http://www.musee-informatique-numerique.fr/
Conference Paper
Most standard scene description languages include a sound description and factorize common elements needed by the description of visual and auditory information. Both aspects are described with the same coordinate system for example. However, as soon as a dynamic description or external data are required, this benefit is lost and all the glue must...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present a new model to analyse therapeutic games. The goal of the model is to describe and analyse the relations between the three aspects of a therapeutic game: the player, the game, and the therapy. The model is intended to game designers. It is a tool to improve the communication between health experts and game designers, and t...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents a way to dynamically influence the shape and movements of a simulated crowd. We propose a tool and system that allows to modify a crowd?s dynamics in an intuitive, semantically rich and out of context fashion, while being independent from the global path finding architecture and having a low computational cost. We follow a mixed...
Conference Paper
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This is a pilot study designed to explore the capability of a serious game approach to assess vocational interests. It uses the basic video game mechanisms (exploration, challenge, reward, learning process, etc.) to assess vocational interests The prototype we developed combines game playing with the production by players of an interactive story an...
Conference Paper
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Nous présentons la méthode que nous avons suivie lors de la conception d’un jeu sérieux thérapeutique (Serious Game). Ce jeu a pour objectif de stimuler l’attention de patients présentant les premiers symptômes de la maladie Alzheimer, en s’appuyant sur un gameplay de jeu de tir en vue subjective. Notre démarche porte sur l’adaptation, pour une cib...
Article
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http://amse-modeling.com/ind2.php?cont=03permenu=/menu3.phppag=/datosartic.phpvis=1editart=1id_art=3399
Article
What is a "serious" game? Believing that thisfrequently misused term should be replaced with "useful game", we develop the idea here through a discussion of Jeu Serai. This is a project that was selected under the Ministry of the Industry's call for Serious Game ideas. Our aim in this project is to use the basic video game mechanisms (exploration,...
Book
This issue of the Entertainment Computing Journal contains papers presented at the International Conference on Entertainment Computing ? ICEC 2009. ICEC 2009 was held in Paris in September and we received 105 submissions. For this journal, we selected the 10 best papers and asked the authors if they agree to submit an augmented and enhanced version...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper synthetically presents a reliable and generic way to evaluate the difficulty of video games, and an experiment testing its accuracy and concordance with subjective assessments of difficulty. We propose a way to split the gameplay into measurable items, and to take into account the player's apprenticeship to statistically evaluate the gam...
Conference Paper
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Standard or normalized file formats exist since many years to write/read/exchange 3D scene descriptions. However, these descriptions are mainly for visual contents. Options given for sound compositions of 3D scenes are either lacking or poor. In this paper, we propose to include rich sound descriptions in the COLLADA standard, a commonly used scene...
Article
Il y a, au delà des mots « Serious Game », des problèmes qui méritent d?être analysés. Si l?on cherche à définir ce terme en couvrant tous les objets et applications qui s?en réclament, on tombe, non pas dans le vide, mais dans le trop plein. Il ne reste qu?une définition qui convienne : « Tout objet relevant du numérique qui n?est pas destiné aux...
Chapter
One of the goals of ubiquitous computing technologies is to provide an adaptable and personal content at any time and in any context. As a consequence a user-centered design is required. The goal of this research is to develop new gameplays and new narration principles for Multiplayer Ubiquitous Game. We aim to formalize a narrative mechanism to ge...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an ongoing work which goal is to specify and implement a general-purpose sound engine for virtual cities. This work is motivated by a project, funded by the French government, ?Terra Dynamica?. The first section present a state of the art of the virtual urban sound spaces emphasizing various types of virtual cities and their rel...
Article
Is the core of a video game a story or a gameplay system? Out of this scholastic debate we try to show in this paper that the main difference between games and other types of media is the player’s engagement. We consider two radically different games, an interactive fiction designed by the student’s of ENJMIN, “Fear Window” and a formal probabilist...
