Stéphane Mortaud

Stéphane Mortaud
CNRS Orleans Campus · Experimental and Molecular Immunology and Neurogenetics (UMR7355 CNRS, INEM)

Professor of Neurosciences, PhD

About

50
Publications
4,929
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,039
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2016 - present
Orléans University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • embryology, cell biology, neurosciences, physiology, toxicology
January 2015 - present
CNRS Orleans Campus
Position
  • Group Leader
September 2009 - January 2015
CNRS Orleans Campus
Position
  • Lecturer
Education
September 1991 - November 1995
Paris Descartes, CPSC
Field of study
  • biochemistry & neurosciences
September 1990 - September 1991
Paris Descartes, CPSC
Field of study
  • cellular biology
September 1989 - September 1990
Université de Rennes 1
Field of study
  • cellular biology and development

Publications

Publications (50)
Article
Full-text available
Neurogenesis, a process of generating functional neurons from neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted brain regions such as the subventricular zone (SVZ). During this process, newly generated neurons migrate along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb to replace granule cells and periglomerular neurons. This neuronal mi...
Article
Full-text available
We recently demonstrated that perinatal exposure to the glutamate-related herbicide, glufosinate ammonium, has deleterious effects on neural stem cell (NSC) homeostasis within the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ), probably leading to ASD-like symptoms in offspring later in life. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether perinatal exposure to...
Article
Full-text available
Glufosinate-ammonium (GLA), the active component of an herbicide, is known to cause neurotoxicity. GLA shares structural analogy with glutamate. It is a powerful inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS) and may bind to glutamate receptors. Since these potentials targets of GLA are present in lung and immune cells, we asked whether airway exposure to...
Article
Full-text available
Glufosinate ammonium (GLA) is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture. As is the case for most pesticides, potential adverse effects of GLA have not been studied from the perspective of developmental neurotoxicity. Early pesticides exposure may weaken the basic structure of the developing brain and cause permanent changes leading to a...
Article
Full-text available
Neuropathic pain from injury to the peripheral and CNS represents a major health care issue. We have investigated the role of IL-33/IL-33 receptor (ST2) signaling in experimental models of neuropathic pain in mice. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve induced IL-33 production in the spinal cord. IL-33/citrine reporter mice reveale...
Article
Full-text available
Pharmaceutical drugs have become consumer products, with a daily use for some of them. The volume of production and consumption of drugs is such that they have become environmental pollutants. Their transfer to wastewater through urine, feces or rinsing in case of skin use, associated with partial elimination by wastewater treatment plants generali...
Article
Background: There is clear evidence that most of the paradigms that are used in the field of behavioral neuroscience suffer from a lack of reliability mainly because of oversimplification of both testing procedures and interpretations. In the present study we show how an already existing behavioral test, the olfactory habituation / dishabituation...
Article
The globally used herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (GLA) is structurally analogous to the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, and is known to interfere with cellular mechanisms involved in the glutamatergic system. In this report, we used an in vitro model of murine primary neural stem cell culture to investigate the neurotoxicity of GLA and its m...
Article
Full-text available
Accumulating evidence suggests that developmental exposure to environmental chemicals may modify the course of brain development, ultimately leading to neuropsychiatric / neurodegenerative disorders later in life. In the present study, we assessed the impact of one of the most frequently used pesticides in both residential and agricultural applicat...
Data
DNA microarray analysis: Significantly dysregulated gene transcripts in the brain of CYP20-exposed offspring. (DOCX)
Data
DNA microarray analysis: Significantly dysregulated gene transcripts in the brain of CYP5-exposed offspring. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Cerebral malaria (CM) is associated with a high mortality rate and long-term neurocognitive impairment in survivors. The murine model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-infection reproduces several of these features. We reported recently increased levels of IL-33 protein in brain undergoing ECM and the i...
