Stephan Schott

Stephan Schott
Carleton University · School of Public Policy and Administration

PhD

About

60
Publications
8,566
Reads
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446
Citations
Citations since 2016
18 Research Items
332 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
Additional affiliations
January 2021 - June 2021
Carleton University
Position
  • Graduate Supervisor for the M.A. in Sustainable Energy
July 2001 - present
Carleton University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2000 - December 2000
McMaster University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Experimental Economics and Instructor for Macroeconomics and Natural Resource Economics
Education
September 1995 - December 1999
University of Guelph
Field of study
  • Natural Resource and Environmental Economics

Publications

Publications (60)
Article
Full-text available
As mercury emissions continue and climate-mediated permafrost thaw increases the burden of this contaminant in northern waters, Inuit from a Northwest passage community in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago pressed for an assessment of their subsistence catches. Sea-run salmonids (n = 537) comprising Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), lake trout (S. na...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing body of literature that examines the role of affect and emotions in climate change risk perception and risk communication. Conceptions of affect and emotions have differed according to theoretical perspectives and disciplinary orientations (e.g., sociology of risk, psychology of risk, climate science communication), but little ha...
Article
Full-text available
Canada and Germany are both pursuing major energy transitions and far-reaching climate programs but differ in terms of policies towards some energy sources and their preferred policy instruments. Both countries have committed to large scale emission reductions despite the challenge of regional divestment from fossil fuels: hard coal in North Rhine...
Article
Full-text available
The identification of food fish bearing anthropogenic contaminants is one of many priorities for Indigenous peoples living in the Arctic. Mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of concern, and these are reported, in some cases for the first time, for fish sampled in and around Ki...
Article
Although it is assumed that the outcomes from scientific research inform management and policy, the so‐called knowledge–action gap (i.e., the disconnect between scientific knowledge and its application) is a recognition that there are many reasons why new knowledge is not always embraced by knowledge users. The concept of knowledge co‐production ha...
Article
Full-text available
The effective and appropriate bridging of Western science with traditional or Indigenous knowledge is an ongoing discussion in the literature and in practice. The discourse transitioned from separate knowledge system to knowledge integration and most recently to knowledge co-production. We argue it is the moral and ethical responsibility of Western...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge coevolution is the process through which information is generated by joining knowledge systems in an inclusive and iterative way to facilitate self-determination of communities and promote cultural resilience. A central and practical component of this framework is the fostering of progress towards improved co-management and community led...
Article
The purpose of our study is to examine important dimensions of food security in the context of current wildlife management in Nunavut, Canada. In doing so, we attempt to bridge harvesting studies and food security studies. The latter have been primarily focused on household food affordability, which is not adequate in the predominantly indigenous a...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyzes the diff erent modes of resource revenue alloca on and their impacts on Indigenous communities and sustainable development. After a literature review of the different distribution and investment models and their positive and negative impacts for communities, we assess each model's level of sustainability. In the second section...
Article
Full-text available
Organizing individual appropriators into output sharing groups has been found to effectively solve the tragedy of the commons problem. We experimentally investigate the robustness of this solution by introducing different channels of communication that naturally arise from group competitions. In the absence of communication, we confirm that output...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of our study is to examine important dimensions of food security in the context of current wildlife management in Nunavut, Canada. In doing so, we attempt to bridge harvesting studies and food security studies. The latter have been primarily focused on household food affordability, which is not adequate in the predominantly indigenous a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This presentation explores the operational definition of Inuit business according to specific policies and criteria adopted in the four Inuit regions of Inuit Nunangat: Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik and the Inuvialuit Region. Through a descriptive analysis, the criteria adopted in each Inuit regions to be considered as an Inuit business are compare...
Chapter
Our chapter examines the political and fiscal factors of collective capabilities for self-determination in three Inuit-dominated areas in Canada with active self-government regimes: the relatively new territory of Nunavut, the region of Nunavik (in Québec) and the region of Nunatsiavut (in Newfoundland and Labrador). We derive and measure important...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report provides a contemporary snapshot of domestic energy usage in Canada’s Arctic (spanning Yukon in the west to Nunatsiavut in the east) with a focus on how Northern jurisdictions meet their electricity and space heating needs. Specifically, the research team investigated the role of alternative energy options, including the governance, pol...
Article
A common measure used in air quality benefit-cost assessment is marginal benefit (MB), or the monetized societal benefit of reducing 1 ton of emissions. Traditional depictions of MB for criteria air pollutants are such that each additional ton of emission reduction incurs less benefit than the previous ton. Using adjoint sensitivity analysis in a s...
Article
