Stéphane Calmant

Stéphane Calmant
Institute of Research for Development | IRD · Environment and Resources Department

PhD geophysics

About

304
Publications
66,524
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
8,857
Citations
Citations since 2017
61 Research Items
4553 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
Additional affiliations
September 2010 - present
Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
Position
  • Senior Researcher
September 2002 - present
Institute of Research for Development
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (304)
Preprint
Full-text available
The spatio-temporal variation of surface water storage (SWS) in the Congo River basin (CRB), the second largest watershed in the world, remains widely unknown. In this study, satellite-derived observations are combined to estimate SWS dynamics at the CRB and sub-basin scales over 1992–2015. Two methods are employed. The first one combines surface w...
Article
Full-text available
The African continent hosts some of the largest freshwater systems worldwide, characterized by a large distribution and variability of surface waters that play a key role in the water, energy and carbon cycles and are of major importance to the global climate and water resources. Freshwater availability in Africa has now become of major concern und...
Article
Full-text available
The Congo River Basin (CRB) is the second largest river system in the world, but its hydroclimatic characteristics remain relatively poorly known. Here, we jointly analyze a large record of in situ and satellite-derived observations, including long-term time series of Surface Water Height (SWH) from radar altimetry (a total of 2,311 virtual station...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Congo Basin is of global significance for biodiversity and the water and carbon cycles. However, its freshwater availability remains highly unknown. Here, we leverage a new method to characterize the relationship between drainable water storage and river discharge across the entire basin. We estimate that the Congo Basin currently holds 481 ± 2...
Chapter
This study intends to integrate heterogeneous remote sensing observations and hydrological modeling into a simple framework to monitor hydrological variables in the poorly gauged Congo River Basin (CRB). It focuses on the possibility of retrieving effective channel depths and discharges all over the basin in near real time (NRT). First, this paper...
Chapter
Cette étude a pour but d'intégrer des observations hétérogènes de télédétection et la modélisation hydrologique dans un cadre simple pour le suivi des variables hydrologiques dans le bassin du fleuve Congo (CRB), qui est peu jaugé. Elle se concentre sur la possibilité d'estimer les profondeurs et les débits effectifs des rivières sur l'ensemble du...
Article
Deep convolutional neural networks have proven their efficiency for image processing and are routinely used for image classification. In this article, we use them to convert radar measurements into water distance and ultimately into water levels of inland waterbodies. The measurements used are the successive echoes of the spaceborne radar altimeter...
Article
Full-text available
As the largest river basin on Earth, the Amazon is of major importance to the world's climate and water resources. Over the past decades, advances in satellite-based remote sensing (RS) have brought our understanding of its terrestrial water cycle and the associated hydrological processes to a new era. Here, we review major studies and the various...
Article
Satellite radar altimetry has immense potential for monitoring fresh surface water resources and predicting the intra-seasonal, seasonal, and inter-annual variability of inundated surface water over large river basins. As part of the preparation for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission scheduled for launch in mid-2022, the present study a...
Article
Full-text available
In 2018 we celebrated 25 years of development of radar altimetry, and the progress achieved by this methodology in the fields of global and coastal oceanography, hydrology, geodesy and cryospheric sciences. Many symbolic major events have celebrated these developments, e.g., in Venice, Italy, the 15th (2006) and 20th (2012) years of progress and mo...
Article
Full-text available
In 2018 we celebrated 25 years of development of radar altimetry, and the progress achieved by this methodology in the fields of global and coastal oceanography, hydrology, geodesy and cryospheric sciences. Many symbolic major events have celebrated these developments, e.g., in Venice, Italy, the 15th (2006) and 20th (2012) years of progress and mo...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Congo River Basin (CRB) is the second largest river system in the world, but its hydroclimatic characteristics remain relatively poorly known. Here, we jointly analyze a large record of in situ and satellite-derived observations, including long term time series of Surface Water Height (SWH) from radar altimetry (a total of 2,311 virtual station...
Preprint
Full-text available
As the largest river basin on Earth, the Amazon is of major importance to the world's climate and water resources. Over the past decades, advances in satellite-based remote sensing (RS) have brought our understanding of its terrestrial water cycle and the associated hydrological processes to a new era. Here, we review major studies and the various...