Article
Présentation d'un modèle d'évaluation de la difficulté d'un gameplay ainsi que des résultats d'une expérimentation de ce modèle.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Game designers empirically use psychological and sociological player’s model to create the gameplay of their video games. These models are generally implicit and always informal. A formal analysis of the player’s model leads to define efficient player behavior profile. It can have numerous applications, for instance adaptation of the content to the...
Chapter
The goal of this research is to develop new gameplays and new narration principles for MUGs (Multiplayer Ubiquitous Games). We aim to formalize a narrative mechanism to generate events which can stimulate the user’s physical actions with the real world, and social communications with other players. We first present a pattern to identify the feedbac...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Due to the diversity of studies towards detection of affective state of a user, it is hard to distinguish amongst them toward specific needs. Our approach consists in realizing a comparative study taking in account specificities such as mobility to be able to choose the best settings for a specific set of constraints. These issues will be applied i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this this paper, we discuss the interest and the need to evaluate the difficulty of single player video games. We first show the importance of difficulty, drawing from semiotics to explain the link be-tween tension-resolution cycles, and challenge with the player's enjoy-ment. Then, we report related work on automatic gameplay analysis. We show...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this research is to develop new gameplays and new narration principles for MUGs (Multiplayer Ubiquitous Games). We aim to formalize a narrative mechanism to generate events which can stimulate the user's physical actions with the real world, and social communications with other players. We first present a pattern to identify the feedbac...
Article
Full-text available
In games, we can discern two approaches to learn how interactivity works: the instructions for use and the interactivity itself. The number of spoken languages is evaluated at more than six thousand eight hundred: for this reason, instructions for use can’t make games understandable for all potential users, which is specially true for audio games a...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we discuss the interest and the need to evaluate the difficulty of single player video games. We first show the importance of difficulty, drawing from semiotics to explain the link between tension-resolution cycles and challenge with the player’s enjoyment. Then, we report related work on automatic gameplay analysis. We show through...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we focus on the method to explore a different type of auditory progress bar by analyzing the characteristics of the visual progress bar and contexts of auditory application. A scenario of bearing in the forward/reverse modes of digital compass is selected to implement the auditory progress bar. The auditory cues play an interactive r...
Conference Paper
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This paper describes the DEEP project (Dialogs taking into account Experience, Emotions and Personality, adapted to computer games), which started in June 2006. The aim of the project is to provide generic solutions for the integration of autonomous Non Player Characters (NPCs) in next-generation adventure games. DEEP NPCs, equipped with a personal...
Article
Full-text available
This paper starts from an experimental interactive musical installation designed at IRCAM: "LISTEN LISBOA". This installation relies on a perceptual paradox: spectators are walking into a real space, see this space and at the same time hears through headphones a virtual sound space, mapped to the real one. In the first part of this paper we present...
Article
Full-text available
We present in this paper a quick overview of the games accessible to the people who are visually impaired. First, these audio games require often a too great number of commands: for this reason, they are hard to learn and many people do not enjoy playing them. Second, the users want more audio games with multiplayer feature. This paper presents the...
Article
This paper describes the DEEP project (Dialogs taking into account Experience, Emotions and Personality, adapted to computer games), which started in June 2006. The aim of the project is to provide generic solutions for the integration of autonomous Non Player Characters (NPCs) in next-generation adventure games. DEEP NPCs, equipped with a personal...
Article
Full-text available
Résumé -De nombreuses interfaces sont inspirées de jeux vi-déo, mais restent hors de portée des personnes handicapées visuel. Pour en améliorer l'accessibilité, il est intéressant de puiser dans l'ensemble des principes d'interaction des jeux so-nores. Selon une classification des jeux vidéo, les jeux sonores peuvent être répartis en quatre groupes...