Marginal damage (MD), or damage per ton of emission, is a policy metric used for effective pollution control and reducing the corresponding adverse health impacts. However, for a pollutant such as NOx, the MD varies by the time and location of the emissions, a complication that is not adequately accounted for in the currently implemented economic i...
Article
The valuation of ecosystem services is often centred on the proper integration of ecological and economic values but overlooks the social and cultural dimensions of ecosystem changes. We argue that these factors are essential for sustainable outcomes because they underlie preference formation, affect ownership over decision making and may help ensu...
Chapter
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the main ozone precursors, and NOx control programs in the US have led to substantial reductions in emissions. However, it is unknown whether these programs have optimally reduced ozone concentrations. Current control programs do not account for spatial and temporal specificities of NOx emissions. In this paper, this short...
Article
The paper develops a sustainable development framework for individual and collective capabilities in mixed subsistence and wage-based economies. We apply this framework to such regions of the Arctic and evaluate interactions and conflicts between two sectors of the mixed economy and between current and future generations of Arctic inhabitants. A re...
Article
Despite substantial reductions in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emissions in the U.S., the success of emission control programs in optimal ozone reduction is disputable because they do not consider the spatial and temporal differences in health and environmental damages caused by NOx emissions. This shortcoming in the current U.S. NOx control policy is exp...
Article
The paper discusses energy links between Canada, the United States, and Mexico and the state of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission-reduction policies. A review of GHG reduction policies reveals fragmented approaches with political stalemates at the national level. Closely integrated North American energy markets are potentially changing in different dir...
Chapter
Despite the significant NOx reduction in the past decade, ozone concentrations in the eastern US are in violation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This is because the location- and time-specific effects of NOx emissions on ozone formation have not been taken into consideration under cap-and-trade programs where polluters trade...
Article
Full-text available
The predominantly Inuit Arctic region of Nunavik in the Province of Québec, Canada, currently needs to address major challenges and opportunities. The region needs to develop more employment and wealth creation opportunities without sacrificing the vital land-based subsistence sector that provides food security, sustains cultural identity and provi...
Article
Cap-and-trade programs have proven to be effective instruments for achieving environmental goals while incurring minimum cost. The nature of the pollutant, however, affects the design of these programs. NO(x), an ozone precursor, is a nonuniformly mixed pollutant with a short atmospheric lifetime. NO(x) cap-and-trade programs in the U.S. are succes...
Article
Schott et al. (2007) have shown that the “tragedy of the commons” can be overcome when individuals share their output equally in groups of optimal size and there is no communication. In this paper we investigate the impact of introducing communication groups that may or may not be linked to output sharing groups. Communication reduces shirking, inc...
Article
The common-property problem results in excessive mining, hunting, and extraction of oil and water. The same phenomenon is also responsible for excessive investment in R&D and excessive outlays in rent-seeking contests. We propose a “Partnership Solution” to eliminate or at least mitigate these excesses. Each of N players joins a partnership in the...
Article
Full-text available
Many economic environments are susceptible to either free-riding or overuse. Common pool resources (CPRs) fall in the latter category. Equally sharing the output of a CPR in partnerships introduces a free-riding incentive that may offset overuse. Socially optimal harvesting can be induced by dividing the set of resource users into a number of partn...
Article
There are several strands in the literature that suggest either an emissions or ad valorem tax which diverges from Pigouvian taxation in order to control for market distortions. This paper reconciles these strands by developing a general model from which all of the existing models in the literature can be derived from. We use our model as well as p...
Article
Full-text available
The common-property problem results in excessive mining, hunting, and extrac- tion of oil and water. The same phenomenon is also responsible for excessive investment in R&D and excessive outlays in rent-seeking contests. We propose a "Partnership Solution" to eliminate or at least mitigate these excesses. Each of N players joins a partnership in th...
Chapter
Many jurisdictions face the problem of having to reduce GHG emissions and new electricity capacity requirements. Ontario has the additional commitment of phasing out its coal power plants. Time of use (TOU) pricing is seldom considered as an option in the analysis of these problems, even if its impacts on capacity requirements and emissions can be...
Article
Full-text available
The common property problem, first analyzed in the context of overfishing (Gor- don, 1954), is ubiquitous: independent tax authorities will overtax the same base (Berkowitz and Li, 2000), and independent researchers will exert excessive eort to make the same breakthrough (Wright, 1983). We propose a "Partnership Solution" to this common prop- erty...
Article
Full-text available
Many economic decisions are susceptible to either free-riding, or excessive rivalry or overextraction. Equally sharing output in partnerships introduces a free-riding incentive which may offset the latter. We conduct a laboratory experiment to assess the performance of output sharing in partnerships by introducing equal-sharing subgroups of size on...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an experimental testing ground for an equal output-sharing partnership approach as a common pool resource (CPR) management instrument. It examines the behaviour of resource users in output-sharing partnerships of different sizes, and evaluates the impact of partnership size and the way partners are assigned on effort (extraction...
Article
Full-text available