Article
Full-text available
Lake water height is a key variable in water cycle and climate change studies, which is achievable using satellite altimetry constellation. A method based on data processing of altimetry from several satellites has been developed to interpolate mean lake surface (MLS) over a set of 22 big lakes distributed on the Earth. It has been applied on nadir...
Article
Full-text available
This work presents a practical approach to reconstructing past and present discharge and water depth time series for operational monitoring of small-sized ungauged watersheds using remotely sensed and freely accessible datasets in conjunction with hydrological models. The methodology was applied to the Tsiribihina watershed in Madagascar. Mostly, s...
Article
River flows are an essential component of the water cycle and are directly accessible for human consumption and activities. River water flux (i.e., river discharge) not only can be measured locally at in situ gauges but also can be estimated at larger scales with the river routing models. However, the number of in situ gauges is declining world...
Article
With the upcoming SWOT satellite mission, which should provide spatially dense river surface elevation, width and slope observations globally, comes the opportunity to assimilate such data into hydrodynamic models, from the reach scale to the hydrographic network scale.Based on the HiVDI (Hierarchical Variational Discharge Inversion) modeling strat...
Article
Most of the part of India is already under water-stressed condition. In this regard, the continuous monitoring of the water levels (WL) and storage capacity of reservoirs, lakes, and rivers is very important for the estimation and utilization of water resources effectively. The long term ground observed WL of many of the water bodies is not easily...
Article
Full-text available
Flooding dynamics across a medium‐size (Janauacá Lake, 786 km2) floodplain system along the Amazon/Solimões River over a 9‐years period (2006–2015) is studied through integration of remote sensing and limited in situ data in hydrologic‐hydrodynamic modelling based on Telemac‐2D model. We firstly detail the methodological approach and the modelling...
Article
Full-text available
The capabilities of radar altimetry to measure inland water bodies are well established, and several river altimetry datasets are available. Here we produced a globally distributed dataset, the Global River Radar Altimeter Time Series (GRRATS), using Envisat and Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM)/Jason-2 radar altimeter data spanning the time...
Article
Full-text available
Significance This work provides a robust estimate of water-level (WL) changes in the Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna delta, driven by continental freshwater dynamics, vertical land motion, and sea-level rise. Through an unprecedented set of 101 gauges, we reconstruct WL variations since the 1970s and show that the WL across the delta increased slightly f...
Article
Dans le cadre du projet 'Niger, fleuve pilote en hydrologie spatiale' un collectif de scientifiques et d'experts des techniques spatiales pour l'hydrologie (IRD, CNES) a développé, en collaboration avec l'Autorité du Bassin du Niger (ABN), une plateforme de modélisation hydrologique intégrant des mesures spatiales. Cette étude est basée sur un modè...
Article
Full-text available
The intertidal zones are well recognized for their dynamic nature and role in near-shore hydrodynamics. The intertidal topography is poorly mapped worldwide due to the high cost of associated field campaigns. Here we present a combination of remote-sensing and hydrodynamic modeling to overcome the lack of in situ measurements. We derive a digital e...
Article
Multi-satellite sensing of continental water surfaces (WS) represents an unprecedented and increasing potential for studying ungauged hydrological and hydraulic processes from their signatures, especially on complex flow zones such as anabranching rivers. However the estimation of discharge from WS observations only is a very challenging, ill-posed...
Article
Full-text available
The subsidence of the Ganges‐Brahmaputra‐Meghna Delta (GBMD) drastically increases the adverse impacts of coastal flooding and exacerbates the vulnerability of populations from ongoing rapid sea level rise. We focus here on estimating the present‐day subsidence rates induced by the loading of sediments continuously deposited within the GBMD over th...
Article
Full-text available
The capabilities of radar altimetry to measure inland water bodies are well established and several river altimetry datasets are available. Here we produced a globally-distributed dataset, the Global River Radar Altimeter Time Series (GRRATS), using Envisat and Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM)/Jason-2 radar altimeter data spanning the time p...