Data
IL-33 regulation after PbA-infection in the subventricular zone and the cerebellum. (A-B) Brain sections from naïve or 7-day-PbA-infected IL-33/citrine reporter mice were analyzed to get representative images and cell counts from subventricular zone (A) and cerebellum (B), with fluorescent citrine to visualize Il33 transcript and with immunofluores...
Data
Preserved cognition 11 days post-PbA infection in the absence of IL-33/ST2 pathway. (A) Y maze was used to assess hippocampal memory in ST2 deficient mice, either naïve (D0) or on day 11 post-PbA infection (D11). (B) Locomotor activity measured during Y maze test. The results are shown as mean ± SEM with n = 9 to 5 mice, respectively. Mann Whitney...
Data
IL-1β protein expression in hippocampus after PbA-infection. Hippocampus expression of IL-1β protein was analyzed by ELISA, on day 5, 6 and 7 post-PbA infection in WT and ST2 deficient mice compared to naïve mice. The results are expressed as mean ± SEM, with n = 5 per day. (TIF)
Data
Microglia activation in cerebellum associated with ECM, independently of IL-33/ST2 pathway. (A) Immunofluorescent staining of microglia marker IBA1, on brain sections, showing microglia morphology in cerebellum from WT and ST2-/- mice, 7 days post-PbA-infection. Scale bar 20μm. (B) Cell counts of IBA1+ cells from A, to compare microglia proliferati...
Data
Microsatellite genetic analysis of ST2-/- mice. C57BL/6, 129Sv and ST2-/- mice [49] were analyzed by PCR with a series of microsatellite markers to verify B6 genetic background for each chromosome of ST2-/- mice. Representative PCR gels are shown for chromosome D1Mit303 (A), D2Mit395 (B), D4Mit193 (C), D5Mit161 (D), D6Mit36 (E), D13Mit191 (F), D14M...
Data
PbA-induced impairment of cognition is prevented in the absence of IL-33/ST2 pathway. (A-B) Locomotor activity measured during both behavioral tests for WT and ST2-/- mice at day 5 post-PbA infection compared to naïve mice. These results are shown as mean ± SEM with n = 10 to 15 mice for WT and n = 9 to 10 for ST2-/- mice. Kruskal-Wallis was applie...
Data
Inflammatory response in frontal cortex after PbA-infection is reduced in the absence of IL-33/ST2 pathway. Inflammation context in frontal context was investigated in naïve or PbA-infected WT or ST2-/- mice on day 5, 6 and 7 after infection. (A-D) Ifng, Tnfa, Il1b and Cd8a mRNA expressions in frontal cortex were quantified by real-time quantitativ...
Data
Expression of IL-33 and IL-1β by primary glial cell cultures. WT mixed glial cell cultures from newborn mice were stimulated with LPS (10μg/mL), as a positive control, for 24 hrs then fixed and immunostained to determine the cellular source of IL-33 and IL-1β. (A-B) Immunofluorescence staining of IL-33 (A) and IL-1β (B) with astrocyte marker GFAP,...
Data
Effect of prenatal exposure to GLA on cyto-architecture of the olfactory bulbs. (A) Schematic of a coronal section of the olfactory bulb of a mouse brain. (B) Coronal sections in mouse olfactory bulbs of CTL, GLA0.2, or GLA1 stained with DCX antibody (green) and DAPI (blue), mice bulbs CTL has a characteristic architecture and many parallel neurobl...
Data
Morphology changing of neuroblast ex vivo explant culture. Some neuroblasts migrate out of chain. (A) In control, these neuroblasts have a classical morphology with short cell body, a clear bipolar morphology and a short and condensed growth cone. (B) In GLA1 exposed explants, free neuroblasts display abnormal morphology with long dendrite processe...
Data
Example of analyzing of arrival of neuroblasts to the olfactory bulbs by measuring the integrated density. PND5 pups were injected with BrdU. Coronal sections of the CTL OB were stained with BrdU (green) and counterstained with DAPI (blue) 2 h (T0+2 h) or 2 days (T0+2 D) after BrdU injection (top panel). Measurement of the Integrated intensity (Raw...
Article
Full-text available
Glufosinate-ammonium (GLA), the active component of a widely used herbicide, induces convulsions in rodents and humans. In mouse, intraperitoneal treatment with 75 mg/kg GLA generates repetitive tonic-clonic seizures associated with 100% mortality within 72 h after treatment. In this context, we characterized GLA-induced seizures, their histologica...
Article
Full-text available
Visual sensory impairments are common in Mental Deficiency (MD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). These defects are linked to cerebral dysfunction in the visual cortical area characterized by the deregulation of axon growth/guidance and dendrite spine immaturity of neurons. However, visual perception had not been addressed, although the retina is...
Article
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a deficit of language and communication both associated with a restricted repertoire of activities and interests. The current prevalence of autistic disorder stricto sensu is estimated at 1/500 whereas autism spectrum disorders (ASD) increases up to 1/150 to 1/200. Mental deficiency (MD) and...