Conference Paper
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We describe in this paper an experimental setting for brows- ing and reading simultaneously multiple digital documents. An hemi- spherical visualization device is used to immerge the reader into 3D rep- resentations of digital collections.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most computer games and more generally entertainment applications use implicitly or explicitly a user model as a reference for the gameplay and dramaturgy progression. With mixed reality technology and ubiquitous computing, user-centered design is required now more than ever to provide an adaptable and personal content at any time and in any contex...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most computer games and more generally entertainment applications use implicitly or explicitly a user model as a reference for the gameplay and dramaturgy progression. with mixed reality technology and ubiquitous computing, user-centered design is required now more than ever to provide an adaptable and personal content at any time and in any contex...
Article
Full-text available
Audiogames, which are supposed to be accessible to the blind, have two problems related to language to be understood by most of their users : the first one is linked to an instruction reading phase, which is often essential, and the pleasure of which is often very different from the pleasure of playing the game. The second problem is even more both...
Article
Most computer games and more generally entertainment applications use implicitly or explicitly a user model as a reference for the gameplay and dramaturgy progression. With mixed reality technology and ubiquitous computing, user-centered design is required now more than ever to provide an adaptable and personal content at any time and in any contex...
Conference Paper
Using a mix of wireless telecommunication, digital audiovisuals and the Internet, the digital entertainments have evolved to a new form of interaction based on mobile ubiquitous computing and mixed reality. Our work is devoted to the application using both reality and virtuality in a complex mixed mode. Our research goal is to highlight constructiv...
Conference Paper
With the emergence of Internet technology, online games have recently become a very successful industry. As a consequence, the numbers of thefts, cheats, vandalisms, threats and illegal gambling cases from online gaming have increased. This paper presents an analysis of the attacks in online games; we define a classification of the attacks in onlin...
Conference Paper
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Numerous authors have tried to use game theory as a tool for computer game design and study. These works recall generally some basic concepts of the Neuman Mogenstern game analysis (payoff matrix, finite zero-sum game, dominant and mixed strategy…) and show how to model and interpret some simple gameplay situation. In this paper we consider solo ga...
Article
The interactive digital entertainment requires new interactive forms with richer contents for a very large audience. Our research goal is firstly to propose patterns to understand, to describe and to formalize the relationships between the real world and the virtual world. These patterns and the related methodology will guide us to analyze the corr...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a new formal approach for the design process of computer games, which involves the modeling of spatiotemporal relationships. Logical and temporal transactions are modeled using Petri Nets and topological relationships of the game universe by hypergraphs. For splicing these structures, we introduce connections which relate hyperedge repla...
Conference Paper
Yonsei University, Seoul, Corée, Septembre 2003,Game On, Londres, Octobre 2003
Article
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This paper is a survey of the process and technology used for video games and tackles the problem of writing them. The first part of the paper addresses the general state of the art in the design of video games : market and technology constraints, production process. The second part is devoted to the writing of games practices and technology constr...
Article
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This paper is a survey of the process and technology used in sound design for video games. The first part of the paper addresses the general state of the art in the design of video games: market and technology constraints, production process, game design and level design practices, game engines. The second part is devoted to the sound aspects of ga...
Article
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1 ABSTRACT This paper develops a functional analysis of the augmented reality system presented in (Natkin00). It also presents the first elements of an experimental architecture and a real example where the system would be used. The system is based on virtual sound reality : spectators are walking into a real space, indoor or outdoor, wearing headp...
Article
The goal of this paper is to present some principles and open problems of an augmented reality system which can be used in numerous installations. This system relies on a perceptual paradox: spectators are walking into a real space such as a factory, a museum or any kind of outdoor or indoor place, seeing this space at the same time hearing through...
Conference Paper
The paper presents some basic principles for the design of secure object oriented operating systems. The security relies on the control of right to call an object method. Capabilities are used to implement the control scheme. Our capabilities are named to enforce security (capabilities don't have to be kept secret) and provide a per entity controll...
Conference Paper
Safety properties of critical software are consequences of the application safety properties (i.e. the front collision of two trains must not occur), and of the system design choices. The paper presents the first results of a SNCF and CESIR joint research project whose purpose is to design a constructive and formal method to derive, at each design...