Article
Full-text available
River flow models that consider satellite observations of the water surface elevation (WSE) require meaningful segmentation into reaches. Segmentation methods involve a trade-off between the spatial sampling and error characteristics of satellite observations, both of which impact the flow model realism/accuracy. This paper investigates the spatial...
Article
Comment, depuis plusieurs décennies, la recherche scientifique contribue-t-elle au développement des pays du Sud ? À travers plus de 100 succès emblématiques de la recherche en partenariat, cet ouvrage nous plonge au coeur des grandes questions de développement : oeuvrer pour des sociétés plus justes, lutter contre les maladies, faire face aux risq...
Data
Bathymetric data relative to mean sea level for the northern Bay of Bengal. Details can be found in Krien et al. 2016. Data in rivers as well as DEM are copyrighted and cannot be distributed for the time being. They are thus not included here.
Article
Full-text available
Calibration/Validation (C/V) studies using sites in the oceans have a long history and protocols are well established. Over lakes, C/V allows addressing problems such as the performance of the various retracking algorithms and evaluating the accuracy of the geophysical corrections for continental waters. This is achievable when measurements of spec...
Article
Full-text available
Providing reliable estimates of streamflow and hydrological fluxes is a major challenge for water resources management over national and transnational basins in South America. Global hydrological models and land surface models are a possible solution to simulate the terrestrial water cycle at the continental scale, but issues about parameterization...
Article
Across the oceans shorelines, monitoring the topography of the intertidal zone is generally challenging. The present study is motivated by the recognized role of the intertidal topography in the near-shore hydrodynamics. We consider the region of Chittagong (northern Bay of Bengal) because of its propensity to powerful cyclone surges and associated...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of SST (Sea Surface Temperature) of adjacent oceans on the variability of water levels in the Amazon basin was investigated by using radar altimetry from the ENVISAT and Jason-2 missions. Data from the in situ network was used to compare the correlations of water level and SST anomalies in the sub-basins of the Amazonas-Peru, Solimões...
Article
Full-text available
Providing reliable estimates of streamflow and hydrological fluxes is a major challenge for water resources management over national and transnational basins in South America. Global hydrological models and land surface models are a possible solution to simulate the terrestrial water cycle at the continental scale, but issues on parameterization an...
Article
Full-text available
Land surface models (LSMs) are widely used to study the continental part of the water cycle. However, even though their accuracy is increasing, inherent model uncertainties can not be avoided. In the meantime, remotely sensed observations of the continental water cycle variables such as soil moisture, lakes and river elevations are more frequent an...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract In the Congo River Basin (CRB), due to the lack of contemporary in situ observations, there is a limited understanding of the large-scale variability of its present-day hydrologic components and their link with climate. In this context, remote sensing observations provide a unique opportunity to better characterize those dynamics. Analyzin...
Article
Hydrological and hydrodynamic models are core tools for simulation of large basins and complex river systems associated to wetlands. Recent studies have pointed towards the importance of online coupling strategies, representing feedbacks between floodplain inundation and vertical hydrology. Especially across semi-arid regions, soil-floodplain inter...
Article
Full-text available
The contribution of subsidence to relative sea-level rise in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta (GBD) is largely unknown and may considerably enhance exposure of the Bengal basin populations to sea level rise and storm surges. This paper focuses on estimating the present-day subsidence induced by Holocene sediment in the Bengal basin and by oceanic loadi...
Article
Full-text available
The India–France SARAL/AltiKa mission is the first Ka-band altimetric mission dedicated primarily to oceanography. The mission objectives were firstly the observation of the oceanic mesoscales but also global and regional sea level monitoring, including the coastal zone, data assimilation, and operational oceanography. SARAL/AltiKa proved also to b...
Chapter
In the world richest biotope, wetlands, and specially floodplains, remain particularly active zones in terms of nutrients, biodiversity, flows spreading, sediment transfer and human activities. Today, these sensitive zones are facing increasing human pressures and augmentation in frequency and intensity of extreme events. The impact of such extreme...