Article
Full-text available
In mammals, motile cilia cover many organs, such as fallopian tubes, respiratory tracts and brain ventricles. The development and function of these organs critically depend on efficient directional fluid flow ensured by the alignment of ciliary beating. To identify the mechanisms involved in this process, we analysed motile cilia of mouse brain ven...
Article
Full-text available
STS is the single enzyme that converts all steroid sulfates into their free steroid forms. Initiation of attack behavior against conspecific male mice appeared to be linked to Sts. Here we have confirmed the role of Sts through an association study with attack behavior. Previous studies indicated a positive correlation between the initiation of att...
Article
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a deficit of language and communication both associated with a restricted repertoire of activities and interests. The current prevalence of autistic disorder stricto sensu is estimated at 1/500 whereas autism spectrum disorders (ASD) increases up to 1/150 to 1/200. Mental deficiency (MD) and...
Article
The emergence or non-emergence of attack behavior results from interaction between the genotype and the conditions under which the mice are tested. Inbred mice of the same strain reared or housed under conditions do not react the same way; reactions also vary according to the place selected for testing and the different opponents. A factor analysis...
Article
The steroid sulfatase enzyme (STS) regulates the formation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS). DHEAS is a well-known negative allosteric modulator of the GABA(A) receptor-gated chloride channels. It is classified as an excitatory neurosteroid. The implication of GABA(A) receptor activity in aggressive behav...
Article
Phenotypic differences among mice with disrupted genes and those with wild-type alleles have not provided the necessary evidence for desired gene/phenotype correlations. These differences could be due to "passenger genes" from the donor 129 strains that are used to produce stem cells. Three variations of attack behavior were measured, using mice ca...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on measuring aggression in the mouse. The chapter discusses methodological difficulties encountered in measuring aggression in experimental genetics. It explains type of design, subsequently examining the means for controlling the prerequisites presents in the chapter. Alternative protocols for testing female aggression are als...
Article
Full-text available
The pairing region of the X-Y chromosomes recombines at male meiosis. We previously found that offense behavior in male mice, measured by initiation of attack against a conspecific male, was linked to this region. Only one functional gene (coding for steroid sulfatase or Sts) is mapped on this region as of yet, suggesting that it could be a candida...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have demonstrated that classical inbred strains of laboratory mice do not exhibit large genetic distances when simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are used to test for their polymorphisms whereas mice from wild origin exhibit high polymorphisms (more than 90%) for these sequence when compared with classical inbred strains of laboratory...
Article
The microsomal enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS, E.C.3.1.6.2) plays a central function in the neurosteroid mode of action, since it is responsible for the switch between the sulfated and the free forms of steroids which have opposite effects. In this study, using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the STS, we have investigated the brain...
Article
In higher vertebrates, many behavioral characteristics can be attributed to effects in the central nervous system, in response to gonadal hormones secreted early in development. The lipophilic properties of steroids facilitate their easy passage in free form through the blood-brain barrier. At the cerebral level, the function of many nerve cells is...
Article
The murine steroid sulfatase (mSTS) is a microsomal enzyme, important in steroid metabolism. In the mouse, the gene encoding mSTS is pseudoautosomal and thus escapes X-inactivation. We have purified steroid sulfatase approximately 30-fold from mouse liver microsomes and its properties have been investigated. The major steps in the purification proc...

Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Characterizing long lasting neurobehavioural consequences of early exposure to environmental chemicals (pregnancy / lactation)
Project
Study of disruption of tubulin posttranslational modifications after exposure to an organophosphate herbicide and its metabolites, analogues of glutamate, in stem cell differenciation model