The single cohort model shows that we delay the harvest of a cohort beyond the age at which the cohort's growth rate equals the discount rate when harvesting costs are proportional to the harvest rate (Clark 1990). With more than one cohort, one needs to determine if cohorts of various age classes should be harvested at the same time and rate or se...
Article
Full-text available
"This paper introduces a management regime that would maintain common property rights by allowing resource users to harvest on their own but to share their extraction outcome with a given number of other resource users. The developed partnership approach makes use of the shirking incentives in output sharing partnerships to counterbalance the incen...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an experimental testing ground for an equal output-sharing partnership approach as a common pool resource (CPR) management instrument. It examines the behaviour of resource users in output-sharing partnerships of different sizes, and evaluates the impact of partnership size and the way partners are assigned on effort (extraction...
Article
Full-text available
This paper derives output sharing solutions with homogeneous and heterogeneous resource users for the exploitation of common pool resources. Output sharing introduces free-riding incentives in a partnership that offsets overharvesting incentives from unrestricted limited access to the common pool. The socially optimal solution can be reached, when...
Article
Full-text available
The course is an introduction to the basic principles of natural resource management and the problems natural resource users face in harvesting common pool resources. We will examine resource and environmental scarcity and the evolution of social norms, economic behaviour and institutions that govern the use of common pool resources. Specific case...
Article
The paper discusses future energy links between Canada, the United States and Mexico and potential climate change mitigation policies in North America. A comparison of national interests and economic and political situations in each of the NAFTA countries provides supporting evidence to further integrate energy markets, while developing a common ca...
Article
Course description The course examines microeconomic theory and its applications to economic, political, institutional and social problems. Students will practice the comprehension and application of the theory in several problem sets and assignments. The course discusses various behavioral models and incorporates game-theoretic and experimental fi...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The paper derives noncooperative and community-based output-sharing partnership solutions to the fundamental problem of the commons (Dasgupta and Heal, 1979). The noncooperative solution utilizes free-riding in output-sharing partnerships to counteract excessive harvesting incentives, that prevail in limited access to common property resou...
Article
Full-text available
Schott et al. (2007) have shown that the “tragedy of the commons” can be overcome when individuals share their output equally in groups of optimal size and there is no communication. The assignment of individuals to groups as either strangers or partners does not significantly affect this outcome. In this paper we investigate whether communication...
Article
Full-text available
In an earlier experiment we have shown that output-sharing can overcome the "tragedy of the commons" as long as individuals share their output in groups of optimal size. Sharing in groups induces free-riding, while individual extraction from a common pool (CPR) causes overharvesting. By choosing the right output-sharing group size we can therefore...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
The Arctic is in the midst of deep-seated change. Comprehensive changes in climate, transport and industry (mining, oil and gas, and more) will have a profound effect on the communities and the lives of the people living in this sparsely populated area. These transformative processes increase and broaden the interest in the area itself, making the Arctic more important strategically and economically in terms of globalization. In addition to understand how to regulate and manage what is coming, a thorough understanding of the relationships between society, environment and business is crucial. Here international and national law and agreements play an important if not vital role. There is a substantial variation in natural conditions in the Arctic (e.g. temperature, ice, weather conditions), and in the rate and extent of infrastructure development and telecommunications across the region. Subsequently, some parts of the Arctic are more densely populated than others. Indigenous people are an important part of the Arctic population and their rights are increasingly supported by the UN system and international law which itself has an influence upon what can be done and how. The call will mainly focus on how changes in climate and industry development in the Arctic influence different types of societies. To what extent are communities, population centres and individuals resilient and able to adjust to change, or recover from such deep-seated shifts influencing and even transforming their way of life? If they are not able to adjust and recover, why, and to what extent does it matter? Scientific committee members: Per Selle, University of Bergen and UiT The Arctic University of Norway (lead). Thierry Rodon, Université Laval, Québec, Canada Julie Decker, Anchorage Museum, Alaska Stephan Schott, School of Public Policy and Administration, Carleton University, Canada Toril Inga Røe Utvik, Statoil, Norway
Project
The main goal of the project is to establish a mining impact evaluation method, adapted to the north, that serves to appraise the local economic benefits resulting from the operating mines in Nunatsiavut and Nunavik. Accounting for the full range of multisectorial economic impacts derived from operating mines in Nunatsiavut and Nunavik (direct, indirect, and induced), we will apply our model to a subartic region that has had considerable experience with mining activities yet has not comprehensively reviewed the short and long term economic impacts of mining. The objectives of this study are to: (1) model the dynamics of household and business economies linked to the Voisey’s Bay and Raglan mines; (2) investigate the dynamics between the land-based and mining-based economies in Nunatsiavut and Nunavik; (3) document, examine and interpret the experience of Québec-Labrador Inuit workers and entrepreneurs in relation to economic development and the regions’ mining sectors; and (4) develop sustainable mining policies for the Eastern Subarctic and for the Canadian North more generally.