Chapter
In the world’s richest biotope, wetlands, and especially floodplains, remain particularly active zones in terms of nutrients, biodiversity, flows spreading, sediment transfer, and human activities. Today, these sensitive zones are facing increasing human pressures and augmentation in frequency and intensity of extreme hydrological events. The impac...
Poster
Full-text available
Real-time monitoring of discharges in the Congo River basin is not straightforward given the strong geomorphological diversity, the relatively low level of knowledge of hydrological processes and the size of the basin, spreading on several countries. In this study, we built stage/discharge rating curves based on: 1) the discharges given by the dist...
Poster
Full-text available
The Poyang Lake has an important influence on the Yangsé River basin hydrology. However, estimating the discharge input in the river is not straightforward. Indeed, as the cycles of both water bodies are not synchronous, the stage/discharge relationship is ambiguous. At a given period of the hydrological year, the conditions may even inverse and pa...
Article
Full-text available
Land Surface Models (LSM) are widely used to study the continental part of the water cycle. Yet, even though their accuracy is increasing, inherent model uncertainties can not be avoided. In the meantime, remotely-sensed observations of the continental water cycle variables such as soil moisture, lakes and rivers elevations are more frequent and ac...
Conference Paper
Sentinel-3A, launched in February 2016, is part of ESA's long-term commitment to climate monitoring from space. Its suite of instruments for measuring surface topography includes a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) and SRAL, the first delay-Doppler instrument to provide global coverage. SRAL promises fine spatial resolution and reduced noise levels that s...
Poster
Full-text available
Poster briefly summarising the activities to assess the performance of SRAL (the Sentinel-3A altimeter)
Article
Full-text available
Inland surface waters in tropical environments play a major role in the water and carbon cycle. Remote sensing techniques based on passive, active microwave or optical wavelengths are commonly used to provide quantitative estimates of surface water extent from regional to global scales. However, some of these estimates are unable to detect water un...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Upper Niger Basin is located in Western Africa, flowing from Guinea Highlands towards the Sahel region. In this area lies the seasonally inundated Niger Inland Delta, which supports important environmental services such as habitats for wildlife, climate and flood regulation, as well as large fishery and agricultural areas. In this study, we pre...
Article
Full-text available
In 2015, an emergency state was declared in Bolivia when Poopó Lake dried up. Climate variability and the increasing need for water are potential factors responsible for this situation. Because field data are missing over the region, no statements are possible about the influence of mentioned factors. This study is a preliminary step toward the und...
Chapter
Altimetry was originally designed for oceanography in the 1970s. It was used to study favorable continental surfaces, especially in hydrology and glaciology, two themes for which monitoring the height of water or ice surfaces is crucial. The principle of the device has not changed but the heterogeneity of the target or the presence of slopes has co...
Article
Fluctuations in water surface elevation (WSE) along rivers have important implications for water resources, flood hazards, and biogeochemical cycling. However, current in situ and remote sensing methods exhibit key limitations in characterizing spatiotemporal hydraulics of many of the world's river systems. Here, we analyze new measurements of rive...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the low Amazonian basin, interactions between floodplains and river channels are important in terms of water exchanges, sediments, or nutrients. These floodplains and wetlands are considered as hotspot of biodiversity.They are among the most productive in the world. However, they are threatened by climatic changes and anthropic activities. Hence...
Article
Satellite altimetry has demonstrated a strong potential for the continuous monitoring of ocean, ice sheets and land surfaces over the last 25 years. While instrument processing and retracking techniques of the radar echoes improved over the years for ocean applications to produce homogeneous products for all satellite altimetry missions, less effor...
Chapter
Continental waters have a major impact on life on Earth as well as domestic, industrial and agricultural needs, but they also play an important role in climate variability. Nearly 73% of the worldwide demand for water is met by surface reservoirs (rivers, lakes and artificial reservoirs) and 19% is met by underground reservoirs. The rest is provide...
Article
In large hydrological basin, water mass loading can produce significant crustal deformation. We compare the monthly vertical component of 18 GPS sites located in the Amazon basin, with the deflection models derived from GRACE observations in the one hand, and derived from HYDL, a global hydrological model, in the other hand. The GPS dataset include...